Liposomal lupeol acetate and the use thereof in preparing drugs for rheumatoid arthritis
1. A pharmaceutical composition comprising:
- a liposomal lupeol acetate for use of inhibiting osteoclastogenesis;
wherein the liposomal lupeol acetate consists of;
an aqueous core; and
a lipid bilayer having an inner space in which the lupeol acetate is located is constructed by a phosphatidylcholine (PC) and polyethylene glycol-distearoylphosphatidylethanolamine (PEG-DSPE) and wherein the molecular ratio of the phosphatidylcholine and polyethylene glycol-distearoylphosphatidylethanolamine is 20;
1 to 35;
The present invention relates to a liposomal lupeol acetate (Lipo-LA) and its use in the treatment or prevention of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The liposomal lupeol acetate of the present invention especially inhibits inflammatory responses and osteoclast generation (osteoclastogenesis) in the progression of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) at a half dose of the un-capsulated lupeol acetate, which may significantly reduce the incidence of RA and improve the therapeutic efficacy of lupeol acetate.
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Patent #US 20060025389A1
Current AssigneeRegents of The University of Minnesota
Sponsoring EntityRobert M. Carlson, David J. Gibson
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Current AssigneeLIPOSOME TECHNOLOGY INC.
Sponsoring EntityLIPOSOME TECHNOLOGY INC.
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Current AssigneeCompton Developments Ltd.
Sponsoring EntityCompton Developments Ltd.
- 1. A pharmaceutical composition comprising:
a liposomal lupeol acetate for use of inhibiting osteoclastogenesis; wherein the liposomal lupeol acetate consists of; lupeol acetate; an aqueous core; and a lipid bilayer having an inner space in which the lupeol acetate is located is constructed by a phosphatidylcholine (PC) and polyethylene glycol-distearoylphosphatidylethanolamine (PEG-DSPE) and wherein the molecular ratio of the phosphatidylcholine and polyethylene glycol-distearoylphosphatidylethanolamine is 20;
1 to 35;
- View Dependent Claims (2, 3, 4, 5)
Technical Field of the Invention
The present invention relates to liposomal lupeol acetate (Lipo-LA) and its use in the treatment or prevention of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Especially, of the present invention relates to a method for preventing and/or treating inflammation in the progression of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) by inhibiting osteoclast generation with the administration of the liposomal lupeol acetate.
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic autoimmune disorder that basically results in a symmetry, multi-joint, small joint inflammatory disease that may affect many tissues and organs, but principally attacks flexible (synovial) joints, and cause the disintegration of articular cartilage and bone injuries. It can be a swelling and painful condition, which can lead to joint deformity at late stage and substantial loss of functioning and mobility.
Rheumatoid arthritis is closely correlated with excessive activation of macrophages. The release of cytokines due to macrophage activation will attract more immune cells to infiltrate, result in more severe inflammatory response. Macrophages may differentiate into osteoclasts and lead to bone erosion in the joint cavity, which is the main reason for the progression of RA.
The major pharmaceuticals used in clinical treatment of RA are steroids, non-steroid anti-inflammation drugs, and certain biological agents against cytokine, such as TNF-α blockers, anti-IL-1β, anti-IL-6 antibodies, and the like (Breedveld F C. Arthritis Res 2002, 4(2):27). Such therapeutic agents are not only expensive, but also possess certain degree of side effects. The most commonly used agent is methotrexate, which is usually the first treatment to improve symptoms, decrease joint damage, and improve overall functional abilities. However, the pathogenesis of RA is not very clear so far, and known therapeutic drugs and biologics for clinical use do not effectively cure rheumatoid arthritis and will produce side effects. Therefore, it is necessary to find a more effective and safe drug for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.
Lupeol acetate (LA), a type of triterpene, is an ingredient in the extraction of Shea nut, and existed in the mango, cabbage and green pepper. Lupeol acetate has a chemical structure similar to sterols, and has been known with capability of anti-inflammation, antioxidation, anticancer and immunomodulation (see, Akihisa T et al., J Oleo Sci 2010, 59(6):273-280; Saleem M. Cancer Lett 2009, 285(2):109-115; Siddique H R, Saleem M. Life Sci 2011, 88(7-8):285-293). It is also demonstrated that LA can effectively mitigate the inflammatory condition induced by carrageenan in mice (Lucetti D L et al. J Inflamm 2010, 7(60)).
In addition, US Patent Application no. 20120177754 has disclosed extraction of lupeol acetate from Boswellia frereana, and the significant therapeutic effect of lupeol acetate in inhibiting inflammation and treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, but the animal model experiments show that long-term use of high doses (100 mg/kg, 12 days) is necessary for rheumatoid arthritis treatment in mice even a highly pure extract of natural lupeol acetate (95%) is used in the therapy.
Liposome is a spheroid formed by phospholipid bilayers, in which a hydrophilic drug may be coated in the inner hydrophilic cavity, lipophilic drugs may be carried by interspersing among the lipids. In one embodiment of the invention, two kinds of lipids egg phosphatidylcholine (EPC) and polyethylene glycol-distearoylphosphatidylethanolamine (PEG-DSPE) were used. EPC is a kind of phospholipid extracted from egg, and PC is the major component of cell membrane. Although PC is widespread in the organism, it is a less stable factor in lipid layer for that PC has an unsaturated fatty acid long-chain at the lipophilic terminus, in which the unsaturated bonds will confer a greater bending on the carbon chain, resulting in unclose integration with the adjacent phospholipids in the arrangement of lipid bilayer structure. While PEG-DSPE is a more stable lipid than PC for having no interference from the unsaturated bond, so it can be arranged closely to the adjacent phospholipid and form a more compact lipid layer.
Therefore, the present invention contemplates to prepare lupeol acetate liposomes for achieving effects of better suppression of inflammation and bone erosion by using the characteristics of liposome that has a longer in vivo residence time for not being susceptible to metabolism, and may cause larger space for accumulation between the vessel wall in the target treating area.
Based on the purpose above, the present invention provides a liposomal lupeol acetate (Lipo-LA) liposome to reduce half dose of uncoated lupeol acetate for alleviating or preventing the inflammatory swelling and joint deformation in the progression of rheumatoid arthritis (RA).
Accordingly, in one aspect, the present invention relates to a pharmaceutical composition for treating or preventing osteoclastogenesis in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) progression, comprising a liposomal lupeol acetate (Lipo-LA) liposome and a pharmaceutically acceptable vehicle, diluent or excipient, wherein the liposomal lupeol acetate liposome comprises lupeol acetate and a diphospholipid layer consisting of a lipophilic lipid layer and a hydrophilic phosphate layer.
As used herein, the term “liposomal lupeol acetate” and “lupeol acetate liposome” are interchangeable, and may be represented as “Lipo-LA” through the description of Specification and Claims.
In one embodiment of present invention, the lupeol acetate is interspersed in the lipophilic lipid layer of the lipid bilayer.
In certain embodiments of present invention, the diphospholipid layer is constructed by a phosphatidylcholine (PC) and polyethylene glycol-distearoylphosphatidylethanolamine (PEG-DSPE). In one embodiment of present invention, the phosphatidylcholine comprises egg phosphatidylcholine (EPC). Preferably, the molecular ratio of the phosphatidylcholine (PC) and polyethylene glycol-distearoylphosphatidylethanolamine (PEG-DSPE) in the diphospholipid layer of liposome is 20:1 to 35:1, more preferably is 25:1 to 30:1, and most preferably is 30:1.
In some embodiments of present invention, the pharmaceutical composition further comprises a steroid anti-inflammatory agent. In that case, the liposomal lupeol acetate included in the pharmaceutical composition is used to reduce osteoporosis caused by the steroid anti-inflammatory agent.
In another aspect, the present invention relates to a method treating or preventing an osteoclastogenesis associated condition by administering the pharmaceutical composition of claim 1, wherein the osteoclastogenesis is suppressed by lupeol acetate.
In one embodiment of present invention, the osteoclastogenesis associated condition is rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In another embodiment of present invention, the osteoclastogenesis associated condition is osteoporosis. In a further embodiment of present invention, the osteoporosis is a sterol anti-inflammatory agent triggered osteoporosis.
In certain embodiments, the osteoclastogenesis is suppressed by inhibiting a differentiation of osteoclast from macrophage.
The patent or application file contains at least one drawing executed in color. Copies of this patent or patent application publication with color drawing(s) will be provided by the Office upon request and payment of the necessary fee.
The other characteristics and advantages of the present invention will be further illustrated and described in the following examples. The examples described herein are using for illustrations, not for limitations of the invention.
Preparation of Liposomal Lupeol Acetate (Lipo-LA)
The liposomal lupeol acetate (Lipo-LA) of present invention has a molecular structure as shown in
A 0.9% sodium chloride solution is added to dissolve the lipid layer. The solution is first filtered through 0.4 μm filter membrane for six times, then followed by 0.2 μm filter membrane for ten times by using a high-pressure shaping to obtain lupeol acetate liposomes with particle size less than 0.2 μm. The liposomal lupeol acetate prepared by the method of this example has particle size in range of 90±10 nm, and particle charge in the range of ±10 mV, 5-10% PEG.
Cytotoxicity of Liposomal Lupeol Acetate (Lipo-LA) to the RAW264.7 Cell Line
RAW 264.7 cells (a mouse leukaemic monocyte macrophage cell line) were treated with solutions containing liposomal lupeol acetate (10 20 40 80 μM) and NF-kB inhibitor QNZ (2.5 5 7.5 10 nM), respectively, for 24 hours, then the viability was analyzed by MTT method, comparing to the results of the control group.
5×104 RAW264.7 cells/well were seeded in 96-well culture dishes, and treated with directed concentration of liposomal lupeol acetate and QNZ for 24 hours after the 24-hr attachment. After removing the culture medium, 100 μl of 0.5 mg/ml MTT solution was added, and the cells were incubated at 37° C. for 4 hours. The mitochondrial enzyme (succinate dehydrogenase, SDH) in living cells will react with tetrazolium bromide in the MTT solution and form formazan blue-purple crystals. The MTT solution was removed and 200 μl DMSO was added to dissolve the blue-purple crystal, and then the O.D. (optical density) value was read under wavelength of 570 nm on an ELISA reader (TECAN Sunrise, USA). The relative cell viability is calculated by comparing the absorbance value of drug treated group with that of the control group (setting the value of control group as 100%).
From the analytic results shown in
Inhibitory Effects of Liposomal Lupeol Acetate (Lipo-LA) on the Formation of Osteoclasts Induced by RANKL
The generation and metabolism of bones are kept in a state of dynamic equilibrium, and the destruction of this equilibrium will cause the damage of bones. In rheumatoid arthritis, there is excessive osteoclast formation occurred and resulting in the over-erosion of bone.
To evaluate the effects of the liposomal lupeol acetate (Lipo-LA) of present invention on the suppression of rheumatoid arthritis, we firstly analyze the differentiation of osteoclasts from certain cells using the tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining method. The TRAP staining is used to detect the internal acid phosphatase activity of leukocytes in a blood, bone or tissue sample. Because osteoclasts contain acid phosphatase, we can use this staining method to determine the formation of osteoclast cells.
After removing the supernatant of culture, the cells are rinsed with PBS for two times, and then fixed with 3.7% paraformaldehyde for 1 hour. The fixed cells are washed with PBS. The Acid Phophatase Leukocyte kit (TRAP stain, Cat. 387-A, Sigma-Aldrich, USA) is used in the TRAP staining and the method is briefly described as follow. Before staining, the temperature of ddH2O used for adjuvant preparation is confirmed to be 37° C. The Fast Garnet GBC base and sodium nitrite solution at equal volumes are uniformly mixed for 30 seconds and incubated at room temperature for at least two minutes.
Then following the procedures described in the instruction manual, a staining agent is prepared by adding a well-mixed solution of 1 ml Fast Garent GBC base, 0.5 ml Naphthol AS-BI phosphate solution, 2 ml acetate solution and 1 ml tartrate solution to 45 ml of 37° C. ddH2O. The staining agent is uniformly mixed and added to each well of 96-well plate at 100 μl aliquot, and then placed in a 37° C. dark incubator for one hour. After the reaction, the 96-well plate is wetted by ddH2O, and stained with a hematoxylin solution included in the kit for ten minutes, then rinsed with tap water and air dried naturally. Finally, the osteoclast differentiation is observed under a microscope, the nucleus of each cell must be greater than three nuclei for being identified as osteoclast.
In this experiment, curcumin is chosen as the positive control for it is known to have similar effects of anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory and anti-rheumatoid arthritis disease to lupeol acetate, and both are natural substance. As shown in
Next, the real time Q-PCR is used for analyzing the change of NFATc1 (nuclear factor of activated T cell, the major factor of osteoclast proliferation and known as cytoplasmic 1) under the RANKL induction and drug treatments. As shown in
Suppression of the Inflammatory Mediator Production by the Treatment of Liposomal Lupeol Acetate (Lipo-LA)
Proinflammatory cytokines can be released by activated macrophages, resulting in more activation of immune cells. For inhibition of inflammation study, LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells (mouse leukaemic monocyte macrophage cell line) were treated with Lipo-LA, LA, and using curcumin as the positive control. In this experiment, 80 μM of each lipo-LA and LA is used for one hour treatment before the addition of 1 μg/ml of LPS to stimulate macrophages. After cultured for 24 hours, the supernatants for each group were collected, and the expression level of TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 is detected by ELISA.
As shown in
In the LPS stimulation, causes of cell migration may be regulated by COX-2 and CCL-2 (MCP-1). Thus, Western blotting is used to investigate whether the expression levels of COX-2 and CCL-2 (MCP-1) is decreased after giving the Lipo-LA treatment. The results are shown in
Establishment of collagen-induced arthritis (CIA)-bearing animal model and use for estimating the therapeutic efficacy of Lipo-LA treatment.
The animal model used in present studies of rheumatoid arthritis is the collagen-induced arthritis animal model; the progression of rheumatoid arthritis in this animal model is similar to that in human. In this embodiment, bovine type II collagen combined with complete Freund'"'"'s adjuvant (CFA) is used to induce rheumatoid arthritis in DBA/1J mice.
The type II collagen is a major component of cartilage, and the use of heterologous (bovine) collagen will induce the production of anti-CII antibody in mice, resulting in the self-immune response to attack its own joint cartilage. In the early stage, the complement system is initially activated to attract neutrophils and macrophages, and stimulate the release of inflammatory cytokines from the activated cells. The inflammatory mediators will further affect T cells, B cells and more macrophages to produce a more severe inflammation and further attack joints to progress into rheumatoid arthritis.
In this embodiment, eight-week-old DBA/1J mice (purchased from Jackson Lab and propagated in the Animal Center of National Yang-Ming University, using a reproductive way of one male and two female mice) are used. 100 μl of arthritis-inducing adjuvant is injected into the dermis of tail (intra-dermal, id.) using a 30 G syringe; and a 50 μl second dose of same ingredients is injected in the same way at an interval of 21 days. The symptoms are produced at about six days after the second dose injection, with an induction rate of 100%. The arthritis-inducing adjuvant contain bovine collagen type II (CII, Cat. 20022, Chondrex, USA) dissolved in Complete Freund'"'"'s Adjuvant (CFA, Cat. 7023, Chondrex, USA) containing 5 mg/ml of TB bacteria M. Tuberculosis H-37 RA at an equal proportion by using a homogenizer.
The paw swelling of mouse is evaluated with expressions in five phases 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4, with the highest score of 16 points in each mouse. The fore legs and hind limbs of the mice were observed three times a week after the second dose injection of arthritis-inducing adjuvant; for the stage 0=normal joint, 1=one swelling joint appeared, 2=more than one joint swelling phenomenon appeared, 3=swelling phenomenon appeared on the whole paw, and 4=very severe swelling appeared from the paw to the ankle. After the injection of the second dose of arthritis-inducing adjuvant, the central thickness of hind paw is measured and recorded three times a week using a digital caliper. The incidence of rheumatoid arthritis is started at 4-7 days after the injection of the second dose of arthritis-inducing adjuvant, that is the 25th to 28th day of the experiment.
The DBA/1J mice were randomly divided into four groups (n=5 for each group): (1) normal mice group treated with deionized distilled water (ddH2O) containing 0.1% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO, Sigma, USA); (b) rheumatoid arthritis (RA) mice group; (c) LA treated groups: orally administered with continuous daily feeding of a solution containing 100 mg/kg lupeol acetate in 0.1% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO, Sigma, USA); and (d) Lipo-LA treated groups: orally administered with continuous daily feeding of a solution containing 50 mg/kg liposomal lupeol acetate in 0.1% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO, Sigma, USA) until the end of the experiment (on the 32nd days and 43th day). The experiments were repeated three times, and one of the representative was shown.
The incidence of arthritis and the swelling score of paws in each group are also tracked for the entire experiment, showing that the foot swelling of both LA- and Lipo-LA treated mice is significantly reduced, as the evaluated swelling score of swollen feet and the swelling phenomenon appeared on foot both are obviously improved, when compared to the mice in RA group. From the results as shown in
Lipo-LA Inhibits the Expression of RA-Related Proteins and Reduces the Activity of NF-κB.
The mice were sacrificed by cervical dislocation on the 32nd day of the animal experiment. The whole leg of mouse was removed, and the leg tissue was ground by adding an appropriate amount of lysis buffer (tissue protein extraction reagent, T-PER, Pierce Protein Biology Products, IL, USA), centrifuged at 15,000 rpm for 20 minutes, and the supernatant is taken as the sample for each group.
The LightShift Chemiluminescent. EMSA kit (Pierce, Rockford, Ill., USA) is used in the analysis for NF-κB/DNA binding activity. Nuclear extracts were incubated with the biotin labeled DNA probes at room temperature for 20 minutes. The separated DNA/protein complexes from the free oligonucleotide on 10% polyacrylamide gel were transferred to a nylon membrane. The nylon membrane was immersed in ECL (Pierce, Rockford, Ill., USA) and reacted to emit cold light (luminescence), and then exposed to the film for the observation of NF-κB activity. Using IMAGE J software (National Institutes of Health), the obtained images were quantified to blackening degree, the blackening degree of the protein to be observed is divided by the value obtained in the control group to compare the differences of each group in the expression level of nuclear proteins.
Treg cell is an immunosuppression-related T cell, and usually less differentiated in autoimmune diseases. Some literatures have indicated that the back injection of Treg cells to mice will effectively reduce the incidence of rheumatoid arthritis. Therefore, we implicate that the increase in the number of Treg cells induced by the treatment of the Lipo-LA can reduce the occurrence of rheumatoid arthritis.
The mice were sacrificed at the peak of the incidence, that is the 32nd day of the experiment, and the spleen and inguinal lymph nodes were removed for the Treg cell analysis. The results of the experiment showed that the Treg differentiation in the inguinal lymph nodes was increased in the Lipo-LA treated groups, which has achieved a significant difference comparing with the rheumatoid arthritis (RA) group (see
As shown in
Observing the suppressive effects of Lipo-LA on joint inflammation using immunohistochemistry (IHC). The mice were sacrificed by cervical dislocation on the 43rd day of the animal experiment. The legs of mouse were removed and subjected to paraffin embedding and sectioning. The sections were stained with anti-TNF-α and anti-IL-1β antibodies, respectively to assess the distribution of inflammatory cytokines.
From the results of H & E staining shown in
In summary of the experimental results described above, it has proven that lupeol acetate liposome (so called Liposomal-LA) can alleviate the inflammatory response by inhibiting the release of cytokines, such as Cox-2, MCP-1, TNF-α, IL-1β and the like by macrophages, and reduce the expression of osteoclastogenesis-related proteins, such as MCP-1, Cox-2, granzyme B, MMP-9, TGF-β, IL-1β, OPG and RANKL by regulating the levels of NF-κB and NFATc1. The liposomal lupeol acetate can reach the same inhibitory effects on inflammation and osteoclastogenesis at a half dose of the un-coated LA. It had demonstrated in the in vivo animal experiments that the liposomal lupeol acetate of the present invention can effectively alleviate the joint inflammation, swelling, bone erosion and the incidence of rheumatoid arthritis in mice.
Moreover, the present invention is the first disclosure to confirm the inhibitory effects of lupeol acetate and liposomal lupeol acetate on osteoclast formation (osteoclastogenesis). By the revelation of present invention, lupeol acetate and liposomal lupeol acetate can not only be used for the treatment or prevention of rheumatoid arthritis, but also to treat or prevent osteoporosis, reduce the joint deformity arising from the destruction in periarticular bone by osteoclasts, and maintain the integrity of articular surface, which is also an innovation of the invention.
In addition, the current therapy of rheumatoid arthritis is often in combination with steroid drugs, which will increase the chance of occurring side effects such as osteoporosis. Therefore, the present invention provides a composition comprising liposomal lupeol acetate combined with conventional steroids for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, which is beneficial to reduce the probability and severity of osteoporosis in the patients with rheumatoid arthritis by the effects on inhibiting osteoclast generation.