Bit interleaver for lowdensity parity check codeword having length of 64800 and code rate of 2/15 and 4096symbol mapping, and bit interleaving method using same

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First Claim
1. A broadcast transmission device, comprising:
 a first memory configured to store a lowdensity parity check (LDPC) codeword having a length of 64800 and a code rate of 2/15;
a processor configured to generate an interleaved codeword by interleaving the LDPC codeword on a bit group basis, the size of the bit group corresponding to a parallel factor of the LDPC codeword;
a second memory configured to output the interleaved codeword;
a modulator configured to perform 4096symbol mapping corresponding to the interleaved codeword to generate a modulated signal; and
an antenna configured to broadcast a transmission signal corresponding to the modulated signal over a physical channel to a reception device, the broadcasted transmission signal being an electromagnetic signal having a radio frequency,wherein the LDPC codeword is generated by performing accumulation at parity bit addresses which are updated using a predetermined sequence,wherein the interleaving is performed using the following equation using permutation order;
Y_{j}=X_{π}(j) 0≤
j<
N_{group }where X_{π}(j) is a π
(j)th bit group, Y_{j }is an interleaved jth bit group, N _{group }is the number of bit groups, and π
(j) is a permutation order for bit groupbased interleaving,wherein the permutation order corresponds to an interleaving sequence, the interleaving sequence being for the LDPC codeword having the length of 64800 and the code rate of 2/15 and being represented by the following equation;
interleaving sequence={114 129 71 96 171 36 144 64 162 4 86 128 113 7 105 131 2 133 106 79 11 152 26 118 158 126 17 55 45 111 138 84 6 52 167 38 20 101 31 120 5 112 74 69 121 9 154 15 146 116 63 1 114 83 124 109 39 75 123 57 49 30 21 40 43 77 157 44 13 99 34 147 166 56 155 176 95 102 119 161 37 159 97 68 122 163 89 61 107 22 10 127 87 103 179 172 66 59 8 145 88 132 110 54 47 153 25 32 73 42 148 150 28 91 18 24 19 53 136 48 76 35 151 173 149 142 160 94 117 169 165 141 80 67 170 164 82 65 60 135 168 23 100 134 90 98 125 85 137 81 41 156 50 3 29 16 72 177 0 78 62 139 93 46 12 175 130 51 178 92 115 174 27 70 58 33 104 140 108 143}, andwherein the interleaved codeword is interleaved by the interleaving sequence on the bit group basis before performing the 4096symbol mapping so as to distribute burst errors occurring in the transmission signal when the transmission signal when the transmission signal is transmitted over the physical channel.
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Abstract
A bit interleaver, a bitinterleaved coded modulation (BICM) device and a bit interleaving method are disclosed herein. The bit interleaver includes a first memory, a processor, and a second memory. The first memory stores a lowdensity parity check (LDPC) codeword having a length of 64800 and a code rate of 2/15. The processor generates an interleaved codeword by interleaving the LDPC codeword on a bit group basis. The size of the bit group corresponds to a parallel factor of the LDPC codeword. The second memory provides the interleaved codeword to a modulator for 4096symbol mapping.
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4 Claims
 1. A broadcast transmission device, comprising:
a first memory configured to store a lowdensity parity check (LDPC) codeword having a length of 64800 and a code rate of 2/15; a processor configured to generate an interleaved codeword by interleaving the LDPC codeword on a bit group basis, the size of the bit group corresponding to a parallel factor of the LDPC codeword; a second memory configured to output the interleaved codeword; a modulator configured to perform 4096symbol mapping corresponding to the interleaved codeword to generate a modulated signal; and an antenna configured to broadcast a transmission signal corresponding to the modulated signal over a physical channel to a reception device, the broadcasted transmission signal being an electromagnetic signal having a radio frequency, wherein the LDPC codeword is generated by performing accumulation at parity bit addresses which are updated using a predetermined sequence, wherein the interleaving is performed using the following equation using permutation order;
Y_{j}=X_{π}(j) 0≤
j<
N_{group }where X_{π}(j) is a π
(j)th bit group, Y_{j }is an interleaved jth bit group, N _{group }is the number of bit groups, and π
(j) is a permutation order for bit groupbased interleaving,wherein the permutation order corresponds to an interleaving sequence, the interleaving sequence being for the LDPC codeword having the length of 64800 and the code rate of 2/15 and being represented by the following equation; interleaving sequence ={114 129 71 96 171 36 144 64 162 4 86 128 113 7 105 131 2 133 106 79 11 152 26 118 158 126 17 55 45 111 138 84 6 52 167 38 20 101 31 120 5 112 74 69 121 9 154 15 146 116 63 1 114 83 124 109 39 75 123 57 49 30 21 40 43 77 157 44 13 99 34 147 166 56 155 176 95 102 119 161 37 159 97 68 122 163 89 61 107 22 10 127 87 103 179 172 66 59 8 145 88 132 110 54 47 153 25 32 73 42 148 150 28 91 18 24 19 53 136 48 76 35 151 173 149 142 160 94 117 169 165 141 80 67 170 164 82 65 60 135 168 23 100 134 90 98 125 85 137 81 41 156 50 3 29 16 72 177 0 78 62 139 93 46 12 175 130 51 178 92 115 174 27 70 58 33 104 140 108 143}, and wherein the interleaved codeword is interleaved by the interleaving sequence on the bit group basis before performing the 4096symbol mapping so as to distribute burst errors occurring in the transmission signal when the transmission signal when the transmission signal is transmitted over the physical channel.  View Dependent Claims (2, 3, 4)
1 Specification
This application claims the benefit of Korean Patent Application No. 1020150023414, filed Feb. 16, 2015, which is hereby incorporated by reference herein in its entirety.
1. Technical Field
The present disclosure relates generally to an interleaver and, more particularly, to a bit interleaver that is capable of distributing burst errors occurring in a digital broadcast channel.
2. Description of the Related Art
BitInterleaved Coded Modulation (BICM) is bandwidthefficient transmission technology, and is implemented in such a manner that an errorcorrection coder, a bitbybit interleaver and a highorder modulator are combined with one another.
BICM can provide excellent performance using a simple structure because it uses a lowdensity parity check (LDPC) coder or a Turbo coder as the errorcorrection coder. Furthermore, BICM can provide highlevel flexibility because it can select modulation order and the length and code rate of an error correction code in various forms. Due to these advantages, BICM has been used in broadcasting standards, such as DVBT2 and DVBNGH, and has a strong possibility of being used in other nextgeneration broadcasting systems.
However, in spite of those advantages, BICM suffers from the rapid degradation of performance unless burst errors occurring in a channel are appropriately distributed via the bitbybit interleaver. Accordingly, the bitbybit interleaver used in BICM should be designed to be optimized for the modulation order or the length and code rate of the error correction code.
At least one embodiment of the present invention is directed to the provision of an intraBICM bit interleaver that can effectively distribute burst errors occurring in a broadcasting system channel.
At least one embodiment of the present invention is directed to the provision of a bit interleaver that is optimized for an LDPC coder having a length of 64800 and a code rate of 2/15 and a modulator performing 4096symbol mapping and, thus, can be applied to nextgeneration broadcasting systems, such as ATSC 3.0.
In accordance with an aspect of the present invention, there is provided a bit interleaver, including a first memory configured to store a lowdensity parity check (LDPC) codeword having a length of 64800 and a code rate of 2/15; a processor configured to generate an interleaved codeword by interleaving the LDPC codeword on a bit group basis, the size of the bit group corresponding to a parallel factor of the LDPC codeword; and a second memory configured to provide the interleaved codeword to a modulator for 4096symbol mapping.
The 4096symbol mapping may be NUC (NonUniform Constellation) symbol mapping corresponding to 4096 constellations (symbols).
The parallel factor may be 360, and each of the bit groups may include 360 bits.
The LDPC codeword may be represented by (u_{0}, u_{1}, . . . , u_{N}_{ldpc}_{−1}) (where N_{ldpc }is 64800), and may be divided into 180 bit groups each including 360 bits, as in the following equation:
X_{j}={u_{k}360×j≤k<360×(j+1), 0≤k<N_{ldpc}} for 0<j<N_{group }
where X_{j }is an jth bit group, N_{ldpc }is 64800, and N_{group }is 180.
The interleaving may be performed using the following equation using permutation order:
Y_{j}=X_{π(j) }0≤j≤N_{group }
where X_{j }is the jth bit group, Y_{j }is an interleaved jth bit group, and π(j) is a permutation order for bit groupbased interleaving (bit groupunit interleaving).
The permutation order may correspond to an interleaving sequence represented by the following equation:
interleaving sequence={14 129 71 96 171 36 144 64 162 4 86 128 113 7 105 131 2 133 106 79 11 152 26 118 158 126 17 55 45 111 138 84 6 52 167 38 20 101 31 120 5 112 74 69 121 9 154 15 146 116 63 1 114 83 124 109 39 75 123 57 49 30 21 40 43 77 157 44 13 99 34 147 166 56 155 176 95 102 119 161 37 159 97 68 122 163 89 61 107 22 10 127 87 103 179 172 66 59 8 145 88 132 110 54 47 153 25 32 73 42 148 150 28 91 18 24 19 53 136 48 76 35 151 173 149 142 160 94 117 169 165 141 80 67 170 164 82 65 60 135 168 23 100 134 90 98 125 85 137 81 41 156 50 3 29 16 72 177 0 78 62 139 93 46 12 175 130 51 178 92 115 174 27 70 58 33 104 140 108 143}
In accordance with another aspect of the present invention, there is provided a bit interleaving method, including storing an LDPC codeword having a length of 64800 and a code rate of 2/15; generating an interleaved codeword by interleaving the LDPC codeword on a bit group basis corresponding to the parallel factor of the LDPC codeword; and outputting the interleaved codeword to a modulator for 4096symbol mapping.
In accordance with still another aspect of the present invention, there is provided a BICM device, including an errorcorrection coder configured to output an LDPC codeword having a length of 64800 and a code rate of 2/15; a bit interleaver configured to interleave the LDPC codeword on a bit group basis corresponding to the parallel factor of the LDPC codeword and output the interleaved codeword; and a modulator configured to perform 4096symbol mapping on the interleaved codeword.
The above and other objects, features and advantages of the present invention will be more clearly understood from the following detailed description taken in conjunction with the accompanying drawings, in which:
Embodiments of the present invention will be described in detail below with reference to the accompanying drawings. Repeated descriptions and descriptions of wellknown functions and configurations that have been deemed to make the gist of the present invention unnecessarily obscure will be omitted below. The embodiments of the present invention are intended to fully describe the present invention to persons having ordinary knowledge in the art to which the present invention pertains. Accordingly, the shapes, sizes, etc. of components in the drawings may be exaggerated to make the description obvious.
Embodiments of the present invention will be described in detail below with reference to the accompanying drawings.
Referring to
The BICM device 10 generates an nbit codeword by encoding k information bits 11 using an errorcorrection coder 13. In this case, the errorcorrection coder 13 may be an LDPC coder or a Turbo coder.
The codeword is interleaved by a bit interleaver 14, and thus the interleaved codeword is generated.
In this case, the interleaving may be performed on a bit group basis (by a unit of a bit group). In this case, the errorcorrection coder 13 may be an LDPC coder having a length of 64800 and a code rate of 2/15. A codeword having a length of 64800 may be divided into a total of 180 bit groups. Each of the bit groups may include 360 bits, i.e., the parallel factor of an LDPC codeword.
In this case, the interleaving may be performed on a bit group basis (by a unit of a bit group) in accordance with an interleaving sequence, which will be described later.
In this case, the bit interleaver 14 prevents the performance of error correction code from being degraded by effectively distributing burst errors occurring in a channel. In this case, the bit interleaver 14 may be separately designed in accordance with the length and code rate of the error correction code and the modulation order.
The interleaved codeword is modulated by a modulator 15, and is then transmitted via an antenna 17.
In this case, the modulator 15 may be based on a concept including symbol mapper (symbol mapping device). In this case, the modulator 15 may be a symbol mapping device performing 4096symbol mapping which maps codes onto 4096 constellations (symbols).
In this case, the modulator 15 may be a uniform modulator, such as a quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) modulator, or a nonuniform modulator.
The modulator 15 may be a symbol mapping device performing NUC (NonUniform Constellation) symbol mapping which uses 4096 constellations (symbols).
The signal transmitted via the wireless channel 20 is received via the antenna 31 of the BICM reception device 30, and, in the BICM reception device 30, is subjected to a process reverse to the process in the BICM device 10. That is, the received data is demodulated by a demodulator 33, is deinterleaved by a bit deinterleaver 34, and is then decoded by an error correction decoder 35, thereby finally restoring the information bits.
It will be apparent to those skilled in the art that the abovedescribed transmission and reception processes have been described within a minimum range required for a description of the features of the present invention and various processes required for data transmission may be added.
Referring to
That is, at step S210, an nbit codeword is generated by encoding k information bits using the errorcorrection coder.
In this case, step S210 may be performed as in an LDPC encoding method, which will be described later.
Furthermore, in the broadcast signal transmission and reception method, an interleaved codeword is generated by interleaving the nbit codeword on a bit group basis at step S220.
In this case, the nbit codeword may be an LDPC codeword having a length of 64800 and a code rate of 2/15. The codeword having a length of 64800 may be divided into a total of 180 bit groups. Each of the bit groups may include 360 bits corresponding to the parallel factors of an LDPC codeword.
In this case, the interleaving may be performed on a bit group basis (by a unit of a bit group) in accordance with an interleaving sequence, which will be described later.
Furthermore, in the broadcast signal transmission and reception method, the encoded data is modulated at step S230.
That is, at step S230, the interleaved codeword is modulated using the modulator.
In this case, the modulator may be based on a concept including symbol mapper (symbol mapping device). In this case, the modulator may be a symbol mapping device performing 4096symbol mapping which maps codes onto 4096 constellations (symbols).
In this case, the modulator may be a uniform modulator, such as a QAM modulator, or a nonuniform modulator.
The modulator may be a symbol mapping device performing NUC (NonUniform Constellation) symbol mapping which uses 4096 constellations (symbols).
Furthermore, in the broadcast signal transmission and reception method, the modulated data is transmitted at step S240.
That is, at step S240, the modulated codeword is transmitted over the wireless channel via the antenna.
Furthermore, in the broadcast signal transmission and reception method, the received data is demodulated at step S250.
That is, at step S250, the signal transmitted over the wireless channel is received via the antenna of the receiver, and the received data is demodulated using the demodulator.
Furthermore, in the broadcast signal transmission and reception method, the demodulated data is deinterleaved at step S260. In this case, the deinterleaving of step S260 may be reverse to the operation of step S220.
Furthermore, in the broadcast signal transmission and reception method, the deinterleaved codeword is subjected to error correction decoding at step S270.
That is, at step S270, the information bits are finally restored by performing error correction decoding using the error correction decoder of the receiver.
In this case, step S270 corresponds to a process reverse to that of an LDPC encoding method, which will be described later.
An LDPC code is known as a code very close to the Shannon limit for an additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) channel, and has the advantages of asymptotically excellent performance and parallelizable decoding compared to a turbo code.
Generally, an LDPC code is defined by a lowdensity parity check matrix (PCM) that is randomly generated. However, a randomly generated LDPC code requires a large amount of memory to store a PCM, and requires a lot of time to access memory. In order to overcome these problems, a quasicyclic LDPC (QCLDPC) code has been proposed. A QCLDPC code that is composed of a zero matrix or a circulant permutation matrix (CPM) is defined by a PCM that is expressed by the following Equation 1:
In this equation, J is a CPM having a size of L×L, and is given as the following Equation 2. In the following description, L may be 360.
Furthermore, J^{i }is obtained by shifting an L×L identity matrix I (J^{0}) to the right i (0≤i<L) times, and J^{∞} is an L×L zero matrix. Accordingly, in the case of a QCLDPC code, it is sufficient if only index exponent i is stored in order to store J^{i}, and thus the amount of memory required to store a PCM is considerably reduced.
Referring to
where I_{L×L }is an identity matrix having a size of L×L.
That is, the matrix B may be a bitwise dual diagonal matrix, or may be a blockwise dual diagonal matrix having identity matrices as its blocks, as indicated by Equation 3. The bitwise dual diagonal matrix is disclosed in detail in Korean Patent Application Publication No. 20070058438, etc.
In particular, it will be apparent to those skilled in the art that when the matrix B is a bitwise dual diagonal matrix, it is possible to perform conversion into a Quasicyclic form by applying row or column permutation to a PCM including the matrix B and having a structure illustrated in
In this case, N is the length of a codeword, and K is the length of information.
The present invention proposes a newly designed QCLDPC code in which the code rate thereof is 2/15 and the length of a codeword is 64800, as illustrated in the following Table 1. That is, the present invention proposes an LDPC code that is designed to receive information having a length of 8640 and generate an LDPC codeword having a length of 64800.
Table 1 illustrates the sizes of the matrices A, B, C, D and Z of the QCLDPC code according to the present invention:
The newly designed LDPC code may be represented in the form of a sequence (progression), an equivalent relationship is established between the sequence and matrix (parity bit check matrix), and the sequence may be represented, as follows:
An LDPC code that is represented in the form of a sequence is being widely used in the DVB standard.
According to an embodiment of the present invention, an LDPC code presented in the form of a sequence is encoded, as follows. It is assumed that there is an information block S=(s_{0}, s_{1}, . . . , s_{K−1}) having an information size K. The LDPC encoder generates a codeword Λ=(λ_{0}, λ_{1}, λ_{2}, . . . , λ_{N−1}) having a size of N=K+M_{1}+M_{2 }using the information block S having a size K. In this case, M_{1}=g, and M_{2}=N−K−g. Furthermore, M_{1 }is the size of parity bits corresponding to the dual diagonal matrix B, and M_{2 }is the size of parity bits corresponding to the identity matrix D. The encoding process is performed, as follows:
Initialization:
λ_{1}=s_{i }for i=0,1, . . . ,K−1
p_{j}=0 for j=0,1, . . . ,M_{1}+M_{2}−1 (4)
First information bit λ_{0 }is accumulated at parity bit addresses specified in the 1st row of the sequence of the Sequence Table. For example, in an LDPC code having a length of 64800 and a code rate of 2/15, an accumulation process is as follows:
where the addition ⊕ occurs in GF(2).
The subsequent L−1 information bits, that is, λ_{m}, m=1, 2, . . . , L−1, are accumulated at parity bit addresses that are calculated by the following Equation 5:
(x+m×Q_{1})mod M_{1 }if x<M_{1 }
M_{1}+{(x−M_{1}+m×Q_{2})mod M_{2}} if x≥M_{1} (5)
where x denotes the addresses of parity bits corresponding to the first information bit λ_{0}, that is, the addresses of the parity bits specified in the first row of the sequence of the Sequence Table, Q_{1}=M_{1}/L, Q_{2}=M_{2}/L, and L=360. Furthermore, Q_{1 }and Q_{2 }are defined in the following Table 2. For example, for an LDPC code having a length of 64800 and a code rate of 2/15, M_{1}=1800, Q_{1}=5, M_{2}=54360, Q_{2}=151 and L=360, and the following operations are performed on the second bit λ_{1 }using Equation 5:
Table 2 illustrates the sizes of M_{1}, Q_{1}, M_{2 }and Q_{2 }of the designed QCLDPC code:
The addresses of parity bit accumulators for new 360 information bits from λ_{L }to λ_{2L−1 }are calculated and accumulated from Equation 5 using the second row of the sequence.
In a similar manner, for all groups composed of new L information bits, the addresses of parity bit accumulators are calculated and accumulated from Equation 5 using new rows of the sequence.
After all the information bits from λ_{0 }to λ_{K−1 }have been exhausted, the operations of the following Equation 6 are sequentially performed from i=1:
p_{i}=p_{i}⊕p_{i−1 }for i=0,1, . . . ,M_{1}−1 (6)
Thereafter, when a parity interleaving operation, such as that of the following Equation 7, is performed, parity bits corresponding to the dual diagonal matrix B are generated:
λ_{K+L·t+s}=p_{Q}_{1}_{·s+t }for 0≤s<L, 0≤t<Q_{1} (7)
When the parity bits corresponding to the dual diagonal matrix B have been generated using K information bits λ_{0}, λ_{1}, . . . , λ_{K−1 }parity bits corresponding to the identity matrix D are generated using the M_{1 }generated parity bits λ_{K}, λ_{K+1}, . . . , λ_{K+M}_{1}_{−1}.
For all groups composed of L information bits from λ_{K }to λ_{K+M}_{1}_{−1}, the addresses of parity bit accumulators are calculated using the new rows (starting with a row immediately subsequent to the last row used when the parity bits corresponding to the dual diagonal matrix B have been generated) of the sequence and Equation 5, and related operations are performed.
When a parity interleaving operation, such as that of the following Equation 8, is performed after all the information bits from λ_{K }to λ_{K+M}_{1}_{−1 }have been exhausted, parity bits corresponding to the identity matrix D are generated:
λ_{K+M}_{1}_{+L·t+s}=p_{M}_{1}_{+Q}_{2}_{·s+t }for 0≤s<L, 0≤t<Q_{2} (8)
Referring to
In this case, 360 may be the parallel factor (PF) of the LDPC codeword. That is, since the PF is 360, the LDPC codeword having a length of 64800 is divided into 180 bit groups, as illustrated in
Referring to
In this case, 360 may be the parallel factor (PF) of the LDPC codeword. That is, since the PF is 360, the LDPC codeword having a length of 16200 is divided into 45 bit groups, as illustrated in
Referring to
For example, it is assumed that an interleaving sequence for an LDPC codeword having a length of 16200 is as follows:
interleaving sequence={24 34 15 11 2 28 17 25 5 38 19 13 6 39 1 14 33 37 29 12 42 31 30 32 36 40 26 35 44 4 16 8 20 43 21 7 0 18 23 3 10 41 9 27 22}
Then, the order of the bit groups of the LDPC codeword illustrated in
That is, it can be seen that each of the LDPC codeword 610 and the interleaved codeword 620 includes 45 bit groups, and it can be also seen that, by the interleaving sequence, the 24th bit group of the LDPC codeword 610 is changed into the 0th bit group of the interleaved LDPC codeword 620, the 34th bit group of the LDPC codeword 610 is changed into the 1st bit group of the interleaved LDPC codeword 620, the 15th bit group of the LDPC codeword 610 is changed into the 2nd bit group of the interleaved LDPC codeword 620, and the list bit group of the LDPC codeword 610 is changed into the 3rd bit group of the interleaved LDPC codeword 620, and the 2nd bit group of the LDPC codeword 610 is changed into the 4th bit group of the interleaved LDPC codeword 620.
An LDPC codeword (u_{0}, u_{1}, . . . , u_{N}_{ldpc}_{−1}) having a length of N_{ldpc }is divided into N_{group}=N_{ldpc}/360 bit groups, as in Equation 9 below:
X_{j}={u_{k}360×j≤k<360×(j+1), 0≤k<N_{ldpc}} for 0≤j<N_{group} (9)
where X_{j }is an jth bit group, and each X_{j }is composed of 360 bits.
The LDPC codeword divided into the bit groups is interleaved, as in Equation 10 below:
Y_{j}=X_{π(j) }0≤j≤N_{group} (10)
where Y_{j }is an interleaved jth bit group, and π(j) is a permutation order for bit groupbased interleaving (bit groupunit interleaving). The permutation order corresponds to the interleaving sequence of Equation 11 below:
interleaving sequence={14 129 71 96 171 36 144 64 162 4 86 128 113 7 105 131 2 133 106 79 11 152 26 118 158 126 17 55 45 111 138 84 6 52 167 38 20 101 31 120 5 112 74 69 121 9 154 15 146 116 63 1 114 83 124 109 39 75 123 57 49 30 21 40 43 77 157 44 13 99 34 147 166 56 155 176 95 102 119 161 37 159 97 68 122 163 89 61 107 22 10 127 87 103 179 172 66 59 8 145 88 132 110 54 47 153 25 32 73 42 148 150 28 91 18 24 19 53 136 48 76 35 151 173 149 142 160 94 117 169 165 141 80 67 170 164 82 65 60 135 168 23 100 134 90 98 125 85 137 81 41 156 50 3 29 16 72 177 0 78 62 139 93 46 12 175 130 51 178 92 115 174 27 70 58 33 104 140 108 143} (11)
That is, when each of the codeword and the interleaved codeword includes 180 bit groups ranging from a 0th bit group to a 179th bit group, the interleaving sequence of Equation 11 means that the 14th bit group of the codeword becomes the 0th bit group of the interleaved codeword, the 129th bit group of the codeword becomes the 1st bit group of the interleaved codeword, the 71th bit group of the codeword becomes the 2nd bit group of the interleaved codeword, the 96th bit group of the codeword becomes the 3rd bit group of the interleaved codeword, . . . , the 108nd bit group of the codeword becomes the 178th bit group of the interleaved codeword, and the 143th bit group of the codeword becomes the 179th bit group of the interleaved codeword.
In particular, the interleaving sequence of Equation 11 has been optimized for a case where 4096symbol mapping (NUC symbol mapping) is employed and an LDPC coder having a length of 64800 and a code rate of 2/15 is used.
Referring to
The memory 710 stores an LDPC codeword having a length of 64800 and a code rate of 2/15.
The processor 720 generates an interleaved codeword by interleaving the LDPC codeword on a bit group basis corresponding to the parallel factor of the LDPC codeword.
In this case, the parallel factor may be 360. In this case, each of the bit groups may include 360 bits.
In this case, the LDPC codeword may be divided into 180 bit groups, as in Equation 9.
In this case, the interleaving may be performed using Equation 10 using permutation order.
In this case, the permutation order may correspond to the interleaving sequence represented by Equation 11.
The memory 730 provides the interleaved codeword to a modulator for 4096symbol mapping.
In this case, the modulator may be a symbol mapping device performing NUC (NonUniform Constellation) symbol mapping.
The memories 710 and 730 may correspond to various types of hardware for storing a set of bits, and may correspond to a data structure, such as an array, a list, a stack, a queue or the like.
In this case, the memories 710 and 730 may not be physically separate devices, but may correspond to different addresses of a physically single device. That is, the memories 710 and 730 are not physically distinguished from each other, but are merely logically distinguished from each other.
The errorcorrection coder 13 illustrated in
That is, the errorcorrection coder may include memories and a processor. In this case, the first memory is a memory that stores an LDPC codeword having a length of 64800 and a code rate of 2/15, and a second memory is a memory that is initialized to 0.
The memories may correspond to λ_{i }(i=0, 1, . . . , N−1) and P_{j }(j=0, 1, . . . , M_{1}+M_{2}−1), respectively.
The processor may generate an LDPC codeword corresponding to information bits by performing accumulation with respect to the memory using a sequence corresponding to a parity check matrix (PCM).
In this case, the accumulation may be performed at parity bit addresses that are updated using the sequence of the above Sequence Table.
In this case, the LDPC codeword may include a systematic part λ_{0}, λ_{1}, . . . , λ_{K−1 }corresponding to the information bits and having a length of 8640 (=K), a first parity part λ_{K}, λ_{K+1}, . . . , λ_{K+M}_{1}_{−1 }corresponding to a dual diagonal matrix included in the PCM and having a length of 1800 (=M_{1}=g), and a second parity part λ_{K+M}_{1}, λ_{K+M}_{1}_{+1}, . . . , λ_{K+M}_{1}_{+M}_{2}_{−1 }corresponding to an identity matrix included in the PCM and having a length of 54360 (=M_{2}).
In this case, the sequence may have a number of rows equal to the sum (8640/360+1800/360=29) of a value obtained by dividing the length of the systematic part, i.e., 8640, by a CPM size L corresponding to the PCM, i.e., 360, and a value obtained by dividing the length M_{1 }of the first parity part, i.e., 1800, by 360.
As described above, the sequence may be represented by the above Sequence Table.
In this case, the second memory may have a size corresponding to the sum M_{1}+M_{2 }of the length M_{1 }of the first parity part and the length M_{2 }of the second parity part.
In this case, the parity bit addresses may be updated based on the results of comparing each x of the previous parity bit addresses, specified in respective rows of the sequence, with the length M_{1 }of the first parity part.
That is, the parity bit addresses may be updated using Equation 5. In this case, x may be the previous parity bit addresses, m may be an information bit index that is an integer larger than 0 and smaller than L, L may be the CPM size of the PCM, Q_{1 }may be M_{1}/L, M_{1 }may be the size of the first parity part, Q_{2 }may be M_{2}/L, and M_{2 }may be the size of the second parity part.
In this case, it may be possible to perform the accumulation while repeatedly changing the rows of the sequence by the CPM size L (=360) of the PCM, as described above.
In this case, the first parity part λ_{K}, λ_{K+1}, . . . , λ_{K+M}_{1}_{−1 }may be generated by performing parity interleaving using the first memory and the second memory, as described in conjunction with Equation 7.
In this case, the second parity part λ_{K+M}_{1}, λ_{K+M}_{1}_{+1}, . . . , λ_{K+M}_{1}_{+M}_{2}_{−1 }may be generated by performing parity interleaving using the first memory and the second memory after generating the first parity part λ_{K}, λ_{K+1}, . . . , λ_{K+M}_{1}_{−1 }and then performing the accumulation using the first parity part λ_{K}, λ_{K+1}, . . . , λ_{K+M}_{1}_{−1 }and the sequence, as described in conjunction with Equation 8.
Referring to
In this case, the LDPC codeword may be represented by (u_{0}, u_{1}, . . . , u_{N}_{ldpc}_{−1}) (where N_{ldpc }is 64800), and may be divided into 180 bit groups each composed of 360 bits, as in Equation 9.
Furthermore, in the bit interleaving method according to the present embodiment, an interleaved codeword is generated by interleaving the LDPC codeword on a bit group basis at step S820.
In this case, the size of the bit group may correspond to the parallel factor of the LDPC codeword.
In this case, the interleaving may be performed using Equation 10 using permutation order.
In this case, the permutation order may correspond to the interleaving sequence represented by Equation 11.
In this case, the parallel factor may be 360, and each of the bit groups may include 360 bits.
In this case, the LDPC codeword may be divided into 180 bit groups, as in Equation 9.
Moreover, in the bit interleaving method according to the present embodiment, the interleaved codeword is output to a modulator for 4096symbol mapping at step 830.
In accordance with at least one embodiment of the present invention, there is provided an intraBICM bit interleaver that can effectively distribute burst errors occurring in a broadcasting system channel.
In accordance with at least one embodiment of the present invention, there is provided a bit interleaver that is optimized for an LDPC coder having a length of 64800 and a code rate of 2/15 and a modulator performing 4096symbol mapping and, thus, can be applied to nextgeneration broadcasting systems, such as ATSC 3.0.
Although the specific embodiments of the present invention have been disclosed for illustrative purposes, those skilled in the art will appreciate that various modifications, additions and substitutions are possible without departing from the scope and spirit of the invention as disclosed in the accompanying claims.