Radio system for long-range high-speed wireless communication
1. A radio assembly, comprising:
- a pair of reflectors positioned on a front side of the radio assembly, wherein a first reflector of the pair of reflectors has a diameter that is smaller than that of a second reflector, and wherein a portion of the first reflector overlaps with the second reflector;
a hollow enclosure on a back side of the radio assembly positioned directly behind the pair of reflectors; and
a printed circuit board (PCB) comprising at least a transmitter circuitry and a receiver circuitry, wherein the PCB is positioned inside the hollow enclosure, wherein the transmitter circuitry is coupled to the first reflector of the pair of reflectors, and wherein the receiver circuitry is coupled to the second reflector of the pair of reflectors.
One embodiment of the present invention provides a radio assembly. The radio assembly includes an antenna housing unit that houses a pair of reflectors which are situated on a front side of the antenna housing unit, a printed circuit board (PCB) that includes at least a transmitter and a receiver, and a backside cover. The PCB is situated within a cavity at a backside of the antenna housing unit and the backside cover covers the cavity, thereby enclosing the PCB within the antenna housing unit. One embodiment of the present invention provides a user interface for configuring a radio. The user interface includes a display and a number of selectable tabs presented on the display. A selection of a respective tab results in a number of user-editable fields being displayed, thereby facilitating a user in configuring and monitoring operations of the radio.
Patent #US 20100309966A1
Current AssigneeUbiquiti Inc.
Sponsoring EntityUbiquiti Inc.
|INTEGRATED ORTHOMODE TRANSDUCER|
Patent #US 20100285758A1
Current AssigneeViaSat Incorporated
Sponsoring EntityViaSat Incorporated
|Aligned duplex antennae with high isolation|
Patent #US 20070057860A1
Current AssigneeRADIOLINK NETWORKS INC.
Sponsoring EntityRADIOLINK NETWORKS INC.
|Method of and apparatus for antenna alignment|
Patent #US 20030071762A1
Current AssigneeCommScope Technologies LLC
Sponsoring EntityAndrew Corporation
|Low sidelobe contiguous-parabolic reflector array|
Patent #US 20020113744A1
Current AssigneeEMS Technologies Canada Ltd.
Sponsoring EntityEMS Technologies Canada Ltd.
|Integrated MMDS antenna with reflector mounted on a totally sealed single-body dipole-transceiver base|
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Current AssigneeTransystem Inc.
Sponsoring EntityTransystem Inc.
|Microwave receiving antenna array having adjustable null direction|
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Current AssigneeHILLENBRAND RAY J. P.O. BOX 8303 RAPID CITY SOUTH DAKOTA 57709-8303
Sponsoring EntityKeith V. Anderson, Ray J. Hillenbrand
|Compact millimeter-wave radio systems and methods|
Patent #US 20120256796A1
Current AssigneeSiklu Communication Ltd.
Sponsoring EntitySiklu Communication Ltd.
|SOLAR-POWER ENHANCING MODULE AND SUN TRACKING SYSTEM THEREOF|
Patent #US 20140311549A1
Current AssigneeYun-Min Wang
Sponsoring EntityYun-Min Wang
|Dish having display device and apparatus for charging the same|
Patent #US 9,356,455 B2
Current AssigneeSamsung Display Company Limited
Sponsoring EntitySamsung Display Company Limited
- 1. A radio assembly, comprising:
a pair of reflectors positioned on a front side of the radio assembly, wherein a first reflector of the pair of reflectors has a diameter that is smaller than that of a second reflector, and wherein a portion of the first reflector overlaps with the second reflector; a hollow enclosure on a back side of the radio assembly positioned directly behind the pair of reflectors; and a printed circuit board (PCB) comprising at least a transmitter circuitry and a receiver circuitry, wherein the PCB is positioned inside the hollow enclosure, wherein the transmitter circuitry is coupled to the first reflector of the pair of reflectors, and wherein the receiver circuitry is coupled to the second reflector of the pair of reflectors.
- View Dependent Claims (2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9)
- 10. A wireless communication system, comprising:
a pair of radios communicating with each other;
wherein each radio comprises;
a pair of reflectors positioned on a front side of the radio, wherein a first reflector of the pair of reflectors has a diameter that is smaller than that of a second reflector, and wherein a portion of the first reflector overlaps with the second reflector; a hollow enclosure on a back side of the radio positioned directly behind the pair of reflectors; a printed circuit board (PCB) comprising at least a transmitter circuitry and a receiver circuitry, wherein the PCB is positioned inside the hollow enclosure, wherein the transmitter circuitry is coupled to the first reflector of the pair of reflectors, and wherein the receiver circuitry is coupled to the second reflector of the pair of reflectors; and wherein the radios are configured in a way that reflectors of a first radio face reflectors of a second radio.
- View Dependent Claims (11, 12, 13)
- 14. A method for assembling a radio, comprising:
placing a pair of reflectors on a front side of an antenna housing unit, wherein a first reflector of the pair of reflectors has a diameter that is smaller than that of a second reflector, wherein a portion of the first reflector overlaps with the second reflector, and wherein the antenna housing unit comprises a hollow enclosure positioned on a back side; and placing a printed circuit board (PCB) comprising at least a transmitter circuitry and a receiver circuitry inside the hollow enclosure, wherein the transmitter circuitry is coupled to the first reflector of the pair of reflectors, and wherein the receiver circuitry is coupled to the second reflector of the pair of reflectors; and placing a backside cover over the hollow enclosure, thereby preventing environmental damages to the PCB.
- View Dependent Claims (15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20)
This application is a continuation of U.S. application Ser. No. 14/177,117, entitled “RADIO SYSTEM FOR LONG-RANGE HIGH-SPEED WIRELESS COMMUNICATION,” by inventors Gary Schulz, John Sanford, Lance Lascari, Christopher Fay, Richard Keniuk, Jude Lee, and Charles Macenski, filed 10 Feb. 2014, which claims the benefit of U.S. Provisional Application No. 61/762,814, entitled “RADIO SYSTEM FOR LONG-RANGE HIGH-SPEED WIRELESS COMMUNICATION,” by inventors Gary Schulz, John Sanford, Lance Lascari, Christopher Fay, Richard Keniuk, Jude Lee, and Charles Macenski, filed 8 Feb. 2013.
This disclosure is generally related to a wireless communication system. More specifically, this disclosure is related to a radio system for high-speed, long-range wireless communication.
The rapid development of optical fibers, which permit transmission over longer distances and at higher bandwidths, has revolutionized the telecommunications industry and has played a major role in the advent of the information age. However, there are limitations to the application of optical fibers. Because laying optical fibers in the field can require a large initial investment, it is not cost effective to extend the reach of optical fibers to sparsely populated areas, such as rural regions or other remote, hard-to-reach areas. Moreover, in many scenarios where a business may want to establish point-to-point links among multiple locations, it may not be economically feasible to lay new fibers.
On the other hand, wireless radio communication devices and systems provide high-speed data transmission over an air interface, making it an attractive technology for providing network connections to areas that are not yet reached by fibers or cables. However, currently available wireless technologies for long-range, point-to-point connections encounter many problems, such as limited range and poor signal quality.
One embodiment of the present invention provides a radio assembly. The radio assembly includes an antenna housing unit that houses a pair of reflectors which are situated on a front side of the antenna housing unit, a printed circuit board (PCB) that includes at least a transmitter and a receiver, and a backside cover. The PCB is situated within a cavity at a backside of the antenna housing unit and the backside cover covers the cavity, thereby enclosing the PCB within the antenna housing unit.
In a variation on this embodiment, the pair of reflectors include a pair of parabola dishes.
In a further variation, the pair of parabola dishes partially overlap with each other.
In a further variation, the parabola dishes have different diameters, and a parabola dish with a larger diameter is coupled to the receiver.
In a variation on this embodiment, the radio assembly includes a pair of feed antennas that are coupled to the transmitter and the receiver.
In a variation on this embodiment, the radio assembly includes a mounting unit for mounting the radio assembly onto a pole, wherein the mounting unit is coupled to the backside of the antenna housing unit.
In a further embodiment, the mounting unit includes an azimuth-adjustment mechanism for adjusting the reflectors'"'"' azimuth and an elevation-adjustment mechanism for adjusting the reflectors'"'"' elevation.
In a variation on this embodiment, the PCB further includes a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) chip coupled to the transmitter and the receiver.
In a further embodiment, the PCB further comprises a central processing unit (CPU) coupled to the FPGA chip.
In a variation on this embodiment, the PCB further comprises a GPS receiver,
In a variation on this embodiment, the transmitter and the receiver are configured to operate in a license-free 24 GHz frequency band.
One embodiment of the present invention provides a user interface for configuring a radio. The user interface includes a display and a number of selectable tabs presented on the display. A selection of a respective tab results in a number of user-editable fields being displayed, thereby facilitating a user in configuring and monitoring operations of the radio.
In a variation on this embodiment, the selectable tabs include a main tab, which displays current values of a plurality of configuration settings of the radio and traffic status for a link associated with the radio.
In a variation on this embodiment, the selectable tabs include a wireless tab, which enables the user to set a plurality of parameters for a wireless link associated with the radio.
In a further variation, the plurality of parameters include at least one of: a wireless mode of the radio, a duplex mode for the wireless link, a transmitting frequency, a receiving frequency, a transmitting output power, a current modulation rate, and a gain setting for a receiving antenna.
In a variation on this embodiment, the selectable tabs include a network tab, which enables the user to configure settings for a management network associated with the radio.
In a variation on this embodiment, the selectable tabs include a services tab, which enables the user to configure management services associated with the radio.
In a further variation, the management services include at least one of: a ping service, a Simple Network Monitor Protocol (SNMP) agent, a web server, a Secure Shell (SSH) server, a Telnet server, a Network Time Protocol (NTP) client service, a dynamic Domain Name System (DNS), a system log service, and a device discovery service.
In a variation on this embodiment, the selectable tabs include a system tab, which enables the user to perform at least one of the following operations: reboot the radio, update firmware, manage a user account, and save or upload a configuration file.
In the figures, like reference numerals refer to the same figure elements.
All dimensions marked in the figures are in millimeters.
The following description is presented to enable any person skilled in the art to make and use the embodiments, and is provided in the context of a particular application and its requirements. Various modifications to the disclosed embodiments will be readily apparent to those skilled in the art, and the general principles defined herein may be applied to other embodiments and applications without departing from the spirit and scope of the present disclosure. Thus, the present invention is not limited to the embodiments shown, but is to be accorded the widest scope consistent with the principles and features disclosed herein.
Embodiments of the present invention provide a radio system used for high-speed, long-range wireless communication. In one variation, the radio system includes a pair of dual-independent 2×2 multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) high-gain reflector antennas, a pair of transceivers capable of transmitting and receiving high-speed data (beyond 1.4 Gbps) at the 24 GHz unlicensed frequency band, and a user-interface that provides plug-and-play capability. In one configuration, the transceivers are capable of operating in both FDD (Frequency Division Duplex) and HDD (Hybrid Division Duplex) modes. The unique design of the antenna provides long-range reachability (up to 13 km). In addition to the 24 GHz frequency band, the radio system may also operate at other unlicensed or licensed frequency bands. For example, the radio system may operate at the 5 GHz frequency band. Moreover, the radio system may be configured to operate in various transmission modes. For example, in addition to a MIMO system, it is also possible for the radio system to be configured as a single-input single-output (SISO), SIMO, or MISO system. Similarly, in addition to the FDD mode, the radio system may operation in time-division duplex (TDD) mode or a hybrid of TDD and FDD.
Each transmission path includes a transmitting antenna, such as antenna 104; a band-pass filter (BPF), such as BPF 106; a power amplifier (PA), such as PA 108; an RF detector, such as RF detector 110; a modulator; and a digital-to-analog converter (DAC), such as DAC 112. In one embodiment, the system uses a quadrature modulation scheme (also known as IQ modulation), and the modulator is an IQ modulator, which includes an IQ filter (such as IQ filter 114, which also works as a pre-amplifier) and an IQ up-converter (such as IQ up-converter 116). In one embodiment, the radio system operates at the unlicensed 24 GHz frequency band, and the IQ up-converters and the PAs are configured to operate at the 24 GHz RF band.
Each receiving path includes a receiving antenna, such as antenna 122; a band-pass filter (BPF), such as BPF 124; a low-noise amplifier (LNA), such as LNA 126; a second BPF, such as BPF 128; a demodulator; and an analog-to-digital converter (ADC), such as ADC 130. In one embodiment, the system uses a quadrature modulation scheme (also known as IQ modulation), and the demodulator is an IQ demodulator, which includes an IQ down-converter (such as IQ down-converter 132) and an IQ filter (such as IQ filter 134 with adjustable bandwidth). In one embodiment, the radio system operates at the unlicensed 24 GHz frequency band, and the IQ down-converters and the LNAs are configured to operate at the 24 GHz RF band.
Also included in
More specifically, power module 160 includes a power supply and a number of voltage regulators for providing power to the different components in the radio system. CPU 162 controls the operation of the radio system, such as the configurations or operating modes of the systems, by interfacing with FPGA chip 102. For example, the system may be configured as a full-duplex system where the transmitter and receiver are running concurrently in time, or a half-duplex system. To configure the radio system, a user can access CPU 162 via a serial interface (such as an RS-232 interface 164) or an Ethernet control interface 166. In other words, a user is able to interact with the radio system via the serial interface or the Ethernet control interface. In one embodiment, the serial port is designated for alignments of the antennas. Ethernet data interface 168 is the data port for uploading and downloading data over the point-to-point link. In other words, data to be transmitted over the point-to-point link is uploaded to FPGA chip 102, which includes the baseband DSP, via Ethernet data interface 168; and data received from the point-to-point link can be downloaded from FPGA 102 via Ethernet data interface 168. Each Ethernet interface includes an Ethernet PHY transceiver, a transformer, and an RJ-45 connector. In one embodiment, the Ethernet PHY transceiver is capable of operating at 10 Mbps and 100 Mbps. Note that each of the interfaces (or ports) also includes status LEDs for indicating the status of each port.
Other components in the radio system also include a flash memory 170 coupled to CPU 162, a random-access memory (RAM) 172 (such as a DDR2 memory) coupled to CPU 162, a RAM 174 coupled to FPGA 102, a clock source 176 providing clock signals to CPU 162 and FPGA 102, and an LED display 178 with two digits displaying the received signal strength in dBm.
Note that the various components (with the exception of the antennas) for the radio system shown in
In the example shown in
Note that the low-level detectors (detectors 182 and 184) are placed after the IQ modulators, or the image-reject converters. During operation, the outputs of detectors 182 and 184 are alternately fed (via switch 186) to a band-limited measuring receiver, which includes filter 188, amplifier 190, log amplifier 192, and ADC 194. The selection of the calibration tone frequency determines which transmitter parameter is measured. The combinations of tones sent basically allow detectors 182 and 184 to operate as mixers with one strong tone acting as a local oscillator to convert other tones down to a low frequency that is easy to measure with low cost hardware.
Assuming that filter 188 sets its center frequency, and thus the center frequency of the measuring receiver, to fm for selecting one tone near fm only, then one can measure the carrier leakage by measuring the baseband signal. More specifically, in this situation, a baseband tone of ±fm (=fRF±fm at the output of the modulator) would produce a tune at fm in the measuring receiver at a level that is proportional to the amount of carrier leakage. This is because the tone at fRF±fm acts as the local oscillator to mix down the residual carrier that is at the frequency fRF. The tone level is measured by ADC 194 and read by an FPGA, such as FPGA 102, for processing. Consequently, self-calibration or adjustment can be made to eliminate the carrier leakage.
In addition to measuring carrier leakage, IQ alignment module 180 can also be configured to measure the rejection to the sideband. To do so, in one variation, a transmitter tone is set at either +½fm or −½fm, which can produce a measurable result proportional to the level of undesired sideband. Because the transmitter outputs include signals at fRF±½fm (the strong “local oscillator” signal for the detectors) and opposite sideband signal, the power level seen by the measuring receiver at fm is proportional to the amount of undesired sideband signal present (fm away from the strong tone centered at fRF±½fm). Similar to the process of carrier leakage elimination, the sideband rejection measurement can be used for self-calibration or cancellation of the undesired sideband.
In some variations, the specific tones used by the transmitters are the nearest frequency bins already available in the IFFT function of the transmitters. In one variation, filter 188 sets its center frequency fm at around 10.7 MHz due to the availability of low-cost filters. This frequency selection also makes implementations of the rest of the receiver straightforward.
Implementing IQ alignment module 180 to augment the transmitters of the radio system provides continuous self-correction (or self-calibration) functionality to the transmitters. Unlike other conventional integrated transceivers that perform some sort of corrections when “offline,” embodiments of the present invention never go offline when operating in full duplex mode, where transmitters and receivers operate at different frequencies. As a result, this allows for the use of IQ image reject mixers with limited sideband rejection to be applied as quadrature modulators and demodulators. In one variation, the IQ modulation uses Zero intermediate frequency (ZIF). Note that in addition to allowing parts with modest performance to be used in areas where IQ amplitude and phase balance is critical, this automatic IQ alignment scheme also assures that the radio maintains sufficiently high levels of performance across a wide range of temperatures and signal levels.
The auxiliary components include a radome cover 408 for protecting the antenna from weather damage; an upper feed-shield subassembly 410 for shielding a feed antenna to the upper reflector; a lower feed-shield subassembly 412 for shielding a feed antenna to the lower reflector; heat sinks 414 for dissipating heat from components on PCB 404; thermal pads 416; microwave absorbers 418; a strap 420 for an RJ-45 connector; a number of screws 422 for coupling together reflecting housing 402, PCB 404, and backside cover 406; and a number of screw covers 424.
Recall the previously shown
The 24 GHz license-free operating frequency of the radio system makes it a preferred choice for deployment of point-to-point wireless links, such as a wireless backhaul, because there is no need to obtain an FCC (Federal Communications Commission) license. The unique design of the high-gain reflector antenna provides long reachability (up to 13 Km in range) of the radio system. Moreover, the radio system can operate in both Frequency Division Duplex (FDD) and Hybrid Division Duplex (HDD) modes, thus providing the radio system with unparalleled speed and spectral efficiency, with data throughput above 1.4 Gbps. Note that HDD provides the best of both worlds, combining the latency performance of FDD with the spectral efficiency of Time Division Duplex (TDD).
During operation, the radio system can be configured for half-duplex operation (which is the default setting) and full-duplex operation.
In one variation, high speed and lower latency may be obtained with the radios configured as a full-duplex system using Frequency Division Duplexing (FDD). The data streams generated by the radios are simultaneously transferred across the wireless link. The transmitter and receiver are running concurrently in time. Because of the trade-off between bandwidth resources and propagation conditions, this approach is typically reserved for links in areas where installations are in clear line-of-sight conditions and free of reflected energy such as that generated by heavy rain or intermediate objects. Installations that are subject to Fresnel reflections or highly scattered environments may experience some level of degradation at great ranges.
Links that are installed in environments that are highly reflective or subject to considerable scattering due to heavy rain or foliage loss may be better suited to half-duplex configurations. In this case the frequency and bandwidth resources are shared on a Time Division Duplexing (TDD) basis, and the system can accept higher levels of propagation distortion. The trade-offs may include reduced throughput and slightly higher latency.
In some variations, the radio system is configured with the ability to manage time and bandwidth resources, similar to other systems utilizing different modulation schemes that are scaled according to the noise, interference, and quality of the propagation channel. The radio system also automatically scales its modulation based on channel quality but has the ability to be reconfigured from a time/bandwidth perspective to allow for the best possible performance. In many regards the suitability of the duplexing scheme needs to be taken into account based on the ultimate goals of the user. Just as channel conditions have an effect on the modulation scheme selection, there are effects on duplexing modes to consider as well.
When deploying the radio systems for establishing wireless communication links, various configurations can be used. For example, the first configuration is for point-to-point backhaul, where two radios (one configured as master and one configured as slave) are used to establish a point-to-point link as shown in
Before mounting the radios onto poles, the user should configure the paired radios. The radio configurations include, but are not limited to: operating mode (master or slave) of the radio, duplex mode (full-duplex or half-duplex of the link), TX and RX frequencies, and data modulation schemes. Detailed descriptions of the configuration settings are included in the following section.
The installation steps include connecting Ethernet cables to the data and configuration ports, configuring the settings of the radio using a configuration interface, disconnecting the cables to move the radios to mounting sites, reconnecting at the mounting sites, mounting the radios, and establishing and optimizing the RF link.
Auxiliary port 1206 includes an RJ-12 connector. In one embodiment, auxiliary port 1206 can be coupled to a listening device, such as a headphone, to enable alignment of the antennas by listening to an audio tone. More specifically, while aligning the pair of antennas, one can listen to the audio tone via the listening device coupled to auxiliary port 1206; the higher the pitch, the stronger the signal strength, and thus the better the alignment. To ensure the best tuning result, it is recommended that the user iteratively adjusts the AZ and elevation of the pair of radios one by one, starting with the slave radio, until a symmetric link (with received signal levels within 1 dB of each other) is achieved. This ensures the best possible data rate between the paired radios. Note that adjusting the AZ and elevation of a radio can be achieved by adjusting the corresponding AZ and elevation bolts, as discussed in the previous section.
In addition to using the audio tone, the user can also align the paired radios based on digital values displayed by LED display 1208. More specifically, LED display 1208 displays the power level of the received signal. In one embodiment, values on LED display 1208 are displayed in negative dBm. For example, a number 61 represents a received signal level of −61 dBm. Hence, lower values indicate a stronger received signal level. While aligning the paired radios, the user can observe LED display 1208 to monitor the received signal strength. For best alignment results, a pair of installers should be used with one adjusting the AZ and elevation of a radio at one end of the link, while the other installer reports the received signal level at the other end of the link.
The radio configurations include, but are not limited to: operating mode (master or slave) of the radio, duplex mode (full-duplex or half-duplex of the link), TX and RX frequencies, and data modulation schemes. Detailed descriptions of the configuration settings are included in the following section.
In addition to hardware, the radio system may further includes a configuration interface, which is an operating system capable of powerful wireless and routing features, built upon a simple and intuitive user interface foundation. In one embodiment, a user can access the configuration interface for easy configuration and management via a web browser. Note that the configuration interface can be accessed in two different ways. More specifically, one can use the direct coupling to the configuration port to achieve out-of-band management. In addition, in-band management is available via the local data port or the data port at the other end of the link.
In some variations, before accessing the communication interface, the user needs to make sure that the host machine is connected to the LAN that is connected to the configuration port on the radio being configured. The user may also need to configure the Ethernet adapter on the host system with a static IP address, such as one on the 192.168.1.x subnet (for example, 192.168.1.100). Subsequently, the user can launch the web browser, and type http://192.168.1.20 in the address field and press enter (PC) or return (Mac). In one embodiment, a login window appears, prompting the user for a username and password. After a standard login process, the configuration interface will appear, allowing the user to customize radio settings as needed.
In some variations, the main tab 1302 displays device status, statistics, and network monitoring links. Wireless tab 1304 configures basic wireless settings, including the wireless mode, link name, frequency, output power, speed, RX Gain, and wireless security. Network tab 1306 configures the management network settings, Internet Protocol (IP) settings, management VLAN, and automatic IP aliasing. Advanced tab 1308 provides more precise wireless interface controls, including advanced wireless settings and advanced Ethernet settings. Services tab 1310 configures system management services: ping watchdog, Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP), servers (web, SSH, Telnet), Network Time Protocol (NTP) client, dynamic Domain Name System (DDNS) client, system log, and device discovery. System tab 1312 controls system maintenance routines, administrator account management, location management, device customization, firmware update, and configuration backup. The user may also change the language of the web management interface under system tab 1312.
As shown in
In the example shown in
Device name displays the customizable name or identifier of the device. The device name (also known as the host name) is displayed in registration screens and discovery tools. Operating mode displays the mode of the radio: slave, master, or reset. RF link status displays the status of the radio: RF off, syncing, beaconing, registering, enabling, listening, or operational. Link name displays the customizable name or identifier of the link. Security displays the encryption scheme, where AES-128 is enabled at all times.
Version displays the software version of the radio configuration interface. Uptime is the total time the device has been running since the latest reboot (when the device was powered up) or software upgrade. This time is displayed in days, hours, minutes, and seconds. Date displays the current system date and time in YEAR-MONTH-DAY HOURS:MINUTES:SECONDS format. The system date and time are retrieved from the Internet using NTP (Network Time Protocol). The NTP client is enabled by default on the Services tab. The radio does not have an internal clock, and the date and time may be inaccurate if the NTP client is disabled or the device is not connected to the Internet.
Duplex displays full-duplex or half-duplex. As discussed in the previous section, full-duplex mode allows communication in both directions simultaneously, and half-duplex mode allows communication in one direction at a time, alternating between transmission and reception.
TX frequency displays the current transmit frequency. The radio uses the radio frequency specified to transmit data. RX frequency displays the current receive frequency. The radio uses the radio frequency specified to receive data. Regulatory domain displays the regulatory domain (FCC/IC, ETSI, or Other), as determined by country selection. Distance displays the distance between the paired radios.
Current modulation rate displays the modulation rate, for example: 6× (64QAM MIMO), 4× (16QAM MIMO), 2× (QPSK MIMO), 1× (QPSK SISO), and ¼× (QPSK SISO). Note that if Automatic Rate Adaptation is enabled on the wireless tab, then current modulation rate displays the current speed in use and depends on the maximum modulation rate specified on the wireless tab and current link conditions. Remote modulation rate displays the modulation rate of the remote radio: 6× (64QAM MIMO), 4× (16QAM MIMO), 2× (QPSK MIMO), 1× (QPSK SISO), and ¼× (QPSK SISO).
TX capacity displays the potential TX throughput, how much the radio can send, after accounting for the modulation and error rates. RX capacity displays the potential RX throughput, how much the radio can receive, after accounting for the modulation and error rates.
CONFIG MAC displays the MAC address of the configuration port. CONFIG displays the speed and duplex of the configuration port. Data displays the speed and duplex of the data port. Chain 0/1 signal strength displays the absolute power level (in dBm) of the received signal for each chain. Changing the RX Gain on the wireless tab does not affect the signal strength values displayed on the main tab. However, if “overload” is displayed to indicate overload condition, decrease the RX Gain.
Internal temperature displays the temperatures inside the radio for monitoring. Remote chain 0/1 signal strength displays the absolute power level (in dBm) of the received signal for each chain of the remote radio. Remote power displays the maximum average transmit output power (in dBm) of the remote radio. GPS signal quality displays GPS signal quality as a percentage value on a scale of 0-100%. Latitude and longitude are displayed based on GPS tracking, reporting the device'"'"'s current latitude and longitude. In some variations, clicking the link opens the reported latitude and longitude in a browser, for example, using Google Maps™ (registered trademark of Google Inc. of Menlo Park, Calif.). Altitude is displayed based on GPS tracking, reporting the device'"'"'s current altitude relative to sea level. Synchronization displays whether the radio uses GPS to synchronize the timing of its transmissions. In some variation, the option of synchronization using GPS maybe disabled. In some variation, the radio can be configured without a GPS receiver or other GPS tracking electronics.
Area 1324 displays outputs of two monitoring tools that are accessible via the links on the main tab, performance and log. The default is performance, which is displayed when the main tab is opened, as shown in
In some variations, the basic wireless settings include, but are not limited to: wireless mode, link name, country code, duplex mode, frequencies, output power, speed, and gain. The wireless mode can be set as master or slave. By default, the wireless mode is set as slave. For paired radios, one needs to be configured as master because each point-to-point link must have one master. Link name is the name for the point-to-point link. A user can enter a selected name in the field of the link name.
Because each country has its own power level and frequency regulations, to ensure that the radio operates under the necessary regulatory compliance rules, the user may select the country where the radio will be used. The frequency settings and output power limits will be tuned according to the regulations of the selected country. In some variations, the U.S. product versions are locked to the U.S. country code, as illustrated in
In this example, the duplex field includes two selections: half-duplex or full-duplex. The TX frequency field allows the user to select a transmit frequency. Note that the TX frequency on the master should be used as the RX frequency on the slave, and vice versa. The RX frequency field allows a user to select a receive frequency. The output power field defines the maximum average transmit output power (in dBm) of the radio. A user can use the slider or manually enter the output power value. The transmit power level maximum is limited according to the country regulations. The maximum modulation rate field displays either the maximum modulation rate or the modulation rate. Note that higher modulations support greater throughput but generally require stronger RF signals and higher signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). In some variations, by default, automatic rate adaptation is enabled, as shown in
Note that the same wireless settings should be applied to the radio at the other end of the point-to-point link with the exception of the wireless mode (one needs to be configured as master and the other as slave), and the TX and RX frequencies (the TX frequency on the master should be used as the RX frequency on the slave, and vice versa).
The in-band management field allows a user to enable or disable in-band management, which is available via the data port of the local radio or the data port of the remote radio. In-band management is enabled by default, as shown in
The management IP address field includes two choices: DHCP or static. When DHCP is selected, the local DHCP server assigns a dynamic IP address, gateway IP address, and DNS address to the radio. It is recommended to choose the static option, where a static IP address is assigned to the radio, as shown in
When a static IP address is selected, area 1502 displays the following fields: IP address, netmask, gateway IP, primary DNS IP, secondary DNS IP, management VLAN, and auto IP aliasing. The IP address field specifies the IP address of the radio. This IP will be used for device management purposes. When the netmask is expanded into its binary form, the netmask field provides a mapping to define which portions of the IP address range are used for the network devices and which portions are used for host devices. The netmask defines the address space of the radio'"'"'s network segment. For example, in
The gateway IP is the IP address of the host router, which provides the point of connection to the Internet. This can be a DSL modem, cable modem, or WISP gateway router. The radio directs data packets to the gateway if the destination host is not within the local network. The primary DNS IP specifies the IP address of the primary DNS (Domain Name System) server. The secondary DNS IP specifies the IP address of the secondary DNS server. Note that this entry is optional and used only if the primary DNS server is not responding.
The management VLAN field allows the user to enable the management VLAN, which results in the system automatically creating a management Virtual Local Area Network (VLAN). In some variations, when management VLAN is enabled, a VLAN ID filed appears (not shown in the figure) to allow the user to enter a unique VLAN ID from 2 to 4094. When the auto IP aliasing option is enabled, the system automatically generates an IP address for the corresponding WLAN/LAN interface. The generated IP address is a unique Class B IP address from the 169.254.X.Y range (netmask 255.255.0.0), which is intended for use within the same network segment only. The auto IP always starts with 169.254.X.Y, with X and Y being the last two octets from the MAC address of the radio. For example, if the MAC address is 00:15:6D:A3:04:FB, then the generated unique auto IP will be 169.254.4.251. The hexadecimal value, FB, converts to the decimal value, 251. This auto IP aliasing setting can be useful because the user can still access and manage devices even if the user loses, misconfigures, or forgets their IP addresses. Because an auto IP address is based on the last two octets of the MAC address, the user can determine the IP address of a device if he knows its MAC address.
In some variations, ping watchdog sets the radio to continuously ping a user-defined IP address (it can be the Internet gateway, for example). If it is unable to ping under the user-defined constraints, then the radio will automatically reboot. This option creates a kind of “fail-proof” mechanism. Ping watchdog is dedicated to continuous monitoring of the specific connection to the remote host using the ping tool. The ping tool works by sending ICMP echo request packets to the target host and listening for ICMP echo response replies. If the defined number of replies is not received, the tool reboots the radio. As shown in
The IP address to ping field specifies the IP address of the target to be monitored by the ping watchdog. The ping interval field specifies the time interval (in seconds) between the ICMP echo requests that are sent by the Ping watchdog. The default value is 300 seconds. The startup delay field specifies the initial time delay (in seconds) until the first ICMP echo requests are sent by the ping watchdog. The default value is 300 seconds. The startup delay value should be at least 60 seconds because the network interface and wireless connection initialization takes a considerable amount of time if the radio is rebooted. The failure count to reboot field specifies a number of ICMP echo response replies. If the specified number of ICMP echo response packets is not received continuously, the ping watchdog will reboot the radio. The default value is 3. The save support info option generates a support information file when enabled.
Simple Network Monitor Protocol (SNMP) is an application layer protocol that facilitates the exchange of management information between network devices. Network administrators use SNMP to monitor network-attached devices for issues that warrant attention. The radio includes an SNMP agent, which does the following: provide an interface for device monitoring using SNMP, communicate with SNMP management applications for network provisioning, allow network administrators to monitor network performance and troubleshoot network problems.
In some variations, as shown in
As shown in
A number of SSH server parameters can be set in display area 1708. The SSH server option enables SSH access to the radio. When SSH is enabled, the server port field specifies the TCP/IP port of the SSH server. When the password authentication option is enabled, the user needs to be authenticated using administrator credentials to gain SSH access to the radio; otherwise, an authorized key is required. A user can click edit in the authorized keys field to import a public key file for SSH access to the radio instead of using an admin password.
The Telnet server parameter can be set in display area 1710. When the Telnet server option is enabled, the system activates Telnet access to the radio, and the server port field specifies the TCP/IP port of the Telnet server.
Network Time Protocol (NTP) is a protocol for synchronizing the clocks of computer systems over packet-switched, variable-latency data networks. One can use it to set the system time on the radio. If the log option is enabled, then the system time is reported next to every log entry that registers a system event. The NTP client parameter can be set in display area 1712. When the NTP client option is enabled, the radio obtains the system time from a time server on the Internet. The NTP server field specifies the IP address or domain name of the NTP server.
Domain Name System (DNS) translates domain names to IP addresses; each DNS server on the Internet holds these mappings in its respective DNS database. Dynamic Domain Name System (DDNS) is a network service that notifies the DNS server in real time of any changes in the radio'"'"'s IP settings. Even if the radio'"'"'s IP address changes, one can still access the radio through its domain name. The dynamic DNS parameters can be set in display area 1714. When the dynamic DNS option is enabled, the radio allows communication with the DDNS server. To do so, the user needs to enter the host name of the DDNS server in the host name field, the user name of the DDNS account in the username field, and the password of the DDNS account in the password field. When the box next to the show option is checked, the password characters are shown.
The system log parameters can be set in display area 1716. Enabling the system log option enables the registration routine of system log (syslog) messages. By default it is disabled. When enabled, the remote log option enables the syslog remote sending function. As a result, system log messages are sent to a remote server, which is specified in the remote log IP address and remote log port fields. The remote log IP address field specifies the host IP address that receives the syslog messages. One should properly configure the remote host to receive syslog protocol messages. The remote log port field specifies the TCP/IP port that receives syslog messages. 514 is the default port for the commonly used system message logging utilities, as shown in
Every logged message contains at least a system time and host name. Usually a specific service name that generates the system event is also specified within the message. Messages from different services have different contexts and different levels of detail. Usually error, warning, or informational system service messages are reported; however, more detailed debug level messages can also be reported. The more detailed the system messages reported, the greater the volume of log messages generated.
The device discovery parameters can be set in display area 1718. More specifically, a user can enable the discovery option in order for the radio to be discovered by other devices through the discovery tool. A user can also enable the Cisco Discovery Protocol (CDP) option, so the radio can send out CDP packets to share its information.
The firmware maintenance is managed by the various fields in firmware update display area 1802. The firmware version field displays the current firmware version. The build number field displays the build number of the firmware version. The check for updates option is enabled by default to allow the firmware to automatically check for updates. To manually check for an update, the user can click the check now button. One can click the upload firmware button to update the radio with new firmware. The radio firmware update is compatible with all configuration settings. The system configuration is preserved while the radio is updated with a new firmware version. However, it is recommended that the user backs up the current system configuration before updating the firmware. Updating the firmware is a three-step procedure. First, click the choose file button to locate the new firmware file. In a subsequently appearing window (not shown in
Device display area 1804 displays the device name and the interface language. The device name (host name) is the system-wide device identifier. The SNMP agent reports it to authorized management stations. The device name will be used in popular router operating systems, registration screens, and discovery tools. The interface language field allows a user to select the language displayed in the web management interface. English is the default language.
Data settings display area 1806 displays time zone and startup date. The time zone field specifies the time zone in relation to Greenwich Mean Time (GMT). A user can enable the startup date option to change the radio'"'"'s startup date. The startup date field specifies the radio'"'"'s startup date. The user can click the calendar icon or manually enter the date in the following format: MM/DD/YYYY. For example, for Apr. 5, 2012, enter 04/05/2012 in the startup date field.
System accounts display area 1808 allows the user to change the administrator password to protect the device from unauthorized changes. It is recommended that the user changes the default administrator password when initially configuring the device. Note that the read-only account check box enables the read-only account, which can only view the main tab.
Miscellaneous display area 1810 includes a reset button option. Enabling the reset button allows the use of the radio'"'"'s physical reset button. To prevent an accidental reset to default settings, uncheck the box.
Location display area 1812 includes a latitude field and a longitude field. After the on-board GPS determines the location of the radio, its latitude and longitude are displayed in the respective fields. If the GPS does not have a fix on its location, then “searching for satellites” will be displayed.
Device maintenance display area 1814 enables management of the radio'"'"'s maintenance routines: reboot and support information reports. When the reboot button is clicked, the configuration interface initiates a full reboot cycle of the radio. Reboot is the same as the hardware reboot, which is similar to the power-off and power-on cycle. The system configuration stays the same after the reboot cycle completes. Any changes that have not been applied are lost. When the support info download button is clicked, the configuration interface generates a support information file that support engineers can use when providing customer support. This file only needs to be generated at the engineers'"'"' request.
Configuration management display area 1816 allows a user to manage the radio'"'"'s configuration routines and provides the option to reset the radio to factory default settings. The radio configuration is stored in a plain text file with a “.cfg” extension. A user can back up, restore, or update the system configuration file. More specifically, a user can back up the configuration file by clicking the download button to download the current system configuration file. To upload a configuration file, one can click the choose file button to locate the new configuration file. On a subsequently appearing screen (not shown in
Examples of System Specifications
The data structures and code described in this detailed description may be stored on a computer-readable storage medium, which may be any device or medium that can store code and/or data for use by a computer system. In some variations, the computer-readable storage medium includes, but is not limited to, volatile memory, non-volatile memory, magnetic and optical storage devices such as disk drives, magnetic tape, CDs (compact discs), DVDs (digital versatile discs or digital video discs), or other media capable of storing computer-readable media now known or later developed.
The methods and processes described in the detailed description section can be embodied as code and/or data, which can be stored in a computer-readable storage medium as described above. When a computer system reads and executes the code and/or data stored on the computer-readable storage medium, the computer system performs the methods and processes embodied as data structures and code and stored within the computer-readable storage medium.
Furthermore, methods and processes described herein can be included in hardware modules or apparatus. These modules or apparatus may include, but are not limited to, an application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) chip, a field-programmable gate array (FPGA), a dedicated or shared processor that executes a particular software module or a piece of code at a particular time, and/or other programmable-logic devices now known or later developed. When the hardware modules or apparatus are activated, they perform the methods and processes included within them.
The foregoing descriptions of various embodiments have been presented only for purposes of illustration and description. They are not intended to be exhaustive or to limit the present invention to the forms disclosed. Accordingly, many modifications and variations will be apparent to practitioners skilled in the art. Additionally, the above disclosure is not intended to limit the present invention.