Disease resistant plant methods and compositions
1. A method of obtaining a corn plant with enhanced anthracnose stalk rot resistance, said method comprising:
- a) obtaining a DNA sample from at least one corn plant or part thereof from a population of corn plants;
b) detecting in the DNA sample the presence of an anthracnose stalk rot resistance allele, wherein said allele is within 5 cM of a “
corresponding to position 151 of SEQ ID NO;
97, and wherein the “
at said position is associated with enhanced anthracnose stalk rot resistance;
c) selecting at least a first plant comprising said allele and enhanced anthracnose stalk rot resistance compared to a plant lacking said allele;
d) crossing the plant selected in step c) with a second corn plant, wherein said second corn plant lacks or is heterozygous for said anthracnose stalk rot resistance allele;
e) collecting seeds from the cross of step d); and
f) growing at least one progeny corn plant from the seeds of step e);
wherein said progeny corn plant comprises said allele and has enhanced anthracnose stalk rot resistance compared to a corn plant lacking said allele.
The present invention provides methods and compositions for producing elite lines of corn exhibiting anthracnose stalk rot (ASR) resistance. Also provided in the present invention are corn plants exhibiting ASR resistance resulting from such methods, and methods for breeding corn such that the ASR resistance traits may be transferred to a desired genetic background.
|Plants and seeds of corn variety CV391950|
Patent #US 7,718,859 B2
Current AssigneeMonsanto Technology LLC
Sponsoring EntityMonsanto Technology LLC
|Plants and seeds of corn variety I283669|
Patent #US 7,414,181 B1
Current AssigneeMonsanto Technology LLC
Sponsoring EntityMonsanto Technology LLC
|Plants and seeds of variety I294213|
Patent #US 7,166,779 B1
Current AssigneeMonsanto Technology LLC
Sponsoring EntityMonsanto Technology LLC
- 1. A method of obtaining a corn plant with enhanced anthracnose stalk rot resistance, said method comprising:
a) obtaining a DNA sample from at least one corn plant or part thereof from a population of corn plants; b) detecting in the DNA sample the presence of an anthracnose stalk rot resistance allele, wherein said allele is within 5 cM of a “
corresponding to position 151 of SEQ ID NO;
97, and wherein the “
at said position is associated with enhanced anthracnose stalk rot resistance;
c) selecting at least a first plant comprising said allele and enhanced anthracnose stalk rot resistance compared to a plant lacking said allele; d) crossing the plant selected in step c) with a second corn plant, wherein said second corn plant lacks or is heterozygous for said anthracnose stalk rot resistance allele; e) collecting seeds from the cross of step d); and f) growing at least one progeny corn plant from the seeds of step e);
wherein said progeny corn plant comprises said allele and has enhanced anthracnose stalk rot resistance compared to a corn plant lacking said allele.
- View Dependent Claims (2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7)
This application is a divisional of U.S. application Ser. No. 14/801,618, filed Jul. 16, 2015, which claims the benefit of U.S. Provisional Application No. 62/027,153, filed Jul. 21, 2014, and U.S. Provisional Application No. 62/101,292, filed Jan. 8, 2015 each of which is herein incorporated by reference in their entireties.
The present invention relates to the field of agricultural biotechnology. More specifically, the invention relates to methods for producing corn plants with resistance to fungi.
A sequence listing contained in the file named “MONS358US_ST25.txt” which is 40 bytes (measured in MS-Windows®) and created on Jul. 16, 2015, and comprises 106 nucleotide sequences, is filed electronically herewith and incorporated by reference in its entirety.
Advances in molecular genetics have made it possible to select plants based on genetic markers linked to traits of interest, a process called marker-assisted selection (MAS). While breeding efforts to date have provided a number of useful corn lines and varieties with beneficial traits, there remains a need in the art for selection of varieties with further improved traits and methods for their production. In many cases, such efforts have been hampered by difficulties in identifying and using alleles conferring beneficial traits. These efforts can be confounded by the lack of definitive phenotypic assays, and other issues such as epistasis and polygenic or quantitative inheritance. In the absence of molecular tools such as MAS, it may not be practical to attempt to produce certain new genotypes of crop plants due to such challenges.
In one aspect, the present invention provides a method for obtaining a corn plant with enhanced anthracnose stalk rot resistance comprising: a) providing a population of corn plants; b) detecting in said plants an anthracnose stalk rot resistance allele at a polymorphic locus in a chromosomal segment flanked by loci IDP7601 and gpm426b on chromosome 6; c) selecting from said population at least a first plant comprising said allele and enhanced anthracnose stalk rot resistance compared to a plant lacking said allele. In some embodiments, said segment is flanked by marker loci umc2006 and chs562. In other embodiments, said segment is flanked by marker loci umc2006 and SEQ ID NO: 8. In further embodiments, said segment is flanked by marker loci SEQ ID NO: 52 and SEQ ID NO: 8. In yet further embodiments, said segment is flanked by marker loci SEQ ID NO: 4 and SEQ ID NO: 2. In other embodiments, said segment is flanked by marker loci SEQ ID NO: 96 and SEQ ID NO: 106. In some embodiments, said polymorphic locus is selected from the group consisting of: IDP7601, IDP62, 111, IDP8090, umc2006, IDP8231, umc248b, SEQ ID NO: 10, pco136292, SEQ ID NO: 3, IDP6025, IDP6010, SEQ ID NO: 1, SEQ ID NO: 7, agrr118a, umc180(pep), SEQ ID NO: 51, gpm74, TIDP3136, AY107053, SEQ ID NO: 4, SEQ ID NO: 52, IDP1699, pdi7, gpm869, SEQ ID NO: 81, ufg11, SEQ ID NO: 82, umc1250, SEQ ID NO: 53, TIDP3356, SEQ ID NO: 83, SEQ ID NO: 96, csu382a(cld), IDP2409, SEQ ID NO: 97, SEQ ID NO: 98, SEQ ID NO: 99, SEQ ID NO: 100, SEQ ID NO: 101, SEQ ID NO: 102, SEQ ID NO: 103, SEQ ID NO: 104, SEQ ID NO: 105, SEQ ID NO: 106, PCO146525, SEQ ID NO: 8, csu225, bnl3.03, AI665560, SEQ ID NO: 54, pzb00414, umc2141, SEQ ID NO: 55, SEQ ID NO: 2, AY110435, elfa5, SEQ ID NO: 5, umc1379, bn115.37a, SEQ ID NO: 56, pza02478, IDP3886, cl39957_1, mmc0241, dup400(pac), jpsb107b, chs562, gpm709b, SEQ ID NO: 6, umc2321, bnlg1702, SEQ ID NO: 9, csu158b(eno), and gpm426b. In further embodiments, the invention provides a corn plant produced by the methods provided herein, or a plant part or seed of said corn plant.
In another aspect, the present invention provides a method of producing a corn plant with enhanced anthracnose stalk rot resistance comprising: a) introgressing into a corn plant a genomic segment comprising an anthracnose stalk rot resistance allele; and b) selecting a plant based on the presence of said allele in at least one polymorphic locus selected from the group consisting of: IDP7601, IDP62, 111, IDP8090, umc2006, IDP8231, umc248b, SEQ ID NO: 10, pco136292, SEQ ID NO: 3, IDP6025, IDP6010, SEQ ID NO: 1, SEQ ID NO: 7, agrr118a, umc180(pep), SEQ ID NO: 51, gpm74, TIDP3136, AY107053, SEQ ID NO: 4, SEQ ID NO: 52, IDP1699, pdi7, gpm869, SEQ ID NO: 81, ufg11, SEQ ID NO: 82, umc1250, SEQ ID NO: 53, TIDP3356, SEQ ID NO: 83, SEQ ID NO: 96, csu382a(cld), IDP2409, SEQ ID NO: 97, SEQ ID NO: 98, SEQ ID NO: 99, SEQ ID NO: 100, SEQ ID NO: 101, SEQ ID NO: 102, SEQ ID NO: 103, SEQ ID NO: 104, SEQ ID NO: 105, SEQ ID NO: 106, PCO146525, SEQ ID NO: 8, csu225, bnl3.03, AI665560, SEQ ID NO: 54, pzb00414, umc2141, SEQ ID NO: 55, SEQ ID NO: 2, AY110435, elfa5, SEQ ID NO: 5, umc1379, bn115.37a, SEQ ID NO: 56, pza02478, IDP3886, cl39957_1, mmc0241, dup400(pac), jpsb107b, chs562, gpm709b, SEQ ID NO: 6, umc2321, bnlg1702, SEQ ID NO: 9, csu158b(eno), and gpm426b; wherein said allele confers enhanced resistance to anthracnose stalk rot compared to a plant lacking said allele. In further embodiments, the method further comprises: c) crossing said corn plant with itself or a second plant to produce one or more progeny plants; and d) selecting a progeny plant comprising said allele. In some embodiments, step (d) of selecting comprises marker-assisted selection. In other embodiments, the progeny plant is an F2-F6 progeny plant. In further embodiments, producing the progeny plant comprises backcrossing. In yet further embodiments, backcrossing comprises from 2-7 generations of backcrosses. In certain embodiments, backcrossing comprises marker-assisted selection in at least two generations. In further embodiments, the invention provides a corn plant produced by the methods provided herein, or a plant part or seed of said corn plant.
In yet another aspect, the invention provides a method of producing a corn plant with enhanced anthracnose stalk rot resistance comprising: a) crossing a first corn plant comprising an anthracnose stalk rot resistance allele with a second corn plant of a different genotype to produce one or more progeny plants; and b) selecting a progeny plant based on the presence of said allele in at least one polymorphic locus selected from the group consisting of: IDP7601, IDP62, 111, IDP8090, umc2006, IDP8231, umc248b, SEQ ID NO: 10, pco136292, SEQ ID NO: 3, IDP6025, IDP6010, SEQ ID NO: 1, SEQ ID NO: 7, agrr118a, umc180(pep), SEQ ID NO: 51, gpm74, TIDP3136, AY107053, SEQ ID NO: 4, SEQ ID NO: 52, IDP1699, pdi7, gpm869, SEQ ID NO: 81, ufg11, SEQ ID NO: 82, umc1250, SEQ ID NO: 53, TIDP3356, SEQ ID NO: 83, SEQ ID NO: 96, csu382a(cld), IDP2409, SEQ ID NO: 97, SEQ ID NO: 98, SEQ ID NO: 99, SEQ ID NO: 100, SEQ ID NO: 101, SEQ ID NO: 102, SEQ ID NO: 103, SEQ ID NO: 104, SEQ ID NO: 105, SEQ ID NO: 106, PCO146525, SEQ ID NO: 8, csu225, bnl3.03, AI665560, SEQ ID NO: 54, pzb00414, umc2141, SEQ ID NO: 55, SEQ ID NO: 2, AY110435, elfa5, SEQ ID NO: 5, umc1379, bn115.37a, SEQ ID NO: 56, pza02478, IDP3886, cl39957_1, mmc0241, dup400(pac), jpsb107b, chs562, gpm709b, SEQ ID NO: 6, umc2321, bnlg1702, SEQ ID NO: 9, csu158b(eno), and gpm426b; wherein said allele confers enhanced resistance to anthracnose stalk rot compared to a plant lacking said allele. In some embodiments, step (b) of selecting comprises marker-assisted selection. In other embodiments, the progeny plant is an F2-F6 progeny plant. In further embodiments, producing the progeny plant comprises backcrossing. In yet further embodiments, backcrossing comprises from 2-7 generations of backcrosses. In some embodiments, backcrossing comprises marker-assisted selection in at least two generations. In other embodiments, the first corn plant is an inbred or a hybrid. In further embodiments, the second corn plant is an agronomically elite corn plant. In yet further embodiments, the agronomically elite corn plant is an inbred or a hybrid. In further embodiments, the invention provides a corn plant produced by the methods provided herein, or a plant part or seed of said corn plant.
In some aspects, corn plants or methods disclosed herein are used in combination with one or more pesticides including, but not limited to, herbicides, fungicides, insecticides, microbiocides, nematicides, insect repellents, bactericides, and other substances used to control pests. In other aspects, the corn plants or methods disclosed herein are used in combination with one or more triazoles, strobilurins, acylamino acids, pyrimidines, pyridines, aryl phenyl ketones, amides, benzanilides, imidazoles, dinitrophenols, morpholines, phenylsulfamides and organophosphorus cpds, derivatives thereof and combinations thereof which may be applied as seed, foliar, drench or drip treatments.
Similar experiments were also conducted on BC1F2 kernels derived from CV295879/CV391950. Bulk “f”, “g”, “i”, “j”, “p” and “o” displayed significantly reduced ASR severity (highlighted by black box, p-value<=0.05) compared with the bulk “b”. Among these resistant bulks, the same common SNP (SEQ ID NO: 53, highlighted by black oval) was identified as the peak marker.
Anthracnose stalk rot (ASR) is caused by the fungal pathogen Colletotrichum graminicola, and results in severe yield loss in crop plants. Efforts to identify or produce plant lines resistant to ASR have been hindered by a limited understanding of the genetic loci controlling ASR resistance and a lack of available markers for detecting and tracking ASR resistance in plants. Yield loss due to ASR therefore remains a significant problem.
The present invention identifies previously-unknown genetic loci which confer ASR resistance and provides novel molecular markers linked to ASR resistance in plants. The invention further provides methods for introgression of genetic loci conferring ASR resistance into plant varieties previously lacking such loci, thereby providing plants with a new or improved disease resistance. The genetic loci, markers, and methods provided by the invention therefore represent a significant advance in the art, enabling production of new varieties exhibiting ASR resistance.
In some embodiments, the invention therefore provides quantitative trait loci (QTL) that demonstrate significant co-segregation with ASR resistance. The QTL of the invention can be tracked during plant breeding or introgressed into a desired genetic background in order to provide novel plants exhibiting ASR resistance and one or more other beneficial traits. In particular embodiments, the invention identifies for the first time a QTL on chromosome 6 of the corn genome, designated ASR-6.01, which is associated with ASR resistance.
In other embodiments, the invention provides molecular markers linked to the QTL of the invention and methods of using the markers for detection of and selection for ASR resistance. Embodiments of the invention therefore include specific markers, chromosome intervals comprising the markers, and methods of detecting markers genetically linked to ASR-6.01 to identify disease resistant plant lines. For example, the invention provides a chromosome interval associated with ASR resistance which is flanked by the markers IDP7601 and gpm426b, and which comprises markers having SEQ ID NOs: 1-10, 51-56, 81-83, and 96-106, or any of the markers listed in Table 17, and any other markers genetically linked thereto. Also provided herein are markers that are useful for detecting the presence or absence of disease resistance alleles within the QTL of the invention that can be used in marker assisted selection (MAS) breeding programs to produce plants with improved resistance to ASR infection.
The invention further provides methods of using the markers identified herein to introgress loci associated with ASR resistance into plants. Thus, one skilled in the art can use the invention to create novel maize plants with ASR resistance by crossing a donor line comprising a QTL associated with ASR resistance into any desired recipient line, with or without MAS. Resulting progeny can be selected to be genetically similar to the recipient line except for the ASR resistance QTL.
Quantitative Trait Loci
The term “chromosome interval” designates a contiguous linear span of genomic DNA that resides on a single chromosome. A chromosome interval may comprise a QTL linked with a genetic trait and the QTL may comprise a single gene or multiple genes associated with the genetic trait. The boundaries of a chromosome interval comprising a QTL are drawn such that a marker that lies within the chromosome interval can be used as a marker for the genetic trait, as well as markers genetically linked thereto. Each interval comprising a QTL comprises at least one gene conferring a given trait, however knowledge of how many genes are in a particular interval is not necessary to make or practice the invention, as such an interval will segregate at meiosis as a linkage block. In accordance with the invention, a chromosomal interval comprising a QTL may therefore be readily introgressed and tracked in a given genetic background using the methods and compositions provided herein.
Identification of chromosomal intervals and QTL is therefore beneficial for detecting and tracking a genetic trait, such as ASR resistance, in plant populations. In some embodiments, this is accomplished by identification of markers linked to a particular QTL. The principles of QTL analysis and statistical methods for calculating linkage between markers and useful QTL include penalized regression analysis, ridge regression, single point marker analysis, complex pedigree analysis, Bayesian MCMC, identity-by-descent analysis, interval mapping, composite interval mapping (CIM), and Haseman-Elston regression. QTL analyses may be performed with the help of a computer and specialized software available from a variety of public and commercial sources known to those of skill in the art.
In some embodiments, the invention provides a chromosomal interval comprising a QTL associated with ASR resistance. The invention provides multiple markers associated with ASR resistance, for example the markers having the sequence of SEQ ID NOs: 1-10, 51-56, 81-83, or 96-106. The invention therefore provides a plant comprising a nucleic acid molecule selected from the group consisting of SEQ ID NOs: 1-10, 51-56, 81-83, 96-106, fragments thereof, or complements thereof. The present invention further provides a plant comprising alleles of the chromosome interval linked to ASR resistance or fragments and complements thereof as well as any plant comprising any combination of one or more disease resistance loci selected from the group consisting of SEQ ID NOs: 1-10, 51-56, 81-83 and 96-106. Plants provided by the invention may be homozygous or heterozygous for such alleles.
In one embodiment, the chromosome interval associated with ASR resistance contains SEQ ID NOs: 1-10, 51-56, 81-83 or 96-106, and is flanked by the markers IDP7601 and gpm426b. This chromosome interval encompasses markers that co-segregate with ASR resistance in the populations studied at a p-value≤0.05. An example of a subinterval associated with ASR resistance includes the interval flanked by umc2006 and chs562, which define a chromosome interval encompassing markers that co-segregate with ASR resistance in populations studied at a p-level≤0.05. An example of a subinterval associated with ASR resistance includes the interval flanked by SEQ ID NO: 52 and SEQ ID NO: 8, which define a chromosome interval encompassing markers that co-segregate with ASR resistance in populations studied at a p-level≤0.05. A further example of a subinterval associated with ASR resistance includes the interval flanked by SEQ ID NO: 53 and SEQ ID NO: 8, that define a chromosome interval encompassing markers that co-segregate with ASR resistance in the populations studied at a p-level≤0.05. Another example of a subinterval associated with ASR resistance includes the interval flanked by SEQ ID NO: 96 and SEQ ID NO: 106, that define a chromosome interval encompassing markers that co-segregate with ASR resistance in the populations studied at a p-level≤0.001.
Thus, one skilled in the art can use the invention to create novel maize plants with ASR resistance by associating disease resistance phenotypes with genotypes at previously unknown disease resistance loci in the maize genome. Disclosed herein are chromosome intervals that comprise alleles responsible for phenotypic differences between ASR resistant and ASR susceptible corn lines. The chromosome intervals of the invention are characterized in specific embodiments by genomic regions including and flanked by the markers IDP7601 and gpm426b, which comprise markers within or closely linked to (within 20 cM of) ASR-6.01. The invention also comprises other intervals whose borders fall between, and including, those of IDP7601 and gpm426b, or any interval closely linked to those intervals.
Examples of markers useful for this purpose comprise the SNP markers listed in Table 16, or any marker linked thereto, including a marker that maps within or is genetically linked to the chromosome intervals described herein, including the termini of the intervals. Such markers can be assayed simultaneously or sequentially in a single sample or population of samples.
Accordingly, the compositions and methods of the present invention can be utilized to guide MAS or breeding maize varieties with a desired complement (set) of allelic forms of chromosome intervals associated with superior agronomic performance (resistance, along with any other available markers for yield, disease resistance, etc.). Any of the disclosed marker alleles can be introduced into a corn line via introgression, by traditional breeding (or introduced via transformation, or both) to yield a corn plant with superior agronomic performance. The number of alleles associated with resistance that can be introduced or be present in a corn plant of the present invention ranges from 1 to the number of alleles disclosed herein, each integer of which is incorporated herein as if explicitly recited.
MAS using additional markers flanking either side of the DNA locus provide further efficiency because an unlikely double recombination event would be needed to simultaneously break linkage between the locus and both markers. Moreover, using markers tightly flanking a locus, one skilled in the art of MAS can reduce linkage drag by more accurately selecting individuals that have less of the potentially deleterious donor parent DNA. Any marker linked to or among the chromosome intervals described herein can thus find use within the scope of this invention.
Similarly, by identifying plants lacking a desired marker locus, susceptible or less resistant plants can be identified, and eliminated from subsequent crosses. Similarly, these marker loci can be introgressed into any desired genomic background, germplasm, plant, line, variety, etc., as part of an overall MAS breeding program designed to enhance disease resistance. The invention also provides chromosome QTL intervals that find use in MAS to select plants that demonstrate disease resistance or improved tolerance. The QTL intervals can also be used to counter-select plants that are susceptible or have reduced resistance to disease.
The present invention also extends to a method of making a progeny corn plant and the resulting progeny corn plants. The method comprises, in an embodiment, crossing a first parent corn plant with a second corn plant and growing the female corn plant parent under plant growth conditions to yield corn plant progeny. Methods of crossing and growing corn plants are well within the ability of those of ordinary skill in the art. Such corn plant progeny can be assayed for alleles associated with ASR resistance as disclosed herein and, thereby, the desired progeny selected. Such progeny plants or seed thereof can be sold commercially for corn production, used for food, processed to obtain a desired constituent of the corn, or further utilized in subsequent rounds of breeding. At least one of the first or second corn plants is a corn plant of the present invention in that it comprises at least one of the allelic forms of the markers of the present invention, such that the progeny are capable of inheriting the allele.
Often, a method of the present invention may be applied to at least one related corn plant such as from progenitor or descendant line in the subject corn plants'"'"' pedigree such that inheritance of the desired resistance allele can be traced. The number of generations separating the corn plants being subjected to the methods of the present invention may be, in specific embodiments, from 1 to 20, commonly 1 to 5, and including 1, 2, or 3 generations of separation, and often a direct descendant or parent of the corn plant will be subject to the method (i.e., one generation of separation).
Thus, the invention permits one skilled in the art to detect the presence or absence of disease resistance genotypes in the genomes of corn plants as part of a MAS program. In one embodiment, a breeder ascertains the genotype at one or more markers for a disease resistant parent, which contains a disease resistance allele, and the genotype at one or more markers for a susceptible parent, which lacks the resistance allele. For example, the markers of the present invention can be used in MAS in crosses involving elite x exotic corn lines by subjecting the segregating progeny to MAS to maintain disease resistance alleles, or alleles associated with yield under disease conditions. A breeder can then reliably track the inheritance of the resistance alleles through subsequent populations derived from crosses between the two parents by genotyping offspring with the markers used on the parents and comparing the genotypes at those markers with those of the parents. Depending on how tightly linked the marker alleles are with the trait, progeny that share genotypes with the disease resistant parent can be reliably predicted to express the resistant phenotype and progeny that share genotypes with the disease susceptible parent can be reliably predicted to express the susceptible phenotype. Thus, the laborious, inefficient, and potentially inaccurate process of manually phenotyping the progeny for disease resistance is avoided.
By providing the positions in the maize genome of the intervals and the disease resistance associated markers within, this invention also allows one skilled in the art to identify and use other markers within the intervals disclosed herein or linked to the chromosome intervals disclosed herein. Having identified such regions, these markers can be readily identified from public linkage maps.
Closely linked markers flanking the locus of interest that have alleles in linkage disequilibrium with a resistance allele at that locus may be effectively used to select for progeny plants with enhanced resistance to disease conditions. Thus, the markers described herein, such as those listed in Table 16, as well as other markers genetically linked to the same chromosome interval, may be used to select for maize plants with enhanced resistance to ASR. Often, a set of these markers will be used, (e.g., 2 or more, 3 or more, 4 or more, 5 or more) in the flanking regions of the gene. Optionally, as described above, a marker flanking on either side or within the actual gene and/or locus may also be used. The parents and their progeny may be screened for these sets of markers, and the markers that are polymorphic between the two parents used for selection. In an introgression program, this allows for selection of the gene or locus genotype at the more proximal polymorphic markers and selection for the recurrent parent genotype at the more distal polymorphic markers.
The choice of markers actually used to practice the invention is not limited and can be any marker that is genetically linked to the intervals described herein, which includes markers mapping within the intervals. One example includes any marker selected from SEQ ID NOs: 1-10, 51-56, 81-83, 96-106, or the markers listed in Table 17. Furthermore, since there are many different types of marker detection assays known in the art, it is not intended that the type of marker detection assay used to practice this invention be limited in any way.
“Marker,” “genetic marker,” “molecular marker,” “marker nucleic acid,” and “marker locus” refer to a nucleotide sequence or encoded product thereof (e.g., a protein) used as a point of reference when identifying a linked locus. A marker can be derived from genomic nucleotide sequence or from expressed nucleotide sequences (e.g., from a spliced RNA, a cDNA, etc.), or from an encoded polypeptide, and can be represented by one or more particular variant sequences, or by a consensus sequence. In another sense, a marker is an isolated variant or consensus of such a sequence. The term also refers to nucleic acid sequences complementary to or flanking the marker sequences, such as nucleic acids used as probes or primer pairs capable of amplifying the marker sequence. A “marker probe” is a nucleic acid sequence or molecule that can be used to identify the presence of a marker locus, e.g., a nucleic acid probe that is complementary to a marker locus sequence. Alternatively, in some aspects, a marker probe refers to a probe of any type that is able to distinguish (i.e., genotype) the particular allele that is present at a marker locus. A “marker locus” is a locus that can be used to track the presence of a second linked locus, e.g., a linked locus that encodes or contributes to expression of a phenotypic trait. For example, a marker locus can be used to monitor segregation of alleles at a locus, such as a QTL, that are genetically or physically linked to the marker locus. Thus, a “marker allele,” alternatively an “allele of a marker locus” is one of a plurality of polymorphic nucleotide sequences found at a marker locus in a population that is polymorphic for the marker locus.
“Marker” also refers to nucleic acid sequences complementary to the genomic sequences, such as nucleic acids used as probes. Markers corresponding to genetic polymorphisms between members of a population can be detected by methods well-established in the art. These include, e.g., PCR-based sequence specific amplification methods, detection of restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLP), detection of isozyme markers, detection of polynucleotide polymorphisms by allele specific hybridization (ASH), detection of amplified variable sequences of the plant genome, detection of self-sustained sequence replication, detection of simple sequence repeats (SSRs), detection of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), or detection of amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs). Well established methods are also know for the detection of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) and SSR markers derived from EST sequences and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD).
A favorable allele of a marker is the allele of the marker that co-segregates with a desired phenotype (e.g., disease resistance). As used herein, a QTL marker has a minimum of one favorable allele, although it is possible that the marker might have two or more favorable alleles found in the population. Any favorable allele of that marker can be used advantageously for the identification and construction of disease resistant plant lines. Optionally, one, two, three or more favorable allele(s) of different markers are identified in, or introgressed into a plant, and can be selected for or against during MAS. Desirably, plants or germplasm are identified that have at least one such favorable allele that positively correlates with disease resistance or improved disease resistance. Alternatively, a marker allele that co-segregates with disease susceptibility also finds use with the invention, since that allele can be used to identify and counter select disease susceptible plants. Such an allele can be used for exclusionary purposes during breeding to identify alleles that negatively correlate with resistance, to eliminate susceptible plants or germplasm from subsequent rounds of breeding.
The more tightly linked a marker is with a DNA locus influencing a phenotype, the more reliable the marker is in MAS, as the likelihood of a recombination event unlinking the marker and the locus decreases. Markers containing the causal mutation for a trait, or that are within the coding sequence of a causative gene, are ideal as no recombination is expected between them and the sequence of DNA responsible for the phenotype.
Genetic markers are distinguishable from each other (as well as from the plurality of alleles of any one particular marker) on the basis of polynucleotide length and/or sequence. A large number of corn molecular markers are known in the art, and are published or available from various sources, such as the MaizeGDB internet resource. In general, any differentially inherited polymorphic trait (including a nucleic acid polymorphism) that segregates among progeny is a potential genetic marker.
In some embodiments of the invention, one or more marker alleles are selected for in a single plant or a population of plants. In these methods, plants are selected that contain favorable alleles from more than one resistance marker, or alternatively, favorable alleles from more than one resistance marker are introgressed into a desired germplasm. One of skill recognizes that the identification of favorable marker alleles is germplasm-specific. The determination of which marker alleles correlate with resistance (or susceptibility) is determined for the particular germplasm under study. One of skill recognizes that methods for identifying the favorable alleles are routine and well known in the art, and furthermore, that the identification and use of such favorable alleles is well within the scope of this invention. Furthermore still, identification of favorable marker alleles in plant populations other than the populations used or described herein is well within the scope of this invention.
In some aspects, methods of the invention utilize an amplification step to detect/genotype a marker locus, but amplification is not always a requirement for marker detection (e.g. Southern blotting and RFLP detection). Separate detection probes can also be omitted in amplification/detection methods, e.g., by performing a real time amplification reaction that detects product formation by modification of the relevant amplification primer upon incorporation into a product, incorporation of labeled nucleotides into an amplicon, or by monitoring changes in molecular rotation properties of amplicons as compared to unamplified precursors (e.g., by fluorescence polarization).
“Amplifying,” in the context of nucleic acid amplification, is any process whereby additional copies of a selected nucleic acid (or a transcribed form thereof) are produced. In some embodiments, an amplification-based marker technology is used wherein a primer or amplification primer pair is admixed with genomic nucleic acid isolated from the first plant or germplasm, and wherein the primer or primer pair is complementary or partially complementary to at least a portion of the marker locus, and is capable of initiating DNA polymerization by a DNA polymerase using the plant genomic nucleic acid as a template. The primer or primer pair is extended in a DNA polymerization reaction having a DNA polymerase and a template genomic nucleic acid to generate at least one amplicon. In other embodiments, plant RNA is the template for the amplification reaction. In some embodiments, the QTL marker is a SNP type marker, and the detected allele is a SNP allele, and the method of detection is allele specific hybridization (ASH).
In general, the majority of genetic markers rely on one or more properties of nucleic acids for their detection. Typical amplification methods include various polymerase based replication methods, including the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), ligase mediated methods such as the ligase chain reaction (LCR) and RNA polymerase based amplification (e.g., by transcription) methods. An “amplicon” is an amplified nucleic acid, e.g., a nucleic acid that is produced by amplifying a template nucleic acid by any available amplification method (e.g., PCR, LCR, transcription, or the like). A “genomic nucleic acid” is a nucleic acid that corresponds in sequence to a heritable nucleic acid in a cell. Common examples include nuclear genomic DNA and amplicons thereof. A genomic nucleic acid is, in some cases, different from a spliced RNA, or a corresponding cDNA, in that the spliced RNA or cDNA is processed, e.g., by the splicing machinery, to remove introns. Genomic nucleic acids optionally comprise non-transcribed (e.g., chromosome structural sequences, promoter regions, enhancer regions, etc.) and/or non-translated sequences (e.g., introns), whereas spliced RNA/cDNA typically do not have non-transcribed sequences or introns. A “template nucleic acid” is a nucleic acid that serves as a template in an amplification reaction (e.g., a polymerase based amplification reaction such as PCR, a ligase mediated amplification reaction such as LCR, a transcription reaction, or the like). A template nucleic acid can be genomic in origin, or alternatively, can be derived from expressed sequences, e.g., a cDNA or an EST. Details regarding the use of these and other amplification methods can be found in any of a variety of standard texts. Many available biology texts also have extended discussions regarding PCR and related amplification methods and one of skill will appreciate that essentially any RNA can be converted into a double stranded DNA suitable for restriction digestion, PCR expansion and sequencing using reverse transcriptase and a polymerase.
PCR detection and quantification using dual-labeled fluorogenic oligonucleotide probes, commonly referred to as “TaqMan™” probes, can also be performed according to the present invention. These probes are composed of short (e.g., 20-25 base) oligodeoxynucleotides that are labeled with two different fluorescent dyes. On the 5′ terminus of each probe is a reporter dye, and on the 3′ terminus of each probe a quenching dye is found. The oligonucleotide probe sequence is complementary to an internal target sequence present in a PCR amplicon. When the probe is intact, energy transfer occurs between the two fluorophores and emission from the reporter is quenched by the quencher by FRET. During the extension phase of PCR, the probe is cleaved by 5′ nuclease activity of the polymerase used in the reaction, thereby releasing the reporter from the oligonucleotide-quencher and producing an increase in reporter emission intensity. TaqMan™ probes are oligonucleotides that have a label and a quencher, where the label is released during amplification by the exonuclease action of the polymerase used in amplification, providing a real time measure of amplification during synthesis. A variety of TaqMan™ reagents are commercially available, e.g., from Applied Biosystems as well as from a variety of specialty vendors such as Biosearch Technologies.
In one embodiment, the presence or absence of a molecular marker is determined simply through nucleotide sequencing of the polymorphic marker region. This method is readily adapted to high throughput analysis as are the other methods noted above, e.g., using available high throughput sequencing methods such as sequencing by hybridization.
In alternative embodiments, in silico methods can be used to detect the marker loci of interest. For example, the sequence of a nucleic acid comprising the marker locus of interest can be stored in a computer. The desired marker locus sequence or its homolog can be identified using an appropriate nucleic acid search algorithm as provided by, for example, in such readily available programs as BLAST, or even simple word processors.
While the exemplary markers provided in the figures and tables herein are either SNP markers, any of the aforementioned marker types can be employed in the context of the invention to identify chromosome intervals encompassing genetic element that contribute to superior agronomic performance (e.g., disease resistance or improved disease tolerance).
Probes and Primers
In general, synthetic methods for making oligonucleotides, including probes, primers, molecular beacons, PNAs, LNAs (locked nucleic acids), etc., are well known. For example, oligonucleotides can be synthesized chemically according to the solid phase phosphoramidite triester method described. Oligonucleotides, including modified oligonucleotides, can also be ordered from a variety of commercial sources.
Nucleic acid probes to the marker loci can be cloned and/or synthesized. Any suitable label can be used with a probe of the invention. Detectable labels suitable for use with nucleic acid probes include, for example, any composition detectable by spectroscopic, radioisotopic, photochemical, biochemical, immunochemical, electrical, optical or chemical means. Useful labels include biotin for staining with labeled streptavidin conjugate, magnetic beads, fluorescent dyes, radio labels, enzymes, and colorimetric labels. Other labels include ligands which bind to antibodies labeled with fluorophores, chemiluminescent agents, and enzymes. A probe can also constitute radio labeled PCR primers that are used to generate a radio labeled amplicon. It is not intended that the nucleic acid probes of the invention be limited to any particular size.
In some embodiments, the molecular markers of the invention are detected using a suitable PCR-based detection method, where the size or sequence of the PCR amplicon is indicative of the absence or presence of the marker (e.g., a particular marker allele). In these types of methods, PCR primers are hybridized to the conserved regions flanking the polymorphic marker region. As used in the art, PCR primers used to amplify a molecular marker are sometimes termed “PCR markers” or simply “markers.” It will be appreciated that, although many specific examples of primers are provided herein, suitable primers to be used with the invention can be designed using any suitable method. It is not intended that the invention be limited to any particular primer or primer pair. In some embodiments, the primers of the invention are radiolabelled, or labeled by any suitable means (e.g., using a non-radioactive fluorescent tag), to allow for rapid visualization of the different size amplicons following an amplification reaction without any additional labeling step or visualization step. In some embodiments, the primers are not labeled, and the amplicons are visualized following their size resolution, e.g., following agarose gel electrophoresis. In some embodiments, ethidium bromide staining of the PCR amplicons following size resolution allows visualization of the different size amplicons. It is not intended that the primers of the invention be limited to generating an amplicon of any particular size. For example, the primers used to amplify the marker loci and alleles herein are not limited to amplifying the entire region of the relevant locus. The primers can generate an amplicon of any suitable length that is longer or shorter than those disclosed herein. In some embodiments, marker amplification produces an amplicon at least 20 nucleotides in length, or alternatively, at least 50 nucleotides in length, or alternatively, at least 100 nucleotides in length, or alternatively, at least 200 nucleotides in length. Marker alleles in addition to those recited herein also find use with the present invention.
“Linkage”, or “genetic linkage,” is used to describe the degree with which one marker locus is associated with another marker locus or some other locus (for example, a resistance locus). A marker locus may be located within a locus to which it is genetically linked. For example, if locus A has genes “A” or “a” and locus B has genes “B” or “b” and a cross between parent 1 with AABB and parent 2 with aabb will produce four possible gametes where the genes are segregated into AB, Ab, aB and ab. The null expectation is that there will be independent equal segregation into each of the four possible genotypes, i.e. with no linkage ¼ of the gametes will of each genotype. Segregation of gametes into a genotypes differing from ¼ is attributed to linkage. As used herein, linkage can be between two markers, or alternatively between a marker and a phenotype. A marker locus may be genetically linked to a trait, and in some cases a marker locus genetically linked to a trait is located within the allele conferring the trait. A marker may also be causative for a trait or phenotype, for example a causative polymorphism. In a further example, a marker locus can be associated with resistance or improved tolerance to a plant pathogen when the marker locus is in linkage disequilibrium with the resistance trait. The degree of linkage of a molecular marker to a phenotypic trait (e.g., a QTL) is measured, e.g., as a statistical probability of co-segregation of that molecular marker with the phenotype.
As used herein, “closely linked” means that the marker or locus is within about 20 cM, for instance within about 10 cM, about 5 cM, about 1 cM, about 0.5 cM, or less than 0.5 cM of the identified locus associated with ASR resistance.
As used herein, the linkage relationship between a molecular marker and a phenotype is given is the statistical likelihood that the particular combination of a phenotype and the presence or absence of a particular marker allele is random. Thus, the lower the probability score, the greater the likelihood that a phenotype and a particular marker will cosegregate. In some embodiments, a probability score of 0.05 (p=0.05, or a 5% probability) of random assortment is considered a significant indication of co-segregation. However, the present invention is not limited to this particular standard, and an acceptable probability can be any probability of less than 50% (p<0.5). For example, a significant probability can be less than 0.25, less than 0.20, less than 0.15, or less than 0.1. The phrase “closely linked,” in the present application, means that recombination between two linked loci occurs with a frequency of equal to or less than about 10% (i.e., are separated on a genetic map by not more than 10 cM). In one aspect, any marker of the invention is linked (genetically and physically) to any other marker that is at or less than 50 cM distant. In another aspect, any marker of the invention is closely linked (genetically and physically) to any other marker that is in close proximity, e.g., at or less than 10 cM distant. Two closely linked markers on the same chromosome can be positioned 9, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, 1, 0.75, 0.5 or 0.25 cM or less from each other.
Classical linkage analysis can be thought of as a statistical description of the relative frequencies of cosegregation of different traits. Linkage analysis is the well characterized descriptive framework of how traits are grouped together based upon the frequency with which they segregate together. That is, if two non-allelic traits are inherited together with a greater than random frequency, they are said to be “linked.” The frequency with which the traits are inherited together is the primary measure of how tightly the traits are linked, i.e., traits which are inherited together with a higher frequency are more closely linked than traits which are inherited together with lower (but still above random) frequency. The further apart on a chromosome the genes reside, the less likely they are to segregate together, because homologous chromosomes recombine during meiosis. Thus, the further apart on a chromosome the genes reside, the more likely it is that there will be a crossing over event during meiosis that will result in the marker and the DNA sequence responsible for the trait the marker is designed to track segregating separately into progeny. A common measure of linkage is the frequency with which traits co segregate.
Linkage analysis is used to determine which polymorphic marker allele demonstrates a statistical likelihood of co-segregation with the resistance phenotype (thus, a “resistance marker allele”). Following identification of a marker allele for co-segregation with the resistance phenotype, it is possible to use this marker for rapid, accurate screening of plant lines for the resistance allele without the need to grow the plants through their life cycle and await phenotypic evaluations, and furthermore, permits genetic selection for the particular resistance allele even when the molecular identity of the actual resistance QTL is unknown. Tissue samples can be taken, for example, from the endosperm, embryo, or mature/developing plant and screened with the appropriate molecular marker to rapidly determine determined which progeny contain the desired genetics. Linked markers also remove the impact of environmental factors that can often influence phenotypic expression.
Because chromosomal distance is approximately proportional to the frequency of crossing over events between traits, there is an approximate physical distance that correlates with recombination frequency. Marker loci are themselves traits and can be assessed according to standard linkage analysis by tracking the marker loci during segregation. Thus, in the context of the present invention, one cM is equal to a 1% chance that a marker locus will be separated from another locus (which can be any other trait, e.g., another marker locus, or another trait locus that encodes a QTL), due to crossing over in a single generation.
When referring to the relationship between two genetic elements, such as a genetic element contributing to resistance and a proximal marker, “coupling” phase linkage indicates the state where the “favorable” allele at the resistance locus is physically associated on the same chromosome strand as the “favorable” allele of the respective linked marker locus. In coupling phase, both favorable alleles are inherited together by progeny that inherit that chromosome strand. In “repulsion” phase linkage, the “favorable” allele at the locus of interest (e.g., a QTL for resistance) is physically linked with an “unfavorable” allele at the proximal marker locus, and the two “favorable” alleles are not inherited together (i.e., the two loci are “out of phase” with each other).
A “genetic map” is the relationship of genetic linkage among loci on one or more chromosomes (or linkage groups) within a given species, generally depicted in a diagrammatic or tabular form. “Genetic mapping” is the process of defining the linkage relationships of loci through the use of genetic markers, populations segregating for the markers, and standard genetic principles of recombination frequency. A “genetic map location” is a location on a genetic map relative to surrounding genetic markers on the same linkage group where a specified marker can be found within a given species. In contrast, a physical map of the genome refers to absolute distances (for example, measured in base pairs or isolated and overlapping contiguous genetic fragments, e.g., contigs). A physical map of the genome does not take into account the genetic behavior (e.g., recombination frequencies) between different points on the physical map. A “genetic recombination frequency” is the frequency of a crossing over event (recombination) between two genetic loci. Recombination frequency can be observed by following the segregation of markers and/or traits following meiosis. In some cases, two different markers can have the same genetic map coordinates. In that case, the two markers are in such close proximity to each other that recombination occurs between them with such low frequency that it is undetected.
Genetic maps are graphical representations of genomes (or a portion of a genome such as a single chromosome) where the distances between markers are measured by the recombination frequencies between them. Plant breeders use genetic maps of molecular markers to increase breeding efficiency through MAS, a process where selection for a trait of interest is not based on the trait itself but rather on the genotype of a marker linked to the trait. A molecular marker that demonstrates reliable linkage with a phenotypic trait provides a useful tool for indirectly selecting the trait in a plant population, especially when accurate phenotyping is difficult, slow, or expensive.
In general, the closer two markers or genomic loci are on the genetic map, the closer they lie to one another on the physical map. A lack of precise proportionality between cM distances and physical distances can exist due to the fact that the likelihood of genetic recombination is not uniform throughout the genome; some chromosome regions are cross-over “hot spots,” while other regions demonstrate only rare recombination events, if any.
Genetic mapping variability can also be observed between different populations of the same crop species. In spite of this variability in the genetic map that may occur between populations, genetic map and marker information derived from one population generally remains useful across multiple populations in identification of plants with desired traits, counter-selection of plants with undesirable traits and in guiding MAS.
As one of skill in the art will recognize, recombination frequencies (and as a result, genetic map positions) in any particular population are not static. The genetic distances separating two markers (or a marker and a QTL) can vary depending on how the map positions are determined. For example, variables such as the parental mapping populations used, the software used in the marker mapping or QTL mapping, and the parameters input by the user of the mapping software can contribute to the QTL marker genetic map relationships. However, it is not intended that the invention be limited to any particular mapping populations, use of any particular software, or any particular set of software parameters to determine linkage of a particular marker or chromosome interval with the disease resistance phenotype. It is well within the ability of one of ordinary skill in the art to extrapolate the novel features described herein to any gene pool or population of interest, and using any particular software and software parameters. Indeed, observations regarding genetic markers and chromosome intervals in populations in addition to those described herein are readily made using the teaching of the present disclosure.
Association or LD mapping techniques aim to identify genotype-phenotype associations that are significant. It is effective for fine mapping in outcrossing species where frequent recombination among heterozygotes can result in rapid LD decay. LD is non-random association of alleles in a collection of individuals, reflecting the recombinational history of that region. Thus, LD decay averages can help determine the number of markers necessary for a genome-wide association study to generate a genetic map with a desired level of resolution.
Large populations are better for detecting recombination, while older populations are generally associated with higher levels of polymorphism, both of which contribute to accelerated LD decay. However, smaller effective population sizes tend to show slower LD decay, which can result in more extensive haplotype conservation. Understanding of the relationships between polymorphism and recombination is useful in developing strategies for efficiently extracting information from these resources. Association analyses compare the plants'"'"' phenotypic score with the genotypes at the various loci. Subsequently, any suitable maize genetic map (for example, a composite map) can be used to help observe distribution of the identified QTL markers and/or QTL marker clustering using previously determined map locations of the markers.
Marker Assisted Selection
“Introgression” refers to the transmission of a desired allele of a genetic locus from one genetic background to another. For example, introgression of a desired allele at a specified locus can be transmitted to at least one progeny via a sexual cross between two parents of the same species, where at least one of the parents has the desired allele in its genome. Alternatively, for example, transmission of an allele can occur by recombination between two donor genomes, e.g., in a fused protoplast, where at least one of the donor protoplasts has the desired allele in its genome. The desired allele can be, e.g., a selected allele of a marker, a QTL, a transgene, or the like. In any case, offspring comprising the desired allele can be repeatedly backcrossed to a line having a desired genetic background and selected for the desired allele, to result in the allele becoming fixed in a selected genetic background.
A primary motivation for development of molecular markers in crop species is the potential for increased efficiency in plant breeding through MAS. Genetic markers are used to identify plants that contain a desired genotype at one or more loci, and that are expected to transfer the desired genotype, along with a desired phenotype to their progeny. Genetic markers can be used to identify plants containing a desired genotype at one locus, or at several unlinked or linked loci (e.g., a haplotype), and that would be expected to transfer the desired genotype, along with a desired phenotype to their progeny. The present invention provides the means to identify plants that are resistant, exhibit improved resistance or are susceptible to ASR infection by identifying plants having a specified allele that is linked to ASR-6.01.
In general, MAS uses polymorphic markers that have been identified as having a significant likelihood of co-segregation with a resistance trait. Such markers are presumed to map near a gene or genes that give the plant its resistance phenotype, and are considered indicators for the desired trait, and are termed QTL markers. Plants are tested for the presence or absence of a desired allele in the QTL marker.
Identification of plants or germplasm that include a marker locus or marker loci linked to a resistance trait or traits provides a basis for performing MAS. Plants that comprise favorable markers or favorable alleles are selected for, while plants that comprise markers or alleles that are negatively correlated with resistance can be selected against. Desired markers and/or alleles can be introgressed into plants having a desired (e.g., elite or exotic) genetic background to produce an introgressed resistant plant or germplasm. In some aspects, it is contemplated that a plurality of resistance markers are sequentially or simultaneous selected and/or introgressed. The combinations of resistance markers that are selected for in a single plant is not limited, and can include any combination of markers disclosed herein or any marker linked to the markers disclosed herein, or any markers located within the QTL intervals defined herein.
In some embodiments, a disease resistant first corn plant or germplasm (the donor) can be crossed with a second corn plant or germplasm (the recipient, e.g., an elite or exotic corn, depending on characteristics that are desired in the progeny) to create an introgressed corn plant or germplasm as part of a breeding program designed to improve disease resistance of the recipient corn plant or germplasm. In some aspects, the recipient plant can also contain one or more disease resistant loci, which can be qualitative or quantitative trait loci. In another aspect, the recipient plant can contain a transgene.
In some embodiments, the recipient corn plant or germplasm will typically display reduced resistance to disease conditions as compared to the first corn plant or germplasm, while the introgressed corn plant or germplasm will display an increased resistance to disease conditions as compared to the second plant or germplasm. An introgressed corn plant or germplasm produced by these methods are also a feature of this invention.
MAS is a powerful shortcut to selecting for desired phenotypes and for introgressing desired traits into cultivars (e.g., introgressing desired traits into elite lines). MAS is easily adapted to high throughput molecular analysis methods that can quickly screen large numbers of plant or germplasm genetic material for the markers of interest and is much more cost effective than raising and observing plants for visible traits.
When a population is segregating for multiple loci affecting one or multiple traits, e.g., multiple loci involved in resistance, or multiple loci each involved in resistance or tolerance to different diseases, the efficiency of MAS compared to phenotypic screening becomes even greater, because all of the loci can be evaluated in the lab together from a single sample of DNA.
Introgression of ASR Resistance Loci Using MAS
The introgression of one or more desired loci from a donor line into another is achieved via repeated backcrossing to a recurrent parent accompanied by selection to retain one or more ASR resistance loci from the donor parent. Markers associated with ASR resistance are assayed in progeny and those progeny with one or more ASR resistance markers are selected for advancement. In another aspect, one or more markers can be assayed in the progeny to select for plants with the genotype of the agronomically elite parent. This invention anticipates that trait introgression activities will require more than one generation, wherein progeny are crossed to the recurrent (agronomically elite) parent or selfed. Selections are made based on the presence of one or more ASR resistance markers and can also be made based on the recurrent parent genotype, wherein screening is performed on a genetic marker and/or phenotype basis. In another embodiment, markers of this invention can be used in conjunction with other markers, ideally at least one on each chromosome of the corn genome, to track the introgression of ASR resistance loci into elite germplasm. In another embodiment, QTLs associated with ASR resistance will be useful in conjunction with SNP molecular markers of the present invention to combine quantitative and qualitative ASR resistance in the same plant. It is within the scope of this invention to utilize the methods and compositions for trait integration of ASR resistance. It is contemplated by the inventors that the present invention will be useful for developing commercial varieties with ASR resistance and an agronomically elite phenotype.
In an aspect, this invention could be used on any plant. In another aspect, the plant is selected from the genus Zea. In another aspect, the plant is selected from the species Zea mays. In a further aspect, the plant is selected from the subspecies Zea mays L. ssp. mays. In an additional aspect, the plant is selected from the group Zea mays L. subsp. mays Indentata, otherwise known as dent corn. In another aspect, the plant is selected from the group Zea mays L. subsp. mays Indurata, otherwise known as flint corn. In an aspect, the plant is selected from the group Zea mays L. subsp. mays Saccharata, otherwise known as sweet corn. In another aspect, the plant is selected from the group Zea mays L. subsp. mays Amylacea, otherwise known as flour corn. In a further aspect, the plant is selected from the group Zea mays L. subsp. mays Everta, otherwise known as pop corn. Zea plants include hybrids, inbreds, partial inbreds, or members of defined or undefined populations.
In another aspect, a corn plant of the invention can show a comparative resistance compared to a non-resistant control corn plant. In this aspect, a control corn plant will preferably be genetically similar except for the disease resistance allele or alleles in question. Such plants can be grown under similar conditions with equivalent or near equivalent exposure to the pathogen.
Vectors used for plant transformation may include, for example, plasmids, cosmids, YACs (yeast artificial chromosomes), BACs (bacterial artificial chromosomes) or any other suitable cloning system, as well as fragments of DNA therefrom. Thus when the term “vector” or “expression vector” is used, all of the foregoing types of vectors, as well as nucleic acid sequences isolated therefrom, are included. It is contemplated that utilization of cloning systems with large insert capacities will allow introduction of large DNA sequences comprising more than one selected gene. In accordance with the present disclosure, this could be used to introduce genes corresponding to, e.g., an entire biosynthetic pathway, into a plant.
Particularly useful for transformation are expression cassettes which have been isolated from such vectors. DNA segments used for transforming plant cells will generally comprise the cDNA, gene, or genes which one desires to introduce into and have expressed in the host cells. These DNA segments can further include structures such as promoters, enhancers, polylinkers, or regulatory genes as desired. The DNA segment or gene chosen for cellular introduction will often encode a protein which will be expressed in the resultant recombinant cells resulting in a screenable or selectable trait and/or which will impart an improved phenotype to the resulting transgenic plant.
Regulatory elements such as promoters, leaders, enhancers, introns, and transcription termination regions (or 3′ UTRs) can play an integral part in the overall expression of genes in living cells. The term “regulatory element,” as used herein, refers to a DNA molecule having gene-regulatory activity. The term “gene-regulatory activity,” as used herein, refers to the ability to affect the expression of an operably linked transcribable DNA molecule, for instance by affecting the transcription and/or translation of the operably linked transcribable DNA molecule. Regulatory elements, such as promoters, leaders, enhancers, and introns that function in plants are therefore useful for modifying plant phenotypes through genetic engineering.
As used herein, the term “intron” refers to a DNA molecule that may be isolated or identified from the genomic copy of a gene and may be defined generally as a region spliced out during messenger RNA (mRNA) processing prior to translation. Alternately, an intron may be a synthetically produced or manipulated DNA element. An intron may contain enhancer elements that effect the transcription of operably linked genes. An intron may be used as a regulatory element for modulating expression of an operably linked transcribable DNA molecule. A construct may comprise an intron, and the intron may or may not be heterologous with respect to the transcribable DNA molecule. Examples of introns in the art include the rice actin intron and the corn HSP70 intron. In plants, the inclusion of some introns in constructs leads to increased mRNA and protein accumulation relative to constructs lacking the intron. This effect has been termed “intron mediated enhancement” (IME) of gene expression. Introns known to stimulate expression in plants have been identified in maize genes (e.g., tubA1, Adh1, Sh1, and Ubi1), in rice genes (e.g., tpi) and in dicotyledonous plant genes like those from petunia (e.g., rbcS), potato (e.g., st-ls1) and from Arabidopsis thaliana (e.g., ubq3 and pat1). It has been shown that deletions or mutations within the splice sites of an intron reduce gene expression, indicating that splicing might be needed for IME. However, that splicing per se is not required, as IME in dicotyledonous plants has been shown by point mutations within the splice sites of the pat1 gene from A. thaliana. Multiple uses of the same intron in one plant have been shown to exhibit disadvantages. In those cases, it is necessary to have a collection of basic control elements for the construction of appropriate recombinant DNA elements.
As used herein, the term “enhancer” or “enhancer element” refers to a cis-acting regulatory element, a.k.a. cis-element, which confers an aspect of the overall expression pattern, but is usually insufficient alone to drive transcription, of an operably linked DNA sequence. Unlike promoters, enhancer elements do not usually include a transcription start site (TSS) or TATA box or equivalent DNA sequence. A promoter or promoter fragment may naturally comprise one or more enhancer elements that affect the transcription of an operably linked DNA sequence. An enhancer element may also be fused to a promoter to produce a chimeric promoter cis-element, which confers an aspect of the overall modulation of gene expression.
Regulatory elements may be characterized by their gene expression pattern, e.g., positive and/or negative effects, such as constitutive expression or temporal, spatial, developmental, tissue, environmental, physiological, pathological, cell cycle, and/or chemically responsive expression, and any combination thereof, as well as by quantitative or qualitative indications. As used herein, a “gene expression pattern” is any pattern of transcription of an operably linked DNA molecule into a transcribed RNA molecule. The transcribed RNA molecule may be translated to produce a protein molecule or may provide an antisense or other regulatory RNA molecule, such as a double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), a transfer RNA (tRNA), a ribosomal RNA (rRNA), a microRNA (miRNA), and the like.
As used herein, the term “protein expression” is any pattern of translation of a transcribed RNA molecule into a protein molecule. Protein expression may be characterized by its temporal, spatial, developmental, or morphological qualities, as well as by quantitative or qualitative indications.
A promoter is useful as a regulatory element for modulating the expression of an operably linked transcribable DNA molecule. As used herein, the term “promoter” refers generally to a DNA molecule that is involved in recognition and binding of RNA polymerase II and other proteins, such as trans-acting transcription factors, to initiate transcription. A promoter may originate from the 5′ untranslated region (5′ UTR) of a gene. Alternately, promoters may be synthetically produced or manipulated DNA molecules. Promoters may also be chimeric. As used herein, the term “chimeric” refers to a single DNA molecule produced by fusing a first DNA molecule to a second DNA molecule, where neither the first nor the second DNA molecule would normally be contained in that configuration, i.e., fused to the other. The chimeric DNA molecule is thus a new DNA molecule not otherwise normally contained in nature. As used herein, the term “chimeric promoter” refers to a promoter produced through such manipulation of DNA molecules. A chimeric promoter may combine two or more DNA fragments, for example, the fusion of a promoter to an enhancer element. Thus, the design, construction, and use of chimeric promoters according to the methods disclosed herein for modulating the expression of operably linked transcribable DNA molecules are encompassed by the disclosure.
In specific embodiments, chimeric DNA molecules and any variants or derivatives thereof as described herein, are further defined as comprising promoter activity, i.e., are capable of acting as a promoter in a host cell, such as in a transgenic plant. In still further specific embodiments, a fragment may be defined as exhibiting promoter activity possessed by the starting promoter molecule from which it is derived, or a fragment may comprise a “minimal promoter” which provides a basal level of transcription and is comprised of a TATA box or equivalent DNA sequence for recognition and binding of the RNA polymerase II complex for initiation of transcription.
Exemplary promoters for expression of a nucleic acid sequence include plant promoters such as the CaMV 35S promoter, or others such as CaMV 19S, nos, Adh, sucrose synthase, a-tubulin, actin, cab, PEPCase or those promoters associated with the R gene complex. Tissue-specific promoters such as leaf specific promoters, or tissue selective promoters (e.g., promoters that direct greater expression in leaf primordia than in other tissues), and tissue-specific enhancers are also contemplated to be useful, as are inducible promoters such as ABA- and turgor-inducible promoters. Any suitable promoters known in the art may be used to express defensin or defensin-like coding sequences in a plant. In an embodiment, the CaMV35S promoter may be used to express defensin or defensin-like coding sequences in a plant. In yet another embodiment, a disease or pathogen inducible promoter can be used to express defensin or defensin like proteins. Examples of disease or pathogen inducible promoters can be found in Kooshki et al. Plant Science 165 (2003) 213-219, Koschmann et al. Plant Physiology 160 (2012) 178-191, Rushton et al. The Plant Cell, 14 (2002) 749-762, and Kirsch et al. The Plant Journal (2001) 26 217-227.
The DNA sequence between the transcription initiation site and the start of the coding sequence, i.e., the untranslated leader sequence, can also influence gene expression. As used herein, the term “leader” refers to a DNA molecule from the untranslated 5′ region (5′ UTR) of a gene and defined generally as a DNA segment between the transcription start site (TSS) and the protein coding sequence start site. Alternately, leaders may be synthetically produced or manipulated DNA elements. A leader can be used as a 5′ regulatory element for modulating expression of an operably linked transcribable DNA molecule. Leader molecules may be used with a heterologous promoter or with their native promoter. One may thus wish to employ a particular leader sequence with a transformation construct of the present disclosure. In an embodiment, leader sequences are contemplated to include those which comprise sequences predicted to direct optimum expression of the attached gene, i.e., to include a consensus leader sequence which may increase or maintain mRNA stability and prevent inappropriate initiation of translation. The choice of such sequences will be known to those of skill in the art in light of the present disclosure. In some embodiments, sequences that are derived from genes that are highly expressed in plants may be used for expression of defensin or defensin-like coding sequences.
It is envisioned that defensin or defensin-like coding sequences may be introduced under the control of novel promoters, enhancers, etc., or homologous or tissue-specific or tissue-selective, or pathogen or disease promoters or control elements. Vectors for use in tissue-specific targeting of genes in transgenic plants will typically include tissue-specific or tissue-selective promoters and may also include other tissue-specific or tissue-selective control elements such as enhancer sequences. Promoters which direct specific or enhanced expression in certain plant tissues will be known to those of skill in the art in light of the present disclosure.
Transformation constructs prepared in accordance with the present disclosure may further include a 3′ end DNA sequence that acts as a signal to terminate transcription and allow for the polyadenylation of the mRNA produced by coding sequences operably linked to a promoter. As used herein, the term “3′ transcription termination molecule,” “3′ untranslated region” or “3′ UTR” herein refers to a DNA molecule that is used during transcription to the untranslated region of the 3′ portion of an mRNA molecule. The 3′ untranslated region of an mRNA molecule may be generated by specific cleavage and 3′ polyadenylation, also known as a polyA tail. A 3′ UTR may be operably linked to and located downstream of a transcribable DNA molecule and may include a polyadenylation signal and other regulatory signals capable of affecting transcription, mRNA processing, or gene expression. PolyA tails are thought to function in mRNA stability and in initiation of translation. Examples of 3′ transcription termination molecules in the art are the nopaline synthase 3′ region; wheat hsp17 3′ region, pea rubisco small subunit 3′ region, cotton E6 3′ region, and the coixin 3′ UTR.
3′ UTRs typically find beneficial use for the recombinant expression of specific DNA molecules. A weak 3′ UTR has the potential to generate read-through, which may affect the expression of the DNA molecule located in the neighboring expression cassettes. Appropriate control of transcription termination can prevent read-through into DNA sequences (e.g., other expression cassettes) localized downstream and can further allow efficient recycling of RNA polymerase to improve gene expression. Efficient termination of transcription (release of RNA Polymerase II from the DNA) is prerequisite for re-initiation of transcription and thereby directly affects the overall transcript level. Subsequent to transcription termination, the mature mRNA is released from the site of synthesis and template transported to the cytoplasm. Eukaryotic mRNAs are accumulated as poly(A) forms in vivo, making it difficult to detect transcriptional termination sites by conventional methods. However, prediction of functional and efficient 3′ UTRs by bioinformatics methods is difficult in that there are no conserved DNA sequences that would allow easy prediction of an effective 3′ UTR. In one embodiment, the native terminator of a defensin or defensin-like coding sequence may be used. Alternatively, a heterologous 3′ end may enhance the expression of sense or antisense defensin or defensin-like coding sequences.
Sequences that are joined to the coding sequence of an expressed gene, which are removed post-translationally from the initial translation product and which facilitate the transport of the protein into or through intracellular or extracellular membranes, are termed transit or targeting peptide (usually into vacuoles, vesicles, plastids and other intracellular organelles) and signal peptide or sequences (usually to the endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, and outside of the cellular membrane). By facilitating the transport of the protein into compartments inside and outside the cell, these sequences may increase the accumulation of gene products by protecting them from proteolytic degradation. These sequences also allow for additional mRNA sequences from highly expressed genes to be attached to the coding sequence of the genes. Since mRNA being translated by ribosomes is more stable than naked mRNA, the presence of translatable mRNA in front of the gene may increase the overall stability of the mRNA transcript from the gene and thereby increase synthesis of the gene product. Since transit and signal sequences are usually post-translationally removed from the initial translation product, the use of these sequences allows for the addition of extra translated sequences that may not appear on the final polypeptide. It further is contemplated that targeting of certain proteins may be desirable in order to enhance the stability of the protein.
Additionally, vectors may be constructed and employed in the intracellular targeting of a specific gene product within the cells of a transgenic plant or in directing a protein to the extracellular environment. This generally will be achieved by joining a DNA sequence encoding a transit or signal peptide sequence to the coding sequence of a particular gene. The resultant transit or signal peptide will transport the protein to a particular intracellular or extracellular destination, respectively, and will then be post-translationally removed.
By employing a selectable or screenable marker, one can provide or enhance the ability to identify transformants. “Marker genes” are genes that impart a distinct phenotype to cells expressing the marker protein and thus allow such transformed cells to be distinguished from cells that do not have the marker. Such genes may encode either a selectable or screenable marker, depending on whether the marker confers a trait which one can “select” for by chemical means, i.e., through the use of a selective agent (e.g., a herbicide, antibiotic, or the like), or whether it is simply a trait that one can identify through observation or testing, i.e., by “screening” (e.g., the green fluorescent protein). Of course, many examples of suitable marker proteins are known to the art and can be employed in the practice of the present disclosure.
Selectable marker transgenes may also be used with the present disclosure. As used herein the term “selectable marker transgene” refers to any transcribable DNA molecule whose expression in a transgenic plant, tissue or cell, or lack thereof, can be screened for or scored in some way. Selectable marker genes, and their associated selection and screening techniques, for use in the practice of the present disclosure are known in the art and include, but are not limited to, transcribable DNA molecules encoding β-glucuronidase (GUS), green fluorescent protein (GFP), proteins that confer antibiotic resistance, and proteins that confer herbicide resistance
Plant Cell Transformation Methods
Numerous methods for transforming chromosomes in a plant cell with recombinant DNA are known in the art and are used in methods of producing a transgenic plant cell and plant. Two effective methods for such transformation are Agrobacterium-mediated transformation and microprojectile bombardment-mediated transformation. Microprojectile bombardment methods are illustrated in U.S. Pat. No. 5,015,580 (soybean); U.S. Pat. No. 5,550,318 (corn); U.S. Pat. No. 5,538,880 (corn); U.S. Pat. No. 5,914,451 (soybean); U.S. Pat. No. 6,160,208 (corn); U.S. Pat. No. 6,399,861 (corn); U.S. Pat. No. 6,153,812 (wheat) and U.S. Pat. No. 6,365,807 (rice). Agrobacterium-mediated transformation methods are described in U.S. Pat. No. 5,159,135 (cotton); U.S. Pat. No. 5,824,877 (soybean); U.S. Pat. No. 5,463,174 (canola); U.S. Pat. No. 5,591,616 (corn); U.S. Pat. No. 5,846,797 (cotton); U.S. Pat. No. 6,384,301 (soybean), U.S. Pat. No. 7,026,528 (wheat) and U.S. Pat. No. 6,329,571 (rice), and US Patent Application Publication Nos. US 2004/0087030 A1 (cotton), and US 2001/0042257 A1 (sugar beet), all of which are incorporated herein by reference in their entirety. Transformation of plant material is practiced in tissue culture on nutrient media, for example a mixture of nutrients that allow cells to grow in vitro. Recipient cell targets include, but are not limited to, meristem cells, shoot tips, hypocotyls, calli, immature or mature embryos, and gametic cells such as microspores, pollen, sperm and egg cells. Callus can be initiated from tissue sources including, but not limited to, immature or mature embryos, hypocotyls, seedling apical meristems, microspores and the like. Cells containing a transgenic nucleus are grown into transgenic plants.
In addition to direct transformation of a plant material with a recombinant DNA, a transgenic plant can be prepared by crossing a first plant comprising a recombinant DNA with a second plant lacking the recombinant DNA. For example, recombinant DNA can be introduced into a first plant line that is amenable to transformation, which can be crossed with a second plant line to introgress the recombinant DNA into the second plant line. A transgenic plant with recombinant DNA providing an enhanced trait, for example, enhanced yield, can be crossed with a transgenic plant line having another recombinant DNA that confers another trait, for example herbicide resistance or pest resistance or enhanced water use efficiency, to produce progeny plants having recombinant DNA that confers both traits. Typically, in such breeding for combining traits the transgenic plant donating the additional trait is the male line and the transgenic plant carrying the base traits is the female line. The progeny of this cross will segregate such that some of the plants will carry the DNA for both parental traits and some will carry DNA for one parental trait; such plants can be identified by markers associated with parental recombinant DNA, for example, marker identification by analysis for recombinant DNA or, in the case where a selectable marker is linked to the recombinant DNA, by application using a selective agent such as a herbicide for use with a herbicide resistance marker, or by selection for the enhanced trait. Progeny plants carrying DNA for both parental traits can be crossed back into the female parent line multiple times, for example usually 6 to 8 generations, to produce a progeny plant with substantially the same genotype as the original transgenic parental line but for the recombinant DNA of the other transgenic parental line.
In transformation, DNA is typically introduced into only a small percentage of target plant cells in any one transformation experiment. Marker genes are used to provide an efficient system for identification of those cells that are stably transformed by receiving and integrating a recombinant DNA molecule into their genomes. Preferred marker genes provide selective markers which confer resistance to a selective agent, such as an antibiotic or an herbicide. Any of the herbicides to which plants of this disclosure can be resistant is an agent for selective markers. Potentially transformed cells are exposed to the selective agent. In the population of surviving cells are those cells where, generally, the resistance-conferring gene is integrated and expressed at sufficient levels to permit cell survival. Cells can be tested further to confirm stable integration of the exogenous DNA. Commonly used selective marker genes include those conferring resistance to antibiotics such as kanamycin and paromomycin (nptII), hygromycin B (aph IV), spectinomycin (aadA) and gentamycin (aac3 and aacC4) or resistance to herbicides such as glufosinate (bar or pat), dicamba (DMO) and glyphosate (aroA or EPSPS). Examples of such selectable markers are illustrated in U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,550,318; 5,633,435; 5,780,708 and 6,118,047. Markers which provide an ability to visually screen transformants can also be employed, for example, a gene expressing a colored or fluorescent protein such as a luciferase or green fluorescent protein (GFP) or a gene expressing a beta-glucuronidase or uidA gene (GUS) for which various chromogenic substrates are known.
Transgenic Plants and Seeds
Transgenic plants derived from transgenic plant cells having a transgenic nucleus of this disclosure are grown to generate transgenic plants having an enhanced trait as compared to a control plant, and produce transgenic seed and haploid pollen of this disclosure. Such plants with enhanced traits are identified by selection of transformed plants or progeny seed for the enhanced trait. For efficiency a selection method is designed to evaluate multiple transgenic plants (events) comprising the recombinant DNA, for example multiple plants from 2 to 20 or more transgenic events. Transgenic plants grown from transgenic seeds provided herein demonstrate improved agronomic traits, such as resistance to anthracnose stalk rot in maize.
The definitions and methods provided define the present invention and guide those of ordinary skill in the art in the practice of the present invention. Unless otherwise noted, terms are to be understood according to conventional usage by those of ordinary skill in the relevant art. Examples of resources describing many of the terms related to molecular biology used herein can be found in in Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of The Cell, 5th Edition, Garland Science Publishing, Inc.: New York, 2007; Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th edition, Springer-Verlag: New York, 1991; King et al, A Dictionary of Genetics, 6th ed, Oxford University Press: New York, 2002; and Lewin, Genes Icorn, Oxford University Press: New York, 2007. The nomenclature for DNA bases as set forth at 37 CFR § 1.822 is used.
“Adjacent”, when used to describe a nucleic acid molecule that hybridizes to DNA containing a polymorphism, refers to a nucleic acid that hybridizes to DNA sequences that directly abut the polymorphic nucleotide base position. For example, a nucleic acid molecule that can be used in a single base extension assay is “adjacent” to the polymorphism.
“Allele” refers to an alternative nucleic acid sequence at a particular locus; the length of an allele can be as small as 1 nucleotide base, but is typically larger. For example, a first allele can occur on one chromosome, while a second allele occurs on a second homologous chromosome, e.g., as occurs for different chromosomes of a heterozygous individual, or between different homozygous or heterozygous individuals in a population. A favorable allele is the allele at a particular locus that confers, or contributes to, an agronomically desirable phenotype, or alternatively, is an allele that allows the identification of susceptible plants that can be removed from a breeding program or planting. A favorable allele of a marker is a marker allele that segregates with the favorable phenotype, or alternatively, segregates with susceptible plant phenotype, therefore providing the benefit of identifying disease prone plants. A favorable allelic form of a chromosome interval is a chromosome interval that includes a nucleotide sequence that contributes to superior agronomic performance at one or more genetic loci physically located on the chromosome interval. “Allele frequency” refers to the frequency (proportion or percentage) at which an allele is present at a locus within an individual, within a line, or within a population of lines. For example, for an allele “A,” diploid individuals of genotype “AA,” “Aa,” or “aa” have allele frequencies of 1.0, 0.5, or 0.0, respectively. One can estimate the allele frequency within a line by averaging the allele frequencies of a sample of individuals from that line. Similarly, one can calculate the allele frequency within a population of lines by averaging the allele frequencies of lines that make up the population. For a population with a finite number of individuals or lines, an allele frequency can be expressed as a count of individuals or lines (or any other specified grouping) containing the allele. An allele positively correlates with a trait when it is linked to it and when presence of the allele is an indictor that the desired trait or trait form will occur in a plant comprising the allele. An allele negatively correlates with a trait when it is linked to it and when presence of the allele is an indicator that a desired trait or trait form will not occur in a plant comprising the allele.
“Crossed” or “cross” means to produce progeny via fertilization (e.g. cells, seeds or plants) and includes crosses between plants (sexual) and self fertilization (selfing).
“Elite line” means any line that has resulted from breeding and selection for superior agronomic performance. Numerous elite lines are available and known to those of skill in the art of corn breeding. An “elite population” is an assortment of elite individuals or lines that can be used to represent the state of the art in terms of agronomically superior genotypes of a given crop species, such as corn. Similarly, an “elite germplasm” or elite strain of germplasm is an agronomically superior germplasm.
“Exogenous nucleic acid” is a nucleic acid that is not native to a specified system (e.g., a germplasm, plant, variety, etc.), with respect to sequence, genomic position, or both. As used herein, the terms “exogenous” or “heterologous” as applied to polynucleotides or polypeptides typically refers to molecules that have been artificially supplied to a biological system (e.g., a plant cell, a plant gene, a particular plant species or variety or a plant chromosome under study) and are not native to that particular biological system. The terms can indicate that the relevant material originated from a source other than a naturally occurring source, or can refer to molecules having a non-natural configuration, genetic location or arrangement of parts. In contrast, for example, a “native” or “endogenous” gene is a gene that does not contain nucleic acid elements encoded by sources other than the chromosome or other genetic element on which it is normally found in nature. An endogenous gene, transcript or polypeptide is encoded by its natural chromosomal locus, and not artificially supplied to the cell.
“Genetic element” or “gene” refers to a heritable sequence of DNA, i.e., a genomic sequence, with functional significance. The term “gene” can also be used to refer to, e.g., a cDNA and/or a mRNA encoded by a genomic sequence, as well as to that genomic sequence.
“Genotype” is the genetic constitution of an individual (or group of individuals) at one or more genetic loci, as contrasted with the observable trait (the phenotype). Genotype is defined by the allele(s) of one or more known loci that the individual has inherited from its parents. The term genotype can be used to refer to an individual'"'"'s genetic constitution at a single locus, at multiple loci, or, more generally, the term genotype can be used to refer to an individual'"'"'s genetic make-up for all the genes in its genome. A “haplotype” is the genotype of an individual at a plurality of genetic loci. Typically, the genetic loci described by a haplotype are physically and genetically linked, i.e., on the same chromosome interval. The terms “phenotype,” or “phenotypic trait” or “trait” refers to one or more trait of an organism. The phenotype can be observable to the naked eye, or by any other means of evaluation known in the art, e.g., microscopy, biochemical analysis, genomic analysis, an assay for a particular disease resistance, etc. In some cases, a phenotype is directly controlled by a single gene or genetic locus, i.e., a “single gene trait.” In other cases, a phenotype is the result of several genes.
“Germplasm” refers to genetic material of or from an individual (e.g., a plant), a group of individuals (e.g., a plant line, variety or family), or a clone derived from a line, variety, species, or culture. The germplasm can be part of an organism or cell, or can be separate from the organism or cell. In general, germplasm provides genetic material with a specific molecular makeup that provides a physical foundation for some or all of the hereditary qualities of an organism or cell culture. As used herein, germplasm includes cells, seed or tissues from which new plants may be grown, or plant parts, such as leaves, stems, pollen, or cells that can be cultured into a whole plant.
“Linkage disequilibrium” refers to a non-random segregation of genetic loci or traits (or both). In either case, linkage disequilibrium implies that the relevant loci are within sufficient physical proximity along a length of a chromosome so that they segregate together with greater than random (i.e., non-random) frequency (in the case of co-segregating traits, the loci that underlie the traits are in sufficient proximity to each other). Linked loci co-segregate more than 50% of the time, e.g., from about 51% to about 100% of the time. The term “physically linked” is sometimes used to indicate that two loci, e.g., two marker loci, are physically present on the same chromosome. Advantageously, the two linked loci are located in close proximity such that recombination between homologous chromosome pairs does not occur between the two loci during meiosis with high frequency, e.g., such that linked loci cosegregate at least about 90% of the time, e.g., 91%, 92%, 93%, 94%, 95%, 96%, 97%, 98%, 99%, 99.5%, 99.75%, or more of the time.
“Locus” a chromosome region where a polymorphic nucleic acid, trait determinant, gene or marker is located. The loci of this invention comprise one or more polymorphisms in a population; i.e., alternative alleles are present in some individuals. A “gene locus” is a specific chromosome location in the genome of a species where a specific gene can be found.
“Marker Assay” means a method for detecting a polymorphism at a particular locus using a particular method, e.g. measurement of at least one phenotype (such as seed color, flower color, or other visually detectable trait), restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), single base extension, electrophoresis, sequence alignment, allelic specific oligonucleotide hybridization (ASO), random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), microarray-based technologies, and nucleic acid sequencing technologies, etc. “Marker Assisted Selection” (MAS) is a process by which phenotypes are selected based on marker genotypes.
“Molecular phenotype” is a phenotype detectable at the level of a population of one or more molecules. Such molecules can be nucleic acids, proteins, or metabolites. A molecular phenotype could be an expression profile for one or more gene products, e.g., at a specific stage of plant development, in response to an environmental condition or stress, etc.
“Operably linked” refers to the association of two or more nucleic acid elements in a recombinant DNA construct, e.g. as when a promoter is operably linked with DNA that is transcribed to RNA whether for expressing or suppressing a protein. Recombinant DNA constructs can be designed to express a protein which can be an endogenous protein, an exogenous homologue of an endogenous protein or an exogenous protein with no native homologue. Alternatively, recombinant DNA constructs can be designed to suppress the level of an endogenous protein, e.g. by suppression of the native gene. Such gene suppression can be effectively employed through a native RNA interference (RNAi) mechanism in which recombinant DNA comprises both sense and anti-sense oriented DNA matched to the gene targeted for suppression where the recombinant DNA is transcribed into RNA that can form a double-strand to initiate an RNAi mechanism. Gene suppression can also be effected by recombinant DNA that comprises anti-sense oriented DNA matched to the gene targeted for suppression. Gene suppression can also be effected by recombinant DNA that comprises DNA that is transcribed to a microRNA matched to the gene targeted for suppression.
“Percent identity” or “% identity” means the extent to which two optimally aligned DNA or protein segments are invariant throughout a window of alignment of components, for example nucleotide sequence or amino acid sequence. An “identity fraction” for aligned segments of a test sequence and a reference sequence is the number of identical components that are shared by sequences of the two aligned segments divided by the total number of sequence components in the reference segment over a window of alignment which is the smaller of the full test sequence or the full reference sequence.
“Phenotype” means the detectable characteristics of a cell or organism which can be influenced by genotype.
“Plant” refers to a whole plant any part thereof, or a cell or tissue culture derived from a plant, comprising any of: whole plants, plant components or organs (e.g., leaves, stems, roots, etc.), plant tissues, seeds, plant cells, and/or progeny of the same. A plant cell is a biological cell of a plant, taken from a plant or derived through culture from a cell taken from a plant.
“Polymorphism” means the presence of one or more variations in a population. A polymorphism may manifest as a variation in the nucleotide sequence of a nucleic acid or as a variation in the amino acid sequence of a protein. Polymorphisms include the presence of one or more variations of a nucleic acid sequence or nucleic acid feature at one or more loci in a population of one or more individuals. The variation may comprise but is not limited to one or more nucleotide base changes, the insertion of one or more nucleotides or the deletion of one or more nucleotides. A polymorphism may arise from random processes in nucleic acid replication, through mutagenesis, as a result of mobile genomic elements, from copy number variation and during the process of meiosis, such as unequal crossing over, genome duplication and chromosome breaks and fusions. The variation can be commonly found or may exist at low frequency within a population, the former having greater utility in general plant breeding and the latter may be associated with rare but important phenotypic variation. Useful polymorphisms may include single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), insertions or deletions in DNA sequence (Indels), simple sequence repeats of DNA sequence (SSRs), a restriction fragment length polymorphism, and a tag SNP. A genetic marker, a gene, a DNA-derived sequence, a RNA-derived sequence, a promoter, a 5′ untranslated region of a gene, a 3′ untranslated region of a gene, microRNA, siRNA, a resistance locus, a satellite marker, a transgene, mRNA, ds mRNA, a transcriptional profile, and a methylation pattern may also comprise polymorphisms. In addition, the presence, absence, or variation in copy number of the preceding may comprise polymorphisms.
A “population of plants” or “plant population” means a set comprising any number, including one, of individuals, objects, or data from which samples are taken for evaluation, e.g. estimating QTL effects. Most commonly, the terms relate to a breeding population of plants from which members are selected and crossed to produce progeny in a breeding program. A population of plants can include the progeny of a single breeding cross or a plurality of breeding crosses, and can be either actual plants or plant derived material, or in silico representations of the plants. The population members need not be identical to the population members selected for use in subsequent cycles of analyses or those ultimately selected to obtain final progeny plants. Often, a plant population is derived from a single biparental cross, but may also derive from two or more crosses between the same or different parents. Although a population of plants may comprise any number of individuals, those of skill in the art will recognize that plant breeders commonly use population sizes ranging from one or two hundred individuals to several thousand, and that the highest performing 5-20% of a population is what is commonly selected to be used in subsequent crosses in order to improve the performance of subsequent generations of the population.
“Resistance” or “improved resistance” in a plant to disease conditions is an indication that the plant is more able to reduce disease burden than a non-resistant or less resistant plant. Resistance is a relative term, indicating that a “resistant” plant is more able to reduce disease burden compared to a different (less resistant) plant (e.g., a different corn line) grown in similar disease conditions. One of skill will appreciate that plant resistance to disease conditions varies widely, and can represent a spectrum of more-resistant or less-resistant phenotypes. However, by simple observation, one of skill can generally determine the relative resistance of different plants, plant lines, or plant families under disease conditions, and furthermore, will also recognize the phenotypic gradations of “resistant.”
“Resistance locus” means a locus that contributes resistance, tolerance, or susceptibility to anthracnose stalk rot.
“Resistance allele” means the nucleic acid sequence associated with resistance or tolerance to disease.
“Tolerance locus” means a locus associated with tolerance or resistance to disease. For instance, a tolerance locus according to the present invention may, in one embodiment, control tolerance or susceptibility for one or more races of Colletotrichum graminicola.
“Tolerance allele” means the nucleic acid sequence associated with tolerance or resistance to disease.
“Recombinant” in reference to a nucleic acid or polypeptide indicates that the material (e.g., a recombinant nucleic acid, gene, polynucleotide, polypeptide, etc.) has been altered by human intervention. The term recombinant can also refer to an organism that harbors recombinant material, e.g., a plant that comprises a recombinant nucleic acid is considered a recombinant plant.
“Tolerance” or “improved tolerance” in a plant to disease conditions is an indication that the plant is less affected by disease conditions with respect to yield, survivability and/or other relevant agronomic measures, compared to a less resistant, more “susceptible” plant. Tolerance is a relative term, indicating that a “tolerant” plant survives and/or produces better yields in disease conditions compared to a different (less tolerant) plant (e.g., a different corn line strain) grown in similar disease conditions. One of skill will appreciate that plant tolerance to disease conditions varies widely, and can represent a spectrum of more-tolerant or less-tolerant phenotypes. However, by simple observation, one of skill can generally determine the relative tolerance or susceptibility of different plants, plant lines or plant families under disease conditions, and furthermore, will also recognize the phenotypic gradations of “tolerant.”
“Transgenic plant” refers to a plant that comprises within its cells a heterologous polynucleotide. Generally, the heterologous polynucleotide is stably integrated within the genome such that the polynucleotide is passed on to successive generations. The heterologous polynucleotide may be integrated into the genome alone or as part of a recombinant expression cassette. “Transgenic” is used herein to refer to any cell, cell line, callus, tissue, plant part or plant, the genotype of which has been altered by the presence of heterologous nucleic acid including those transgenic organisms or cells initially so altered, as well as those created by crosses or asexual propagation from the initial transgenic organism or cell. The term “transgenic” as used herein does not encompass the alteration of the genome (chromosomal or extrachromosomal) by conventional plant breeding methods (e.g., crosses) or by naturally occurring events such as random cross-fertilization, non-recombinant viral infection, non-recombinant bacterial transformation, non-recombinant transposition, or spontaneous mutation.
“Vector” is a polynucleotide or other molecule that transfers nucleic acids between cells. Vectors are often derived from plasmids, bacteriophages, or viruses and optionally comprise parts which mediate vector maintenance and enable its intended use. A “cloning vector” or “shuttle vector” or “subcloning vector” contains operably linked parts that facilitate subcloning steps (e.g., a multiple cloning site containing multiple restriction endonuclease sites). The term “expression vector” as used herein refers to a vector comprising operably linked polynucleotide sequences that facilitate expression of a coding sequence in a particular host organism (e.g., a bacterial expression vector or a plant expression vector).
“Yield” is the culmination of all agronomic traits as determined by the productivity per unit area of a particular plant product of commercial value. “Agronomic traits,” include the underlying genetic elements of a given plant variety that contribute to yield over the course of growing season.
Biparental Mapping Populations
Parental lines were selected from resistant inbred lines: CV820914, CV094802 and CV594360, and susceptible inbred lines: CV391950, I294213 and I283669. CV391950 is described in U.S. Pat. No. 7,718,859; I294213 is described in U.S. Pat. No. 7,166,779; and I283669 is described in U.S. Pat. No. 7,414,181. Number of lines derived were 168 doubled-haploid from CV820914/CV391950, 180 BC1F3 inbred from CV094802/I294213*2 and 178 BC1F2 inbred from I283669*2/CV594360. 168 hybrid lines were also derived from the cross of (CV820914/CV391950) BC1F3 and testers that are modest-resistant or neutral to ASR (Table 1).
Inoculation and Rating Scale of Phenotypes
Corn plants grown in a field were inoculated 14 days after the mid-silk stage, i.e. the point when 50% of the plants within a given row had reached the R1 (silking) growth stage, by injecting 5×105 Colletotrichum graminicola spores suspended in 1 mL of distilled water. Thirty days after inoculation, the severity of anthracnose stalk rot in plants was visually assessed by splitting each stalk longitudinally to expose the pith. Each pith was examined to determine 1) the total number of internodes that displayed visual legions characteristic of the disease, and 2) the total number of internodes wherein visual legions had infected >75% of the tissue within the internode, as summarized in Table 2. These two numbers were then summed into a disease score phenotype for each plant, with scores of 10 converted to 9 to fit a scale ranging from 1 (highly resistant) to 9 (highly susceptible). Twelve to fourteen plants were ranged per row and the space between each row was 0.80 m in field. The individual plant scores of each row were then averaged and the average was reported as a final score for the row. Two populations (CV820914/CV391950 and CV094802/I294213*2) were measured in two field replicates and one population (I283669*2/CV594360) was measured in three field replicates for ASR resistance at different research sites using methods described in the art and the rating scale in Table 2.
After statistical procedures for phenotype quality control, a mixed model was run to estimate the variance components and to compute the heritability for ASR resistance. The heritability was 0.40 for inbred per se and 0.60 for hybrid for the population CV820914/CV391950, 0.46 for inbred per se for the population CV094802/I294213*2, and 0.30 for inbred per se for the population I283669*2/CV594360.
Primers and Probes Useful for Detecting ASR Resistance Genotypes
These plants were then genotyped using SNP markers that collectively spanned each chromosome in the maize genome. Loci that were monomorphic in the subject populations were eliminated from further analysis.
The primer sequences for amplifying exemplary SNP marker loci linked to ASR-6.01 QTL and the probes used to genotype the corresponding SNP sequences are provided in Table 3. One of skill in the art will recognize that sequences to either side of the given primers can be used in place of the given primers, so long as the primers can amplify a region that includes the allele to be detected. The precise probe to be used for detection can vary, e.g., any probe that can identify the region of a marker amplicon to be detected can be substituted for those probes exemplified herein. Also, configuration of the amplification primers and detection probes can, of course, vary. Thus, the invention is not limited to the primers, probes, or marker sequences specifically recited herein.
Illustrative ASR resistance marker DNA sequences SEQ ID NOs: 1 can be amplified using the primers described in Table 3 as SEQ ID NOs: 11 (forward primer) and 21(reverse primer), and detected with probes as SEQ ID NOs: 31 (probe 1) and 41(probe 2).
Marker-Trait Association Study
Marker-trait association studies were performed using both single-marker analysis (SMA) and CIM. For each marker, the thresholds of Likelihood ratio between full and null models for CIM were based on 1000 random permutation tests and the thresholds (p-value) for SMA were based on 10,000 random permutation tests (Churchill and Doerge 1994). The CIM analysis revealed a strong QTL associated with ASR resistance on chromosome 6. The QTL was confirmed in multiple genetic backgrounds and multi-year phenotypes for both inbred per se and hybrid populations. The QTL peaks from these three populations were located on chromosome 6 within 54 to 62cMon the Monsanto'"'"'s internal consensus genetic map as shown in Table 4. Combining the data from three mapping populations, the interval for this QTL was 48.8-67.9 cM. This QTL is designated as “ASR-6.01”. The QTL effect for one copy of favorable allele was 0.75 rating score and 1.5 rating score for homozygotes on average. The phenotypic variance explained (R2) by this QTL was 24%.
Each row provides field study ID, mapping population, population type, number of markers used, resistant parent, chromosome position, the peak of the Likelihood ratio corresponds to ASR resistance, QTL interval where left and right flanking positions are shown, additive effect, phenotypic variance of individual QTL R2 and total R2.
Table 5 lists the effect estimates on ASR resistance phenotype ratings associated with each marker (SEQ ID NO) measured by single marker association (SMA) analysis in field study A, B and C. Each row provides the SEQ ID NO of the marker, and genetic map loci are represented in cM, with position zero being the first (most distal) marker known at the beginning of the chromosome on the internal consensus genetic map, mapping population, Genetic source of favorable allele, favorable allele, unfavorable allele, F statistical value and the estimated effect that the marker polymorphism had on the ASR phenotype. The statistical significance (p-value) of the association between the marker and the ASR resistance rating in each case was p-value≤0.01 on 10,000 permutation tests.
For example, SEQ ID NO: 3 was associated with a 0.54 change in ASR resistance rating by one copy of the favorable allele. SEQ ID NO: 5 was associated with a 0.59 change in ASR resistance rating by one copy of the favorable allele. ASR resistance ratings were generated using the methods described in Example 1.
180 BC1F4 plants were derived from BC1F3 CV094802/I294213*2 as shown in Table 6. Corn plants were inoculated as described in Example 1 and then measured for ASR resistance at research site using methods described in the art and the rating scale in Table 2. These plants were genotyped using SNP markers that collectively spanned each chromosome in the maize genome. To note, the SNP markers used in this field study overlapped yet varied from the SNP markers used in the prior field studies.
Marker-Trait Association Study
Marker-trait association studies were performed using both SMA and CIM. For each marker, the thresholds of Likelihood ratio between full and null models for CIM were based on 1000 random permutation tests and the thresholds (p-value) for SMA were based on 10,000 random permutation tests (Churchill and Doerge 1994). The CIM analysis from field study D confirmed the QTL region associated with ASR resistance in Example 1. The QTL peak was mapped to 58.9 cM on chromosome 6 on the internally-derived genetic map as shown in Table 7. The QTL interval was 52.5-66.3 cM. The phenotypic variance explained (R2) by this QTL was 15%.
Table 7 provides the population type, number of markers used, resistant parent, chromosome location, the peak of the Likelihood ratio corresponds to ASR resistance, QTL interval where left and right flanking positions are shown, additive effect, phenotypic variance of individual QTL or Total (R2).
Table 8 lists the effect estimates on ASR resistance phenotype ratings of each marker (SEQ ID NO) linked to ASR-6.01 measured by single marker association (SMA) analysis from field study D. Each row provides the SEQ ID NO of the marker, genetic map loci are represented in cM, with position zero being the first (most distal) marker known at the beginning of the chromosome on the internal consensus genetic map, mapping population, genetic source of favorable allele, favorable allele, unfavorable allele, F statistical value and the estimated effect that the marker polymorphism had on the ASR phenotype. The statistical significance (p-value) of the association between the marker and the ASR resistance rating in each case was p-value≤0.01 on 10,000 permutation tests.
For example, SEQ ID NO: 10 was associated with a 0.584 change in ASR resistance rating by one copy of the favorable allele. SEQ ID NO: 4 was associated with a 0.618 change in ASR resistance rating by one copy of the favorable allele. ASR resistance ratings were generated using the methods described in Example 1.
In order to obtain additional recombinants, CV820914/CV391950 derived F1 lines were selected, self-crossed, and harvested. The resulting segregating F2 kernels were chipped and genotyped with 8 SNP markers within 51-65 cM on Monsanto'"'"'s internal consensus genetic map (Table 9).
Kernels were bulked based on their haplotypes within this QTL region. These bulks (10-20 plants) were then planted and subsequently screened for ASR resistance via progeny test in the greenhouse. In Table 10, grey cells indicated that the bulk carried the same alleles as the susceptible inbred line at the specific SNP position. White cells indicated that the bulk carried at least one copy of the same allele as the resistant inbred line at the specific SNP position. Lines which were homozygous or heterozygous for the resistant allele were grouped together in this analysis. Bulk “b” shared the same candidate QTL region as the susceptible inbred line, CV820914. The individual plant scores of each bulk were averaged. The average was reported as a final score for the bulk and then compared with that of bulk “b”. Bulk “f”, “g”, “h”, “i”, “j”, “p” and “o” displayed significantly reduced ASR severity (highlighted by black box, p-value<0.05). Based on the common SNP (highlighted by black oval) of these bulks, SEQ ID NO: 53 was identified as the peak marker. The two closest markers flanking SEQ ID NO: 53 are SEQ ID NO: 52 and SEQ ID NO: 8.
For example, bulk “f” shared at least one same allele as the resistant inbred line (CV391950) at the SNP positions represented by SEQ ID NO: 51, SEQ ID NO: 52 and SEQ ID NO: 53 (highlighted by white cells). Bulk “f” shared the same alleles as the susceptible inbred line (CV820914) at the SNP positions represented by SEQ ID NO: 8, SEQ ID NO: 54, SEQ ID NO: 55, SEQ ID NO: 5 and SEQ ID NO: 56 (highlighted by grey cells).
Similar experiments were also conducted on BC1F2 kernels derived from CV295879/CV391950. Bulk “f”, “g”, “i”, “j”, “p” and “o” displayed significantly reduced ASR severity (highlighted by black box, p-value<=0.05) compared with the bulk “b”. Among these resistant bulks, the same common SNP (SEQ ID NO: 53, highlighted by black oval) was identified as the peak marker, as shown in Table 11.
The QTL region associated with ASR resistance was fine-mapped to 53.9-58.6 cM on chromosome 6 based on the internally-derived genetic map (Table 12).
In order to further fine-map the QTL region, CV005260/CV391950 derived F2 lines were selected, self-crossed, and harvested. CV005260 was the susceptible inbred line and CV391950 was the resistant inbred line. The resulting segregating F3 kernels were chipped and genotyped with 6 SNP markers within 54-59 cM on the internally-derived genetic map (Table 13). Primer and probe synthesis is within the skill of the art once the SNP position in the corn genome is provided. One of skill in the art will also immediately recognize that other sequences to either side of the given primers can be used in place of the given primers, so long as the primers can amplify a region that includes the allele to be detected. Further, it will be appreciated that the precise probe to be used for detection can vary, e.g., any probe that can identify the region of a marker amplicon to be detected can be substituted for those examples provided herein. Also, configuration of the amplification primers and detection probes can, of course, vary. Thus, the invention is not limited to the primers, probes, or marker sequences specifically recited herein.
Kernels were bulked based on their haplotypes within this QTL region. These bulks (9-19 plants/bulk) were then planted and subsequently screened for ASR resistance via progeny test in the greenhouse. In Table 14, grey cells indicated that the bulk shared the same alleles as the susceptible inbred line at the specific SNP positions. White cells indicated that the bulk shared the same alleles as the resistant inbred line at the specific SNP positions. The individual plant scores of each bulk were averaged and the average was reported as a final score for the bulk. Bulk “i”, “j”, “k”, “1” and “m” displayed significantly reduced ASR severity with mean values less than 2 (highlighted by black box). Based on the common SNP (highlighted by black oval) of these bulks, SEQ ID NO: 83 was identified as the peak marker.
For example, bulk “a” shared the same alleles as the resistant inbred line, CV391950, at the candidate QTL region (highlighted by white cells); bulk “b” shared the same alleles as the susceptible inbred line, CV005260, at the candidate QTL region (highlighted by grey cells).
The two closest markers flanking SEQ ID NO: 83 are SEQ ID NO: 53 and SEQ ID NO: 8. The QTL region associated with ASR resistance was further fine-mapped to 56.8-58.6 cM on chromosome 6 based on the internally-derived genetic map (Table 15).
SNP markers were specifically designed for CV005260/CV391950-derived plants via genotype-by-sequencing method within ASR-6.01 interval. One hundred and twenty-seven BC1F2 inbred plants were genotyped and measured for ASR resistance. SMA analysis identified the top 11 SNP markers associated with ASR resistance. Each row in Table 16 provides the SEQ ID NO of the marker, genetic map positions of the marker, SNP position, favorable allele, unfavorable allele, marker effect, p-value and phenotypic variance (R2) of the marker. Genetic map loci are represented in cM, with position zero being the first (most distal) marker known at the beginning of the chromosome on Monsanto'"'"'s internal consensus genetic map.
Chromosome intervals according to the invention and comprising markers closely linked to the ASR-6.01 QTL are disclosed in Table 17. Genetic map loci are represented in cM, with position zero being the first (most distal) marker known at the beginning of the chromosome on both an internal consensus genetic map (MON) and the Neighbors 2008 maize genomic map (IBM2008), which is freely available to the public from the Maize GDB website and commonly used by those skilled in the art. Also disclosed in Table 17 are the physical locations of loci as they are reported on the B73 RefGen_v2 sequence public assembly by the Arizona Genomics Institute, available on the internet.
In Table 17, “IcM” refers to the map units of the IBM2 2008 Neighbors Genetic Map, which was generated with an intermated recombinant inbred population (syn 4) that resulted in approximately a four-fold increase in the number of meiosies as compared to the typical recombination experiment that is used to generate centiMorgan (cM) distances (Lee et al., 2002, Plant Mol Biol 48:453 and the Maize Genetics and Genomics Database). “cM” refers to the classical definition of a centimorgan wherein one cM is equal to a 1% chance that a trait at one genetic locus will be separated from a trait at another locus due to crossing over in a single generation (meaning the traits cosegregate 99% of the time during meiosis), and this definition is used herein to delineate map locations pertaining to this invention. Any markers within the identified region, including those disclosed herein or publicly known, could be used for detection of and selection for ASR resistance in accordance with the methods of the present invention.
Table 18 lists annotated coding sequences within ASR-6.01 region. Each row provides gene ID, gene annotation, chromosome location, genetic position on Monsanto internal consensus map and physical position based on Arizona Genomics Institute B73 RefGen_v2 sequence which is publicly available. Transgenic maize resistant to anthracnose stalk rot can be created using these annotated genes as described in the specification.
As various modifications could be made in the constructions and methods herein described and illustrated without departing from the scope of the invention, it is intended that all matter contained in the foregoing description or shown in the accompanying drawings shall be interpreted as illustrative rather than limiting. The breadth and scope of the present invention should not be limited by any of the above-described exemplary embodiments, but should be defined only in accordance with the following claims appended hereto and their equivalents. All patent and non-patent documents cited in this specification are incorporated herein by reference in their entireties.