Medical device and delivery method onto offset surface of mammal tissue
1. A method of delivery of a medical device having a proximal end and a distal end into a mammal tissue, comprising the steps of:
- forming a guide line on a surface of the mammal tissue;
placing a guiding device, comprised of a flexible guide rail and a carriage carried by the flexible guide rail that can move along the flexible guide rail, on the surface of the mammal tissue;
fixing the flexible guide rail on the surface of the mammal tissue along the guide line;
deploying the distal end of the medical device, into the mammal tissue at a desired depth d;
coupling the guiding device and the distal end and/or the proximal end of the medical device; and
introducing the distal end of the medical device into the mammal tissue and moving the distal end of the medical device substantially along a line formed by a normal projection of the guide line to an offset surface of the mammal tissue located at the desired depth d from the surface of the mammal tissue.
A novel medical device and a method for delivery of a scaffold for treatment of secondary lymphedema and ischemia is provided. In some embodiments a catheter medical device and a magnetic guidance method are provided for delivering cell-seeded implants for guided lymphatic regeneration.
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- 1. A method of delivery of a medical device having a proximal end and a distal end into a mammal tissue, comprising the steps of:
forming a guide line on a surface of the mammal tissue; placing a guiding device, comprised of a flexible guide rail and a carriage carried by the flexible guide rail that can move along the flexible guide rail, on the surface of the mammal tissue; fixing the flexible guide rail on the surface of the mammal tissue along the guide line; deploying the distal end of the medical device, into the mammal tissue at a desired depth d; coupling the guiding device and the distal end and/or the proximal end of the medical device; and introducing the distal end of the medical device into the mammal tissue and moving the distal end of the medical device substantially along a line formed by a normal projection of the guide line to an offset surface of the mammal tissue located at the desired depth d from the surface of the mammal tissue.
- View Dependent Claims (2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14)
- 15. A medical device system for delivery of a medical device into a mammal tissue, the medical device system comprising:
the medical device having a proximal end and a distal end; and a guiding device comprised of a flexible guide rail and a carriage carried by the flexible guide rail that can move along the flexible guide rail; wherein the flexible guide rail can be fixed on a surface of the mammal tissue along a guide line defined on the surface of the mammal tissue, and wherein the proximal end and/or the distal end of the medical device and the guiding device are coupled to introduce the distal end of the medical device into the mammal tissue and to move the distal end of the medical device substantially along a line formed by a normal projection of the guide line to an offset surface of the mammal tissue located at a distance d from the surface of the mammal tissue.
- View Dependent Claims (16, 17, 18, 19, 20)
This application is a United States National Stage Application filed under 35 U.S.C. § 371 of International Application No. PCT/US2013/051906, entitled “Medical Device And Delivery Method Onto Offset Surface Of Mammal Tissue” which was filed on Jul. 24, 2013 which claims the benefit of, and priority to, U.S. Provisional Patent Application Ser. No. 61/741,641, filed Jul. 25, 2012, entitled “Catheter and Magnetic Guidance Method for Delivering Cell-Seeded Implant for Guided Lymphatic Regeneration” the entire disclosure of which is hereby incorporated by reference.
This application was partially supported by the U.S. Army Medical Research and Material Command under Contract No. W81XWH-12-C-0111.
The present invention relates broadly to a novel medical device and method for delivery of a medical device, and more specifically to a medical device and method of deliver of a scaffold for treatment of secondary lymphedema and ischemia. In some embodiments a catheter medical device and magnetic guidance method are provided for delivering cell-seeded implants for guided lymphatic regeneration.
Lymphedema and ischemia are debilitating conditions for which limited treatment is available. Despite significant research, current treatment schemes are inadequate. In some instances, intradermal and subcutaneous delivery procedures have been tried, such as drug delivery, contrast agent delivery, gel and scaffold delivery for aesthetic and cosmetic applications, gel and scaffold delivery for repair and regeneration, cell delivery including cell plated on scaffold and gel.
Examples of common delivery methods which penetrate the skin to very small depths (0.5-1.0 mm) include a) jet injection, including needle-free injection and b) microneedles patch delivery. Standard subcutaneous methods for short distance injections would be the Mantoux technique (standard intradermal delivery method) or BD microinjection system.
However, these methods cannot be directly applied for the delivery of relatively large medical devices (millimeters and sub-millimeters size) or devices that have to be delivered into a large area in the mammalian body. For example, special methods are needed for intradermal delivery of a 100 mm long and 0.3 mm thick thread-like scaffolds. Thus, such procedures are very limited.
Another important need is the delivery of cells and growth factors into an ischemic mammal leg for treatment of critical limb ischemia. Current cell delivery systems have critical limitations, such as for example: inefficient cell retention and lack of targeted localization. Collagen, fibrin, gelatin, alginate, and matrigel have been studied as cell delivery vehicles in the form of injectable gels or three-dimensional scaffolds. While many of these materials have shown potential for success, they are not without their limitations. The issue of cell and material retention in injectable gels, as well as vascularization and nutrient diffusion in three-dimensional scaffolds, remains a challenge. The fibrin microthreads proposed recently by Cornwell and Pins have overcome these problems, but they have low mechanical strength and high degradation rate, and thus have very limited suitability. Accordingly, there is significant need for further advancement and development.
In some embodiments, a novel medical device and method for delivery of a scaffold for treatment of secondary lymphedema and ischemia is provided. In some embodiments a catheter medical device and magnetic guidance method are provided for delivering cell-seeded implants for guided lymphatic regeneration.
In one aspect, embodiments of the present invention provide methods of delivery of a medical device having proximal and distal ends into a mammal tissue comprising the steps of: forming a guide line on the surface of the tissue; placing a guiding device that can move along the guide line on the surface of the tissue; deploying the medical device distal end into the mammal tissue at a desired depth d; coupling between the guiding device and the medical device distal and/or proximal end; and introducing the medical device distal end along the normal projection of the guide line to the offset surface of mammal tissue located at the distance d from the tissue surface.
In other embodiments, a method of delivery of a medical device having proximal and distal ends into a mammal tissue is provided, comprising: a guide line on the surface of the tissue and guiding device that can move along the guide line on the surface of the tissue such that the medical device distal end and the guiding device are coupled to move the medical device distal end into the mammal tissue at a constant distance d from the guiding line.
In another aspect, embodiments provide a method of delivery of a medical device having proximal and distal ends onto the offset surface of mammal tissue comprising a guide line on the surface of the tissue and a guiding device moving along the guide line on the surface of the tissue such that the medical device distal end and the guiding device are coupled to move the medical device proximal end and the guiding device to the same distance.
In some embodiments, the distal end of the medical device is introduced under control of the guiding device and/or the medical device proximal end. In some embodiments, the guiding device has a sensor and the medical device distal end generates a signal which can be sensed by the guiding device and used to control the position of the medical device distal end. In other embodiments, the guiding device has magnetic sensors and the medical device distal end generates a magnetic field which can be sensed by the guiding device and used to control the position of the medical device distal end. In some embodiment, introduction and movement of the distal end are achieved by any one or more of: drilling, slicing, shaving or abrading of the tissue using mechanical means, or evaporating of the tissue using a laser system, or by tearing the tissue under a tension applied from the proximal end.
In one example, the guiding device is comprised of a hollow, flexible track held in intimate contact with the surface of the tissue by the force of vacuum operating through holes in the bottom of the track and positioned on top of the guiding line and having a rail geometry which captures a carriage containing the sensors.
Further, in some embodiments the carriage carrying the sensors is actuated along the flexible track by a flexible C-shaped tube which has an opening along its bottom wide enough to allow clearance between the rail support and tube but narrow enough so that it is captured by the wider rail. In one example, the flexible C-shaped tube is rigidly connected to the proximal end of the catheter such that the carriage advances the same distance as the catheter. In one example, the proximal end of the flexible C-shaped tube is advanced by a servo mechanism in response to the magnetic field at the distal end of the catheter such that the normal distance between the sensors and the source of the magnetic field is maintained at the desired depth d.
In another aspect, a medical device is provided having a steerable catheter which comprises a flexible tube into which flexible devices can be inserted at the proximal end. In one example, the proximal end can carry the steering and insertion mechanism and the distal end can carry any one or more of: a sensing target, signal generator, steering ring with attached wires, drill bit, tissue shaver, slicer, rasp, laser waveguide, orifice for discharging liquid, orifice for inhaling debris, fiber optic, implant, forceps, drug delivery reservoir, probe and diagnostic device.
In some embodiment the medical device is configured to deliver a piece of tissue, scaffold, biopolymer thread or micro-thread, biopolymer filament, gel, micro-particles, decellularized tissue, fragments of lymphatic system including fragments of autologous lymph node or decellularized lymph node of animal origin, bioactive components like live cells, growth factors, peptides, drugs, drug releasing carriers.
In another aspect, a method is provided to determine the guide line on the surface of the tissue. Is some embodiments, a guide line on the surface of tissue is determined by the steps of: attaching a flexible grid over the selected area on the surface of the target tissue, that creates a grid image (positive or negative contrast) during one of diagnostic procedure like MRI, CT scan, or PET-CT; obtaining images of the target tissue and the grid by one of the diagnostic procedures indicated above; deriving a projection image of the target tissue onto the grid image; and making the guide line on the surface of the tissue using the grid attached to the surface and the images of the target tissue with the grid.
It should be understand that in some embodiments, the device provided herein may be used in other, non-medical applications. For example, in some embodiments a device system is provided comprising: a boring device having proximal and distal ends; a guiding device configured to move along a boring path defined on a surface, said guiding device comprised of a flexible guide rail and a carriage carried by the guide rail; wherein the distal end of the boring device and the guiding device are coupled to move the distal end of the boring device along the boring path at a constant distance d form the surface.
The foregoing and other objects of the present invention will be apparent upon consideration of the following detailed description, taken in conjunction with the accompanying drawings, in which like reference characters refer to like parts throughout.
The present invention relates broadly to a novel medical device and method for delivery of a medical device, and more specifically to a medical device and method of delivery of a scaffold for treatment of secondary lymphedema and ischemia. In some embodiments a catheter medical device and magnetic guidance method are provided for delivering cell-seeded implants for guided lymphatic regeneration.
As used herein the term “offset surface” of a mammal tissue is defined as the surface of a mammal tissue located at a fixed distance from the tissue surface. Referring to
One objective of embodiments of the present invention is to create a novel medical device for delivery of a scaffold for treatment of secondary lymphedema and ischemia, and guided lymphatic regeneration. While, embodiments are described in the context of treatment of lymphedema and ischemia, the device and method described herein are not limited to these two specific applications, and other applications for use of the delivery device and method are within the scope and spirit of the teaching and claims herein. In some embodiments, examples of the medical material that can be delivered using the method and device of the present invention are: flap of tissue, scaffold, biopolymer thread or micro-thread, biopolymer filament, gel or micro-particles, decellularized tissue, fragments of lymphatic system including fragments of autologous lymph node or decellularized lymph node of animal origin, a pack including several threads, e.g., several parallel threads encapsulated into membrane or between two membranes. The materials may also include bioactive components like live cells, growth factors, peptides, and drugs. The important requirement for the delivery procedure (with and without cells) is that it be minimally invasive. The device and method of the present invention can be used for subcutaneous or intradermal delivery.
Catheters were designed to perform a critical task inside the body while being operated from outside of the body. The distal portion of a catheter performs the task internally, while the proximal portion is controlled by the physician. Catheters are considered minimally invasive and require imaging and navigation techniques to provide feedback to the device'"'"'s operator to guide the catheter properly. There are many different ways to track a catheter in the body. For example, x-ray fluoroscopy is commonly used to guide the physician to navigate the catheter to the proper position within the heart, while providing some imaging of the heart More precise and sophisticated 3D mapping techniques combining x-rays with multiple magnetic fields have been developed. For example, the Stereotaxis and Carto3 (Johnson & Johnson®) mapping systems are now finding more widespread use. These mapping systems permit the physician to more quickly and accurately guide catheters within deep body recesses. However these mapping systems are very expensive and require extensive training.
Embodiments of the present invention provide significant improvement over prior art methods and provide a much simplified mapping and guidance system which is designed for guiding a catheter along a path which lies on a plane only a few millimeters beneath the surface of mammalian tissue. As such, both the cost of the device and the training to operate it are significantly less. One example of its use would be to guide a catheter as it tunnels a few millimeters beneath the surface of the skin. Another example would be to guide a catheter as it tunnels a few millimeters beneath the surface of heart muscle tissue during heart surgery.
The preferred scaffold (matrix) that can be delivered by the invented medical device is nanoweave collagen thread or multiple threads. This scaffold is manufactured with various nanoweave properties, including aligned fibers, crimps, periodicity and angular distribution. The production process results in bioequivalent scaffolds with controlled 3D nanostructure and microstructure, controlled thickness, fibril size, and high uniformity. These scaffolds are produced from clinical grade monomeric type I collagen, engineered to a specific liquid crystal phase and manufactured under precise flow conditions to produce a thin, strong membrane which is subsequently transformed into a thread-like configuration. Their properties are a) biomimetic (i.e. approximating native tissue structure—at the nano- through macro-scales), b) high mechanical strength, c) defect-free over a large area (several cm2), and e) biodegradable depending on the level of crosslinking. Various cell line testing and animal studies indicate that these tissue-mimicking devices enable rapid cell attachment, induce cell guidance and aligned cell growth, and are capable of site specific cell delivery. The scaffolds are produced as ultrathin (1-5 μm) membranes which can be further fabricated into thread-like nanopatterned scaffolds (or pseudo-fibers), using liquid-air surface tension. The individual threads can also be braided into multifiber threads. These patented novel materials present an opportunity to deliver autologous and allergenic human cells for regeneration purposes. Early work with collaborators demonstrates that the scaffolds can be used as cell carriers and when delivered to a specific site, promote regeneration.
For example, in the case of lymphedema treatment, the biomimetic thread is implanted under the skin as shown in
An experiment has been conducted with nanoweave collagen thread cross-linked by 1% genipin for 24 hours (210-μm diameter in dry state). The thread hydrated for 15 minutes in PBS (400-μm diameter in wet state) was tested as a suture though the muscle of a thawed chicken thigh (previously frozen). The maximum pullout force was measured to be less than 60 g, and the stress applied to the cross-section area of the wet thread was calculated as 5 MPa.
Another important application is the delivery of cells and growth factors into the limb of mammal for treatment of critical limb ischemia. Current cell delivery systems have critical limitations such as inefficient cell retention and lack of targeted localization. Collagen, fibrin, gelatin, alginate, and matrigel have been studied as cell delivery vehicles in the form of injectable gels or three-dimensional scaffolds. While many of these materials have shown potential for success, they are not without their limitations. The issue of cell and material retention in injectable gels, as well as vascularization and nutrient diffusion in three-dimensional scaffolds, remains a challenge. The fibrin microthreads proposed recently by Cornwell and Pins have overcome these problems, but they have low mechanical strength and high degradation rate. Advantages of the thread-like scaffolds are: large surface area for cell attachment due to their open, multi-luminal structure; extended survival and maintenance of cells implanted on the threads; the aligned fibers directing cell alignment and migration; tunable mechanical properties to achieve the desired function and persistence after implantation. Purified medical grade collagen with low immunogenicity as a starting material is used. It is a substantial advantage over allografts and xenografts.
The catheter may have a mechanical positioning system and can be guided by magnetic means or ultrasound. In the case of bioactive component delivery (e.g., stem cells) the device can be further protected by removable sheath.
Embodiments of the invention provide different ways to fix or secure the device (e.g., thread) in place before removing the catheter and the sheath. The preferred method is a biodegradable barb affixed to the distal end of the thread which is thrust into the tissue by an axial force exerted by the sheath and which grips the tissue sufficiently to resist the frictional force on the thread by the sheath and catheter as they are withdrawn. An alternate method employs an external needle which punctures the skin and passes through the opening of a biodegradable ring affixed to the distal end of the thread to anchor the thread in position while the sheath and catheter are extracted. This method requires a second penetration of the skin surface at the distal end and special orientation techniques to assure the opening of the ring faces upwards towards the skin surface.
A catheter system (the medical device) is particularly suitable, albeit not limited, for delivery of a cell-seeded implant for guided lymphatic regeneration. The implant is a thread that is manufactured from a thin collagen membrane with the nanoweave structure mimicking the wall of a lymphatic vessel. The membrane is created when medical grade liquid collagen is preprocessed and coated onto a smooth plastic substrate. The membrane approximately 1 inch wide and 1-2 um thick is removed from the substrate. It is “folded” crosswise in a random fashion creating fissures and microlumens within the folds of the thread which present an attractive anchor for cell attachment. This implant technology is covered by several patents assigned to Fibralign Corporation.
The length of thread required to bridge the gap created by the destruction of lymphatic tubes is approximately 200-300 mm. The thread must be implanted in the area covering low dermis layer, hypodermis, and the interface between dermis and hypodermis. The maximum depth from the surface of the skin can be no greater than approximately 5 mm to avoid damaging major blood vessels, nerves and other critical tissues. This requires a precision drilling through soft tissue. In addition, areas of fibrotic scar tissue must be penetrated which will tend to force the drill away from its intended path.
In an exemplary embodiment, a medical device (also sometime referred to as a catheter) is shown in
The steering of the catheter tip can be accomplished with a standard 4 wire steering mechanism. The wires 50 are attached at the distal end (of the medical device) to a cylindrical steering ring 40 which is bonded to the body of the catheter. The wires pass through lumens 180 in the wall of the catheter body 70. The distal end of the catheter is fabricated with a more flexible material to facilitate accurate steering of the catheter tip. The proximal end (of the medical device) is fabricated with a stiffer material to provide greater column strength. The drill creates a pilot hole for the body of the catheter. The tapered nose 60 pushes aside the tissue to permit passage of the full diameter of the catheter body.
The sensing of the tip of the catheter is accomplished by imbedding a ring magnet 30 into the tip of the catheter (distal end of the medical device). Description of the magnetic sensor will be described later. The sequence to deploy the thread into the tissue is outlined below, and as shown in
- 1. Advance catheter (the medical device) to deployment location (
- 2. Retract drill 10 and drill shaft 20 (
- 3. Insert assembly consisting of thread 130, thread sleeve 140 and biodegradable barbed anchor 150. Push forward into tissue to set the barbed anchor (
- 4. Pull back on both catheter 70 and thread sleeve 140 together to fracture the breakaway joint 170 between the barbed anchor 150 and the sleeve 140. The interface 170 between the proximal end of the barb 150 and the distal end of the sleeve 140 is designed with sufficient friction to assure that the barb will not separate from the sleeve prematurely. Breakaway design must assure that the barb retention force in the tissue is always higher than the breakaway force. (
- 5. Completely withdraw catheter 70 and thread sleeve 140 together. This assures that the thread 130 can only contact the inner wall of the sleeve 140, but not the inner wall of the catheter. (
- 6. Withdraw the trocar 200 (shown in
FIG. 5) and seal the wound in an appropriate manner
- 1. Advance catheter (the medical device) to deployment location (
The major components for the catheter system are shown in
Running along the rail is a carriage 220 (the guiding device) which houses two magnetic sensors 310 and 320. They detect the magnet 30 imbedded in the tip of the catheter (distal end) which lies directly beneath at a normal distance d. The carriage'"'"'s linear motion is controlled by a flexible C-shaped carriage actuator tube 250 which straddles the rail 240. The actuator tube 250 is connected crossways to the proximal end of the catheter with a pair of clamps 370 and 380. When the surgeon advances the catheter, the carriage actuator tube 250 advances by the same amount. The carriage actuator tube 250 passes through a strain relief 260 which absorbs sideways forces and assures that the C-shaped tube meshes smoothly with the rail 240.
The drive motor mechanism 280 which powers the drill shaft 20 is located in a housing along with the mechanism to operate the steering wires 50.
The end view of the magnetic sensor operation is shown in
A=B magnet on center
A>B magnet to left of center
A<B magnet to right of center
(A+B)/2=high Z is small (shallow)
(A+B)/2=low Z is large (deep)
These signals would be processed and the results displayed on a target screen which would give the surgeon feedback to operate the steering mechanism.
A side view of the sensing system is shown in
A guide line is marked on the surface of the skin by the surgeon indicating the path required for the thread to follow beneath the surface of the skin. This guide line can be determined by a unique mapping technique. A flexible grid, which is attached to the surface of the skin 290 with a suitable adhesive, is visible to diagnostic procedures such as MRI, CT scan or PET-CT. The grid is composed of an array of wires fabricated from a material, such as gadolinium, iron or iron oxide, selected to produce a high contrast image for the particular diagnostic procedure. The grid pattern is superimposed over the image of the tissue obtained by one of these procedures. While the grid still remains affixed to the surface of the skin, the surgeon is then able to plot the best route for marking the guide line onto the surface of the skin 290.
He then aligns the flexible carriage guide rail 240 on top of the guide line and affixes it to the skin surface 290 by activating the vacuum source which sucks the guide rail into intimate skin contact.
The surgeon inserts the distal end of the flexible carriage actuator tube into the strain relief 260 which is an integral part of the proximal end of the guide rail 240.
He then inserts the trocar 200 subcutaneously at the beginning point of the guide line, parallel to the guide line and at the desired depth d. He then inserts the distal end of the catheter into the trocar. He pushes the catheter into the trocar until the tip emerges. Since the trocar is typically a metallic device of uncertain magnetic permeability, the signal from the magnetic sensors cannot be relied upon until the magnet emerges from the trocar. The point of emergence can be detected by a sudden increase in the magnetic sensor outputs.
As soon as the catheter emerges from the tip of the trocar, the drill is turned off and the catheter position is carefully maintained. At this point the catheter and magnetic sensors must be synchronized. The alignment procedure is shown in
- Align the carriage 220 to maximize the sensor signals.
- If required, release the vacuum and reposition the proximal end of the guide rail 240. However turning off the vacuum would cause the entire rail to disengage from the guide line and would require repositioning along its entire length. Since only a short length of the proximal end of the guide rail need be repositioned, the vacuum system would be preferably designed with two separate chambers: proximal and distal. Vacuum in both chambers would be normally engaged. However if a short length of the proximal end needed repositioning, only the proximal chamber would be deactivated and reactivated after repositioning without disturbing the much longer distal chamber.
- The absolute Z depth d of the catheter tip can be determined from calibration tables that have been previously developed by laboratory testing of representative tissue samples. Magnetic permeability of tissue is similar to that found in a vacuum.
- Lock both connector clamps A 370 and B 380 between the catheter 210 proximal end and carriage actuator tube 250 proximal end
- The zero point for the Y direction of the carriage 220 has now been established
The catheter 210 can only be advanced until the first clamp A 370 contacts the proximal end of the trocar 200. The drilling and advancement operation must stop until the clamps are shifted upstream. The procedure for doing this is described below and is shown is
- Clamp pair A 370 and B 380 has reached limit of travel (
- Unclamp B 380, slide to right and re-clamp (
- Unclamp A 370, slide to right to touch B 380 and re-clamp (
- Clamp pair A 370 and B 380 has reached limit of travel (
The maximum practical distance between the clamp pair 370, 380 and the trocar 200 is governed by the buckling strength of the catheter 210 and actuator tube 250. Since the insertion operation requires pushing on long slender columns, Euler buckling limits apply. The clamp-to-trocar distance will always be less than the clamp-to-strain relief distance (refer back to
However the drilling and frictional forces exerted on the catheter present a different problem. The drill tip will encounter fibrotic tissue of varying resistance so the buckling limit will be difficult to predict. The surgeon must determine from practical experience the maximum clamp-to-trocar distance.
The above solution describes a mechanical double clamp method to link and synchronize the two linear motions: that of the catheter and that of the sensor carriage. However it would be possible to have a linear encoder along the length of the catheter that would create a position signal with respect to a stationary reference point (e. g. a point on the trocar). This in turn could control an electro-mechanical linear actuator translating the sensor carriage 220 in the Y-direction that would remain in synchronism with the catheter tip. The Z distance for each X-Y incremental point could be pre-determined and stored in control memory. In this manner the surgeon would only have to concentrate on advancing the catheter. The 4 wire steering system would automatically guide the tip depth d (Z) and the sideways motion (X) while the surgeon would provide the Y-motion. There would be no need for clamp manipulation. While this is a more complex and expensive system, it could potentially provide greater accuracy and reduced procedure time.
In the case of the curved body surface (e.g. beating heart) the distal end of the catheter travels a different distance than the carriage. For convex surfaces as shown in
It could also be envisaged that the Y-motion of the catheter could be provided by a linear actuator. This next step of automation would eliminate the requirement for surgeon to directly control the drilling portion of the operation.
It could also be envisaged that the mechanical drilling mechanism can be replaced by a Nd-YAG or CO2-laser system. The guiding efficiency can be improved by the use of array of magnetic sensors. Other types of sensing can be used as well.
The following examples are provided for illustration purposes only, and are not intended to limit the scope of the present invention in any way.
Percutaneous transmyocardial revascularization (PTMR) is performed by a cardiologist in the cardiac catheterization laboratory. After the induction of local anesthesia, the cardiologist inserts a catheter into an artery in the leg to access the heart. A laser is then fed through the catheter and used to create tiny holes in the heart muscle. These holes become channels for blood to flow to oxygen-starved areas of the heart. PTMR is currently being used on patients who have not responded to other treatments such as medicines, angioplasty, or coronary artery bypass surgery.
Transmyocardial laser revascularization (TMLR) involves the use of a laser to create tiny channels in the lower left chamber of the heart (the left ventricle), which may increase blood flow within the heart. Surgeons make an incision in the left side of the chest. While the heart is still beating, the surgeons use the laser to make between 20 and 40 tiny (one-millimeter-wide) channels through the oxygen-deprived heart muscle and into the left ventricle. These channels give a new route for blood to flow into the heart muscle, which may reduce the pain of angina. TMLR is generally considered less invasive than open heart procedures. It involves only a small incision, and patients usually do not need a blood transfusion. And because the procedure is done on a beating heart, surgeons do not need to use a heart-lung machine.
These two procedures unfortunately do not provide a long term improvements for patients and have now very limited use. The invented delivery device can be combined with the laser drilling method and deliver thread-like scaffolds filled with VEGF-A. Moreover, the scaffold can be delivered into an offset surface of the beating heart with only one incision, as shown in
The foregoing descriptions of specific embodiments of the present invention have been presented for purposes of illustration and description. They are not intended to be exhaustive or to limit the invention to the precise forms disclosed, and obviously many modifications and variations are possible in light of the above teaching. The embodiments were chosen and described in order to best explain the principles of the invention and its practical application, to thereby enable others skilled in the art to best utilize the invention and various embodiments with various modifications as are suited to the particular use contemplated. It is intended that the scope of the invention be defined by the Claims appended hereto and their equivalents.
All patents, patent applications, publications, and references cited herein are expressly incorporated by reference to the same extent as if each individual publication or patent application was specifically and individually indicated to be incorporated by reference.