Chitosan-graphene oxide membranes and process of making the same
1. A process for making a chitosan-graphene oxide composite membrane, said process comprising the steps of:
- selectively mixing graphene oxide with purified water, wherein said graphene oxide has a first flake size between about 80 nm and about 105 nm in diameter or a second flake size between about 0.3 μ
m and about 0.7 μ
m in diameter, wherein said first flake size produces said chitosan-graphene oxide composite membrane with a layered graphene oxide internal morphology structure and said second flake size produces said chitosan-graphene oxide composite membrane with a dispersed graphene oxide internal morphology structure;
mixing chitosan with an acid;
preparing a casting solution comprising said chitosan and said graphene oxide;
evaporating said casting solution under reduced pressure to make said chitosan-graphene oxide composite membrane having said layered or said dispersed internal morphology structure.
This invention relates generally to a chitosan-graphene oxide membrane and process of making the same. The nanocomposite membrane can filter water and remove contaminants without fouling like other commercially-available polymer-based water filters. The membrane can be used as a flat sheet filter or can be engineered in a spiral filtration module. The membrane is scalable and tunable for many water contaminants including pharmaceuticals, pesticides, herbicides, and other organic chemicals. The membrane uses chitosan, which is low-cost, renewable biopolymer typically considered to be a waste product and the second most abundant biopolymer on Earth, thus making the membrane an environmentally-friendly product choice.
|NANO-GRAPHENE AND NANO-GRAPHENE OXIDE|
Patent #US 20140079932A1
Current AssigneeThe Trustees of Princeton University
Sponsoring EntityThe Trustees of Princeton University
|MEMBRANES COMPRISING GRAPHENE|
Patent #US 20160354729A1
Current AssigneeBL Technologies Inc.
Sponsoring EntityBL Technologies Inc.
- 1. A process for making a chitosan-graphene oxide composite membrane, said process comprising the steps of:
selectively mixing graphene oxide with purified water, wherein said graphene oxide has a first flake size between about 80 nm and about 105 nm in diameter or a second flake size between about 0.3 μ
m and about 0.7 μ
m in diameter, wherein said first flake size produces said chitosan-graphene oxide composite membrane with a layered graphene oxide internal morphology structure and said second flake size produces said chitosan-graphene oxide composite membrane with a dispersed graphene oxide internal morphology structure;
mixing chitosan with an acid; preparing a casting solution comprising said chitosan and said graphene oxide; evaporating said casting solution under reduced pressure to make said chitosan-graphene oxide composite membrane having said layered or said dispersed internal morphology structure.
- View Dependent Claims (2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17)
This application claims priority to and is a continuation-in-part of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 15/671,043 entitled ADVANCED FILTRATION MEMBRANES USING CHITOSAN AND GRAPHENE OXIDE filed on Aug. 7, 2017, claims priority to and is a continuation-in-part of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 15/672,241 entitled METHOD OF RECYCLING CHITOSAN AND GRAPHENE OXIDE COMPOUND filed on Aug. 8, 2017, and incorporates each of the foregoing applications by reference in its entirety into this document as if fully set out at this point.
This invention relates generally to a chitosan-graphene oxide membrane and process of making the same, and more particularly to a scalable chitosan-graphene oxide composite membrane that can be cast from a solution into a flat sheet and then engineered into a spiral wound membrane filtration module.
Membrane filtration is a cost-effective water treatment method that provides excellent removal for a wide range of aqueous contaminants with a relatively long lifetime and high product recovery. Novel nanomaterials provide an opportunity to develop membranes in the nanofiltration regime that can address the removal of contaminants not typically removed by microfiltration or ultrafiltration. Polymeric membranes are the most favorable candidates for nanofiltration membranes due to advantageous thermal and chemical stability. Thermal and chemical stability in a wide range of pH are observed for different polymeric membranes, including polyethersulfone (PES), poly(vinylylidenefluoride) (PVDF), polypyrrole (PPy), Poly (m-phenylene isophthalamide) (PMIA), polyamide (PA), and polysulfone (PSF). However, membrane fouling, low flux, and low hydrophilicity are challenges that remain. Further, most polymers are derived from petroleum and thus represent a fossil-fuel-based resource that presents opportunities for more environmentally-sustainable alternatives.
Chitosan (CS) is a polymer and a derivative of chitin, which is the second most abundant naturally-occurring biopolymer on Earth. Due to its biocompatibility, biodegradability, low toxicity, and antibacterial and hemostatic properties, CS is a promising low-cost, renewable alternative to petroleum-based synthetic polymers. Moreover, CS contains amino and hydroxyl functional groups, which make CS hydrophilic. However, the weak mechanical properties and the solubility of CS in acidic aqueous environments are two critical challenges. Modification methods, including cross-linking strategies and the use of mechanical reinforcement agents, can result in a more robust membrane material that can overcome these drawbacks.
Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and graphene as carbon-based nanofillers are not ideal due to toxicity, hydrophobic properties, and agglomeration. Graphene oxide (GO) is produced by chemical modification of graphene, where oxidation causes the addition of hydroxyl, carboxyl, and epoxide functional groups to the basal planes and edges of the graphene sheets. These functional groups make GO amphiphilic with hydrophobic basal planes and hydrophilic edges. GO also has a high surface area, and studies have shown that it is effective for adsorptive removal of heavy metal ions and cationic dyes from water. The oxidative surface modification of GO also enables its use as a dispersible nanofiller for water filtration membranes, due to the strong interactions between hydrophilic polymer functional groups and GO. The addition of GO to polymeric membranes comprised of PA, PES, PMIA, PSF, and PVDF resulted in decreased fouling, as well as increased hydrophilicity and flux. The addition of GO to a polymer matrix can also improve the thermal stability and mechanical strength of the membrane and results in demonstrated increases in salt rejection for PA, protein rejection for PES, arsenic rejection for PSF, and dye rejection for PMIA membranes.
Chitosan-graphene oxide (CSGO) nanocomposites have been investigated for drug delivery, bone tissue engineering, and water treatment. Strong hydrogen bonds and electrostatic attraction between negatively charged GO sheets and positively charged polysaccharide groups in CS make CSGO a stable and biocompatible nanocomposite with excellent mechanical and thermal properties. Therefore, CSGO composites can potentially be used for hydrostatic pressure-based water filtration applications, where mechanical stability is necessary. However, the application of CSGO as a membrane or film has been limited to tissue engineering, drug delivery, sensors, and similar applications. In water treatment applications, CSGO nanocomposites have primarily been used as an adsorbent to remove contaminants such as chromium, copper ions, other metal ions, and dye molecules from water. Prior reports on GO membranes have been limited to small experimental volumes and short durations, which are not representative of real-world membrane operation.
It is therefore desirable to provide a chitosan-graphene oxide membrane and process of making the same that overcomes the shortcomings of the prior processes.
It is further desirable to provide a scalable chitosan-graphene oxide composite membrane that can be cast from a solution into a flat sheet and then engineered into a spiral wound membrane filtration module.
It is still further desirable to provide a chitosan-graphene oxide membrane that has benefits over each material and over other polymer materials, including low cost, processability, scalability, anti-fouling, tunable flux and porosity, tunable contaminant rejection, and use of a biopolymer waste product.
It is yet further desirable to provide a chitosan-graphene oxide composite membrane constructed of a granular or a nanoscale GO particle with a predetermined size for optimal pressure-driven water filtration.
Before proceeding to a detailed description of the invention, however, it should be noted and remembered that the description of the invention which follows, together with the accompanying drawings, should not be construed as limiting the invention to the examples (or embodiments) shown and described. This is so because those skilled in the art to which the invention pertains will be able to devise other forms of this invention within the ambit of the appended claims.
In general, in a first aspect, the invention relates to a chitosan-graphene oxide composite membrane having up to about 25% by weight graphene oxide and up to about 75% by weight chitosan. The graphene oxide has a flake size between about 80 nm and about 105 nm in diameter or between about 0.3 m and about 0.7 m in diameter. The chitosan-graphene oxide composite membrane can be scalable and configured as a flat sheet or be spiral wound.
In general, in a second aspect, the invention relates to a process for making a chitosan-graphene oxide composite membrane. The process includes the steps of mixing graphene oxide with purified water, mixing chitosan with an acid (e.g., acetic acid), preparing a casting solution comprising the chitosan and the graphene oxide, and then evaporating the casting solution under reduced pressure to make the chitosan-graphene oxide composite membrane. The graphene oxide has a flake size between about 80 nm and about 105 nm in diameter or between about 0.3 m and about 0.7 m in diameter. The process can also include mixing the graphene oxide and the chitosan to form a homogenous mixture with a ratio of chitosan to graphene oxide of up to about 4:1 w/w.
The foregoing has outlined in broad terms some of the more important features of the invention disclosed herein so that the detailed description that follows may be more clearly understood, and so that the contribution of the named inventors to the art may be better appreciated. The invention is not to be limited in its application to the details of the construction and to the arrangements of the components set forth in the following description or illustrated in the drawings. Rather, the invention is capable of other embodiments and of being practiced and carried out in various other ways not specifically enumerated herein. Finally, it should be understood that the phraseology and terminology employed herein are for the purpose of description and should not be regarded as limiting, unless the specification specifically so limits the invention.
These and further aspects of the invention are described in detail in the following examples and accompanying drawings.
While this invention is susceptible of embodiment in many different forms, there is shown in the drawings, and will herein be described hereinafter in detail, some specific embodiments of the invention. It should be understood, however, that the present disclosure is to be considered an exemplification of the principles of the invention and is not intended to limit the invention to the specific embodiments so described.
The invention relates to a chitosan-graphene oxide membranes and process of making the same that has a low cost, processability, scalability, anti-fouling, tunable flux and porosity, tunable contaminant rejection, and use of a biopolymer waste product. The scalable chitosan-graphene oxide composite membrane can be cast from a solution into a flat sheet and then engineered into a spiral wound membrane filtration module. In particular, the scalable chitosan-graphene oxide composite membrane can be formed into a flat sheet from a chitosan-graphene oxide casting solution of water and an organic acid as described in U.S. patent application Ser. No. 15/671,043 entitled ADVANCED FILTRATION MEMBRANES USING CHITOSAN AND GRAPHENE OXIDE and in U.S. patent application Ser. No. 15/672,241 entitled METHOD OF RECYCLING CHITOSAN AND GRAPHENE OXIDE COMPOUND, which are both hereby incorporated herein by reference in their entireties.
The chitosan-graphene oxide composite membrane has membrane surfaces and internal morphology that is controlled by graphene oxide flake size. The chitosan-graphene oxide membrane can contain between about 16% and about 25% graphene oxide by weight or contain a ratio between about 4:1 to about 6:1 of chitosan to graphene oxide. In addition, the chitosan-graphene oxide membrane contains either nanoscale (e.g., between about 80 and about 105 nm in diameter) or granular, micron-scale (e.g., between about 0.3 and about 0.7 μm in diameter) graphene oxide composite particles. The graphene oxide particles are fully exfoliated in the chitosan polymer matrix. The chitosan and graphene oxide are initially stabilized through hydrogen bonding and electrostatic interactions. Post-treatment of the membrane can cause the formation of covalent bonds that further stabilize the membrane. The membrane is formed by casting the chitosan-graphene oxide casting solution onto a flat mold and allowing the water to evaporate. The flat sheet membrane formed can then be engineered into a spiral wound membrane module. The membranes have demonstrated antifouling and antimicrobial properties. The membranes are able to reject positively charged contaminants through a physical rejection mechanism, while negatively charged contaminants is rejected by a dual mechanism of adsorption and physical rejection.
The chitosan-graphene oxide membranes and process of making disclosed herein is further illustrated by the following examples, which are provided for the purpose of demonstration rather than limitation.
Graphene oxide was used in the dry solid and water-dispersed state. GO was obtained commercially as an aqueous suspension with a concentration of 6.2 g/L (Graphene Supermarket, Calverton, N.Y.). Granular and nanoscale dry solids GO samples were also obtained at two different commercially-reported particle sizes (granular, around 90% 0.3-0.7 μm and nanoscale, around 90% 80-105 nm, Graphene Supermarket, Calverton, N.Y.). The chitosan used was a form of deacetylated chitin from Sigma Aldrich (medium molecular weight, Poly-D-glucosamine). Acetic acid was obtained from Sigma Aldrich (>99%). Methylene blue (MB) was used as a cationic molecular probe for this study and has a molecular weight (MW) of 319.85 g/mol and a density of 1.77 g/mL. Methyl orange (MO) (MW=327.33 g/mol) was used as an anionic molecular probe. Solutions of MB and MO were prepared from laboratory grade powder obtained from Merck and Fisher Scientific, respectively. Millipore nitrocellulose membranes from Bio-Rad (Hercules, Calif.) (Roll, 0.45 m, 30 cm×3.5 m, Cat #:1620115) were used for mechanical support during cross-flow filtration. Anopore Anodized Aluminum Oxide Anodiscs® were obtained from Whatman® GE Healthcare Life Sciences (0.2 μm pore size, 60 μm thick, 47 mm diameter) and were used for vacuum filtration of GO suspensions.
Preparation of Graphene Oxide (GO) Membranes:
To prepare GO membranes, 50 mL GO suspensions were prepared by diluting the commercial GO suspension (6.2 g/L) to 1 g/L with purified water. The suspension was sonicated for 1 h and placed on a porous anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) filter for vacuum filtration. The pH of the suspension was approximately 3 due to residual acid content from graphene oxidation. Filtration of the suspension took approximately 72 h, at which point dissolution of Al3+ from the AAO filter provided a cross-linking agent for the GO laminate membrane to form as the GO flakes assembled on the AAO filter.
Preparation of Chitosan Membranes (CS/0):
To prepare CS/0 membranes, 500 mg of medium molecular weight CS, was added to a 100 mL Nalgene bottle containing 50 mL of water and approximately 0.33 mL of 99% acetic acid. This procedure was followed by stirring the solution for 72 hours. Finally, the solution was poured into a petri dish and dried in an incubator for 48 hours.
Preparation of Chitosan/Graphene Oxide (CSGO) Membranes:
A CS-rich GO suspension was prepared as follows: 0.3013 g of GO powder was added to 100 mL of purified water, stirred for 15 min, and sonicated for 30 min. The dispersion was then poured into an Erlenmeyer flask with 1.5 g of CS and 1 mL of acetic acid (1% acetic acid solution). The composition of this casting solution was 1.5 wt % CS and 0.3 wt % GO, and the CS/GO ratio in the cast membrane was 5:1 w/w. This dispersion was placed on a stir plate and stirred for 3 days at the highest speed. The mixing caused the CS powder to fully dissolve and the GO to disperse in the aqueous acetic acid solution and form a uniform mixture with a metallic gray color. The CSGO membranes were fabricated by evaporation under reduced pressure for 72 h which eliminated the need for the AAO filter support used for GO-only membranes.
Morphological and Chemical Analysis:
Surface and cross-sectional membrane morphology was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, Nova Nanolab 200, 15 kV). For cross-sectional observation, liquid nitrogen was used to freeze the samples before fracturing; the membranes were then freeze-fractured so that the membrane cross-section was exposed. Membrane sections were mounted onto SEM stubs with the top surface, bottom surface, or cross-section oriented for imaging. The films were sputter coated with gold to prevent charging and then analyzed by SEM. Attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (ATR-FTIR) (Spectrum BX FTIR spectrophotometer equipped with Pike ATR accessory) was used to evaluate the molecular interactions between GO and CS. The spectra were obtained at 8 cm−1 resolution in the absorbance wavelength range of 4000-500 cm−1. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS; PHI Versaprobe 5000 with PHI MultiPack data analysis software) was used to evaluate the chemical composition of the films. Initial survey scans (0-1400 eV binding energy) were followed by detailed scans for carbon (275-295 eV) and nitrogen (390-410 eV). High resolution x-ray diffraction (XRD, Philips X'"'"'Pert—MRD diffractometer, Cu Kα radiation source) was used to determine the crystallinity of the samples. XRD patterns were taken within recorded region of 20 from 5 to 350 with a scanning speed of 1 min−1 at a voltage of 45.0 kV and a current of 40.0 mA.
Tensile Strength Testing:
To measure the mechanical properties of the CS/0 and CSGO membranes, a universal mechanical testing machine (Instron 5944) was used to obtain stress-strain curves. The samples were cut in the same shape (40×10 mm) with a different thickness which was measured by cross-section SEM images (
Membrane Filtration and Rejection Experiments:
After fabrication, the freestanding membranes were sectioned with a Sterlitech membrane die and placed one at a time in a cross-flow membrane cell to evaluate pure water flux and contaminant rejection. The cross-flow system (
Organic Dye Analysis:
CSGO membranes were tested for their ability to remove MB and MO in a series of cross-flow filtration experiments. Dye solution, at varying concentrations, was flowed through the cross-flow cell at pressures ranging from 69 kPa to 414 kPa. The initial and final concentrations for the concentrate and permeate were analyzed using an Agilent 8453 UV-visible spectrophotometer. A linear calibration curve was used to calculate MB and MO concentrations from absorbance readings, and the MB and MO detection limits were estimated at 0.005 mg/L and 0.1 mg/L, respectively.
Morphology of CSGO Membranes
GO, CS/0, and CSGO membranes were first characterized by SEM to assess the morphology and distribution of GO particles in the CS matrix (
The cross-sectional images in
Chemical Composition of CSGO Composite Membranes:
To assess the chemical composition of each membrane, all of the membrane samples were characterized by XPS (
The C is XPS spectrum of the CS/0 membrane indicates the presence of C—C, C—O, and C═O groups at 284.8, 286.9, and 287.9 eV, respectively, while XPS results for both of the CSGO membranes indicate the presence of C═C/C—C, C—O, and C═O groups at 284.8, 286.9, and 287.9 eV, respectively. In comparison to the CS/0 membrane, the spectra for CSGO membranes result in a wider peak at around 284.7 eV indicating the presence of C═C, along with the characteristic peak at 284.8 eV for the C—C group. Further, the intensity of the peaks for C—O and C═O are larger due to the contribution of GO.
The initial survey scans for the GO membrane resulted in no observed peaks in the N is region (
When the results for N-group speciation between the DG-CSGO membrane and the DN-CSGO membrane are compared, the granular GO particles appear to have a larger effect on speciation than the nanoscale GO particles. This result suggests that the size of the GO particles is not only important for controlling membrane morphology, as shown in
EDX was also used during SEM imaging for elemental analysis of the membranes and support results obtained by XPS (Table 3). FTIR was used as a bulk technique to distinguish chemical bonds present in all samples (
Structural Characterization of CSGO Composite Membranes:
XRD characterization (
The behavior of the GO and CSGO membranes were also evaluated as wetted membranes by XRD. As shown in
Membrane Performance: Pure Water Flux and Organic Dye Rejection:
The performance of DN-CSGO and DG-CSGO composite membranes were evaluated in a cross-flow cell and challenged with the cationic MB and anionic MO dyes. For MB, both composite CSGO membranes were able to remove greater than 95% of MB from solution at concentrations ranging from 1-100 mg/L. The flux rates for these solutions ranged from 2-4.5 L/m2-h with a transmembrane pressure of 344 kPa (3.44 bar) with pure water permeance ranging of 5.8×10-3-0.01 L/m2-h-kPa (0.58 to 1.3 L/m2-h-bar) (
In the case of anionic MO, results indicate the importance of electrostatic effects as sorption appears to be the dominant mechanism of removal with decreased performance over time. It is also noteworthy that in contrast to MB, GO particle size dependent performance was observed with micrometer-scale GO removing 68-99% and the nanometer-scale GO showing modest removal of 29-64%. As the CSGO composite membranes sorbed anionic MO dye, overall rejection efficiency diminished from 99% to 68% and from 64% to 29% for the DG-CSGO and DN-CSGO membranes, respectively, throughout the duration of evaluation, where rejection in this case includes both adsorption and physical sieving of the dye. Rejection was observed for the DG-CSGO as the adsorbent sites were occupied; the MO concentration within the concentrate stream initially decreased but then increased as the experiment continued. For the DN-CSGO, the concentration within the concentrate stream initially decreased and remained constant for the remainder of the experiment, indicating sorption without clear evidence of rejection. In addition to lower removal efficiency, the flux for MO was also lower than MB with a flux range from 0.5-2.1 L/m2-h with a transmembrane pressure of 344 kPa (3.44 bar).
Further, while the water flux reported herein is quite low, membrane optimization (i.e., thickness and composition) will likely allow an increase in flux. It is also interesting to note that flux was not increased above the maximum of 4.5 L/m2-h even when subjected to 4 different pressures between 1380 kPa-4140 kPa (13.8-41.4 bar). However, the permeance range of 0.6 to 1.3 L/m2-h-bar is consistent with the permeance range of 0.5 to 10 L/m2-h-bar for GO composites observed in the literature where GO is blended within another matrix. Despite the challenges presented for these composite membranes, the initial performance evaluation of MB rejection demonstrates that these membranes hold promise as a material that utilizes the advantageous properties of both CS and GO in a scalable film suitable for roll to roll (R2R) manufacturing. The difference in performance between the two dyes analyzed indicates that electrostatic effects, in part, dictate membrane performance. We anticipate this initial proof of concept using CSGO as a competent, scalable membrane for pressure-driven, cross-flow water treatment will serve to guide further optimization of GO mixed matrix membranes.
Of the four types of membranes fabricated, only the composite CSGO membranes were able to be tested in the cross-flow system. The CS/0 membrane was unstable in aqueous solution, as was expected for an unmodified CS/0 film due to the solubility of chitosan in aqueous solutions. The GO membrane, which was fabricated via the Anodisc-based method vacuum filtration method, was not scalable and did not have a surface area large enough to accommodate the cross-flow cell. The challenges of CS/0 stability and GO fabrication scalability are thus addressed in the formation of the CSGO composite membranes. The robust and scalable CSGO composite membranes were evaluated in the cross-flow system for up to 7 days and resulted in consistent pure water flux measurements. However, in longer flux studies, an increase in pure water flux was observed for some of the membrane samples tested, suggesting eventual instability of the composite in an aqueous system. This instability is likely due to swelling and loss of structural order; future work on these membranes will necessarily include optimization of membrane stability and evaluation of membrane performance in long-term cross-flow filtration studies.
In all experiments, formation of a concentrated MB solution in the reject stream of the cross-flow system (
In addition to the C is and N is spectra discussed above, the GO membrane was also analyzed for the Al 2p region (
As EDX is considered to be semi-quantitative, EDX results are used to support results obtained by XPS and are used as relative measurements within the sample set of membranes reported herein, rather than quantitative, absolute measurements. The GO membrane sample contained 60.8% carbon and 38.0% oxygen, which are correlated to the carbon ring backbone and oxygen-containing functional groups of the membrane. The 0.5% sulfur in the GO sample is likely due to the residual sulfur from H2SO4 used in GO preparation from graphene. The Al3+ released from the AAO filter was also observed in the GO membrane. In comparison with the top side of the GO, the bottom side shows approximately the same amount of C, O, and S; this result is expected since EDX is a bulk characterization technique, whereas XPS is a surface sensitive technique, probing only the first 5-10 nm of the membrane sample. The EDX results for the CS/0 membrane indicate an atomic distribution of 62.0% as C, 27.5% as O, and 10.6% as N in the membrane. The CSGO membranes also show ˜8% N because of the amine groups of CS. Overall, the EDX results confirm and support results presented in
The presence of amide I and amide II bands are shown in the IR spectrum of the CS/0 membrane with two peaks at 1640 and 1542 cm−1, respectively. The peaks at 1018 and 1152 cm−1 confirm the presence of primary (C6—OH) and secondary (C3—OH) alcoholic groups, respectively. Broad peaks in the range of 2500 to 3500 cm−1 indicate N—H (amino group) and O—H stretching. The FTIR spectrum of the GO membrane also consists of several peaks. The four main peaks at 985, 1085, 1618, 1722 cm−1 are related to C—O—C bonds of epoxy, C—OH, C═C stretching mode of the sp2 carbon skeletal network, and C═O bonds, respectively. The spectrum for CSGO samples shows that typical peaks of the functional groups presented in the CS/0 membrane are also observed in the CSGO composite membranes. The peaks at around 1648 cm−1 and 1550 cm−1 correspond to C═O and N—H stretching. The intensity of the peaks decreases in the CSGO spectra, in comparison with pure CS. Moreover, some of the peaks, such as the amide group C═O bond, are shifted. The interaction of negative charge on GO surface and polycationic CS, as well as hydrogen bonding, may be responsible for these changes. The broad peaks in the range of 2500 to 3500 cm−1 are associated with the OH groups in GO and amine stretch from the CSGO mixture.
For this set of measurements, the membranes were soaked in purified water for 30 min and then analyzed by XRD. The resulting XRD diffraction patterns are compared for both the dry and wet states in
Tensile Test Results:
Tensile testing (
As demonstrated above, the size of the GO particles has a significant influence on the surface and cross-sectional morphology of the CSGO composite and also influences the chemical composition and interactions between CS and GO in the composite. The size of the GO particles, however, is not related to the membrane performance for water treatment of cationic dye. Adding nanoscale GO particles causes better dispersion and less defects than granular particles, so longer elongation at the break point.
Therefore, the size of the graphene oxide particles in the chitosan-graphene oxide composite membranes is shown to have a direct impact on the membrane morphology, chemical speciation, structure order, and membrane mechanical properties. The composite membranes comprised of either nanometer GO or micrometer-scale GO result in similar filtration performance when pure water flux and rejection of the cationic dye methylene blue. However, the differences in rejection and flux observed during filtration of anionic dye methyl orange suggest the size of GO may impact filtration performance and that the properties of the contaminant are important to understand in relation to the properties of the composite membranes. Overall, the CSGO membranes had rejections of at least 95% for cationic methylene blue (MB) with mass balances obtained from measurements of the feed, concentrate, and permeate. This result demonstrates the dominant mechanism of removal is physical rejection for both GO particle sizes. For anionic methyl orange (MO), results indicate sorption as the dominant mechanism of removal, and performance is dependent on both GO particle size and time, with micrometer-scale GO removing 68-99% and nanometer-scale GO showing modest removal of 29-64%. The pure water flux for CSGO composite membranes ranged from 2-4.5 L/m2-h at a transmembrane pressure of 344 kPa (3.44 bar) with pure water permeance ranging of 5.8×10-3-0.01 L/m2-h-kPa (0.58 to 1.3 L/m2-h-bar).
It is to be understood that the terms “including”, “comprising”, “consisting” and grammatical variants thereof do not preclude the addition of one or more components, features, steps, or integers or groups thereof and that the terms are to be construed as specifying components, features, steps or integers.
If the specification or claims refer to “an additional” element, that does not preclude there being more than one of the additional element.
It is to be understood that where the claims or specification refer to “a” or “an” element, such reference is not be construed that there is only one of that element.
It is to be understood that where the specification states that a component, feature, structure, or characteristic “may”, “might”, “can” or “could” be included, that particular component, feature, structure, or characteristic is not required to be included.
Where applicable, although state diagrams, flow diagrams or both may be used to describe embodiments, the invention is not limited to those diagrams or to the corresponding descriptions. For example, flow need not move through each illustrated box or state, or in exactly the same order as illustrated and described.
Methods of the disclosure may be implemented by performing or completing manually, automatically, or a combination thereof, selected steps or tasks.
The term “process” may refer to manners, means, techniques and procedures for accomplishing a given task including, but not limited to, those manners, means, techniques and procedures either known to, or readily developed from known manners, means, techniques and procedures by practitioners of the art to which the invention belongs.
For purposes of the disclosure, the term “at least” followed by a number is used herein to denote the start of a range beginning with that number (which may be a ranger having an upper limit or no upper limit, depending on the variable being defined). For example, “at least 1” means 1 or more than 1. The term “at most” followed by a number is used herein to denote the end of a range ending with that number (which may be a range having 1 or 0 as its lower limit, or a range having no lower limit, depending upon the variable being defined). For example, “at most 4” means 4 or less than 4, and “at most 40%” means 40% or less than 40%. Terms of approximation (e.g., “about”, “substantially”, “approximately”, etc.) should be interpreted according to their ordinary and customary meanings as used in the associated art unless indicated otherwise. Absent a specific definition and absent ordinary and customary usage in the associated art, such terms should be interpreted to be ±10% of the base value.
When, in this document, a range is given as “(a first number) to (a second number)” or “(a first number)-(a second number)”, this means a range whose lower limit is the first number and whose upper limit is the second number. For example, 25 to 100 should be interpreted to mean a range whose lower limit is 25 and whose upper limit is 100. Additionally, it should be noted that where a range is given, every possible subrange or interval within that range is also specifically intended unless the context indicates to the contrary. For example, if the specification indicates a range of 25 to 100 such range is also intended to include subranges such as 26-100, 27-100, etc., 25-99, 25-98, etc., as well as any other possible combination of lower and upper values within the stated range, e.g., 33-47, 60-97, 41-45, 28-96, etc. Note that integer range values have been used in this paragraph for purposes of illustration only and decimal and fractional values (e.g., 46.7-91.3) should also be understood to be intended as possible subrange endpoints unless specifically excluded.
It should be noted that where reference is made herein to a process comprising two or more defined steps, the defined steps can be carried out in any order or simultaneously (except where context excludes that possibility), and the process can also include one or more other steps which are carried out before any of the defined steps, between two of the defined steps, or after all of the defined steps (except where context excludes that possibility).
Still further, additional aspects of the invention may be found in one or more appendices attached hereto and/or filed herewith, the disclosures of which are incorporated herein by reference as if fully set out at this point.
Thus, the invention is well adapted to carry out the objects and attain the ends and advantages mentioned above as well as those inherent therein. While the inventive concept has been described and illustrated herein by reference to certain illustrative embodiments in relation to the drawings attached thereto, various changes and further modifications, apart from those shown or suggested herein, may be made therein by those of ordinary skill in the art, without departing from the spirit of the inventive concept the scope of which is to be determined by the following claims.