Hardware virtualized input output memory management unit
1. An apparatus for performing computation, comprising:
- a physical processor element capable of being configured to execute a hypervisor that hosts one or more guest Operating Systems (OS) by presenting a respective virtualized machine interface to each hosted guest OS;
a physical memory;
an Input/Output (I/O) device; and
an I/O Memory Management Unit (IOMMU) coupled to the physical processor element, the IOMMU configured to;
receive from the hypervisor a direct mapping between a guest address for a hosted guest OS, and an address in the physical memory,store the mapping in a Translation Lookaside Buffer (TLB) maintained within the IOMMU,store a mapping in a device table between a guest identifier for the guest OS and an identifier for the I/O device,receive from the I/O device a request to access the physical memory, the request specifying an identifier for the I/O device, and responsive to receiving the request, to lookup the specified I/O device identifier in the device table, wherein the device table is modified by a corresponding entry in a device remap table,if the device table, as modified by the corresponding entry in the device remap table, comprises a matching entry, then to obtain a guest identifier from the matching entry, and use that obtained guest identifier and a device address provided with the request to index the TLB to determine an address in the physical memory that corresponds to the device address, andinitiate fulfillment of the I/O device request.
Aspects relate to Input/Output (IO) Memory Management Units (MMUs) that include hardware structures for implementing virtualization. Some implementations allow guests to setup and maintain device IO tables within memory regions to which those guests have been given permissions by a hypervisor. Some implementations provide hardware page table walking capability within the IOMMU, while other implementations provide static tables. Such static tables may be maintained by a hypervisor on behalf of guests. Some implementations reduce a frequency of interrupts or invocation of hypervisor by allowing transactions to be setup by guests without hypervisor involvement within their assigned device IO regions. Devices may communicate with IOMMU to setup the requested memory transaction, and completion thereof may be signaled to the guest without hypervisor involvement. Various other aspects will be evident from the disclosure.
|I/O MEMORY MANAGEMENT UNIT INCLUDING MULTILEVEL ADDRESS TRANSLATION FOR I/O AND COMPUTATION OFFLOAD|
Patent #US 20110023027A1
Current AssigneeAdvanced Micro Devices Inc.
Sponsoring EntityAdvanced Micro Devices Inc.
|Translation Data Prefetch in an IOMMU|
Patent #US 20080209130A1
Current AssigneeGlobalFoundries Inc.
Sponsoring EntityGlobalFoundries Inc.
|Virtualization system for computers with a region-based memory architecture|
Patent #US 7,275,136 B1
Current AssigneeVMware Inc.
Sponsoring EntityVMware Inc.
|Logically partitioning different classes of TLB entries within a single caching structure|
Patent #US 7,293,157 B1
Current AssigneeOracle America Inc.
Sponsoring EntitySun Microsystems Incorporated
|Input Output Memory Management Unit (IOMMU) Two-Layer Addressing|
Patent #US 20120246381A1
Current AssigneeAdvanced Micro Devices Inc.
Sponsoring EntityATI Technologies ULC
|GPU ACCELERATED ADDRESS TRANSLATION FOR GRAPHICS VIRTUALIZATION|
Patent #US 20140354667A1
Current AssigneeIntel Corporation
Sponsoring EntityJianghong Du, Yunbiao Lin
- 1. An apparatus for performing computation, comprising:
a physical processor element capable of being configured to execute a hypervisor that hosts one or more guest Operating Systems (OS) by presenting a respective virtualized machine interface to each hosted guest OS; a physical memory; an Input/Output (I/O) device; and an I/O Memory Management Unit (IOMMU) coupled to the physical processor element, the IOMMU configured to; receive from the hypervisor a direct mapping between a guest address for a hosted guest OS, and an address in the physical memory, store the mapping in a Translation Lookaside Buffer (TLB) maintained within the IOMMU, store a mapping in a device table between a guest identifier for the guest OS and an identifier for the I/O device, receive from the I/O device a request to access the physical memory, the request specifying an identifier for the I/O device, and responsive to receiving the request, to lookup the specified I/O device identifier in the device table, wherein the device table is modified by a corresponding entry in a device remap table, if the device table, as modified by the corresponding entry in the device remap table, comprises a matching entry, then to obtain a guest identifier from the matching entry, and use that obtained guest identifier and a device address provided with the request to index the TLB to determine an address in the physical memory that corresponds to the device address, and initiate fulfillment of the I/O device request.
- View Dependent Claims (2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9)
- 10. An Input/Output Memory Management Unit (IOMMU), comprising:
a device table storing entries mapping respective guest identifiers to respective I/O devices, each guest identifier identifying a respective GuestOS executing on a processor coupled with the IOMMU, and indicating read and write permissions to be accorded the I/O device; a device remap table, wherein the device remap table is used to modify corresponding entries in the device table; a Translation Lookaside Buffer (TLB) storing entries directly mapping device addresses supplied in I/O device requests to physical addresses within a system memory; and circuitry configured to receive an I/O device request, verify that the I/O device request maps to a valid guest identifier using the device table, as modified by the device remap table, and use the TLB to identify a physical address corresponding to a device address supplied in the received I/O device request.
- View Dependent Claims (11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28)
This application claims priority from U.S. Provisional App. No. 61/925,723, entitled, “HARDWARE VIRTUALIZED INPUT OUTPUT MEMORY MANAGEMENT UNIT” and filed on Jan. 10, 2014, which is incorporated in its entirety herein for all purposes.
The following relates to implementing Input Output Memory Management, and in one more particular aspect, to implementing a virtualized Input Output Memory Management unit (IOMMU)
An Input/Output Memory Management Unit (IOMMU) provides a capability of mapping a device address from an I/O Device to a Physical Memory Address (PA). Such an IOMMU can be used by I/O Devices that originate DMA traffic. An IOMMU provides memory protection similar to that provided by a Memory Management Unit that protects memory from errant access by programs running on one or more processor cores that use the memory. Thus, an IOMMU can increase I/O throughput and also provide protection and isolation for memory accesses by I/O devices.
In one aspect of the disclosure, an IOMMU provides a native hardware capability to support IOMMU virtualization. Such an IOMMU can support a fully virtualized mode in which each guest can interface directly with the IOMMU through a defined interface, while the hypervisor maintains control over an interface that maintains isolation among guests and sets appropriate permissions that are enforced by the IOMMU on the guests. In another implementation, an IOMMU is managed by hypervisor, may not have a hardware page table walker. Thus, mappings are maintained by hypervisor in this example. Guests can interface with hypervisor to setup or remove desired mappings.
A Guest Operating System (GuestOS) can execute on computing resources that appear to the GuestOS to be dedicated to the kernel of that GuestOS and programs executing on that kernel. A Hypervisor interfaces with the actual hardware of available computing resources and provides a virtualized view of hardware to the GuestOS. The presence of a Hypervisor introduces an additional privilege level, root, which takes precedence over a kernel mode of a GuestOS, which in turn takes precedence over user mode within that GuestOS. Processor capability and memory can be virtualized. IOMMU functionality also can be virtualized. Hardware support for IOMMU virtualization is in contrast to supporting virtualization of IOMMU functionality by virtualizing an interface to the IOMMU in the Hypervisor itself. Virtualizing the interface for an IOMMU increases in complexity when multiple Guest OSes share the IOMMU. The disclosed aspects of hardware IOMMU virtualization allow software implementing a Hypervisor to be simplified and often provide better performance.
A GuestOS can have access to a hypercall instruction that causes a hypervisor to setup IOMMU tables with a mapping from addresses that have meaning to the GuestOS to physical memory addresses. Subsequently, the IOMMU can function to permit device DMA without further hypervisor intervention, within the confines of how the hypervisor setup the IOMMU tables. However, unmapped memory access attempts would require hypervisor intervention. The mapping can be made with large page sizes so that fewer memory accesses will exit to root. Also, large page sizes provide an opportunity to map an entire guess address space once. Thereafter, a guest that has had a large page size IOMMU mapping can handle device-specific programming within those mappings, without hypervisor intervention. A hypervisor can be invoked if there is a need to arbitrate among competing guests to program the same I/O device.
Implementations of the hardware virtualized IOMMU herein may be software-managed only, have a capability to walk root page tables for a GuestOS and not be software managed, or a combination thereof. For example, a software-managed IOMMU can be used in conjunction with page walking capability.
In another aspect, a single hardware IOMMU supports a completely virtualized IOMMU, a para-virtualized IOMMU or an unvirtualized IOMMU. Paravirtualized IOMMU operation means that a GuestOS requests hypervisor intervention in order to make a device Direct Memory Access (DMA). Non-transitory media may have stored thereon data from which an integrated circuit can be constructed according to any of a plurality of build options. In particular, these build options may include unvirtualized, para-virtualized and fully virtualized. Depending on build mode, available operating modes will differ.
An I/O Memory Management Unit (IOMMU) provides address translation and protection capabilities to read/write accesses that originate from devices in I/O space. These requests are typically for access to memory, such as for Direct Memory Access (DMA) between a device and memory, or in more limited situations, Control and Status Registers (CSRs) within a System-On-Chip (SOC). The following disclosure relates to an IOMMU that can be built to provide hardware-based I/O MMU services in a virtualized environment.
This disclosure uses the following terminology. A Hypervisor abstracts physical execution resources with respect to a Guest Operating System, and a specific abstraction in which a given Guest OS executes can be called its Virtual Machine (VM). A Physical Address (PA) refers to an address in physical memory, whether in a VirtualiZation (VZ) mode or not. In a VZ mode, the following further terminology is used: a Guest Physical Address (GPA) refers to a Guest OS'"'"'s view of physical memory in its Virtual Machine (VM), and a Root Physical Address (RPA) refers to true physical memory, which also is a Hypervisor'"'"'s view of physical memory. A Device Table (DT) contains data that maps an Input Output (I/O) device to related information, such as an I/O page table base address and a Group IDentifier (GroupID). An I/O Page Table (IOPT) contains data that maps I/O device addresses to physical addresses in a system memory. A Translation Lookaside Buffer (TLB) buffers these translations. Various other terminology is introduced in context.
A virtualization environment can be specific to a particular processor architecture, such that virtualization can be implemented as an extension to such processor architecture. In an example, a Virtualization Application Specific Extension (ASE) for a MIPS™ processor architecture can be implemented. In virtualized environments that have an IOMMU according to one implementation of the disclosure, Guest OSes have the capability of programming I/O devices, if permitted. So, a GuestOS can be permitted to program an I/O device as if it owned it, without recurrent hypervisor intervention. Guest OS physical addresses are translated to root physical addresses through a TLB or by using a page table. The IOMMU will also provide protection against errant device programming attempts by a guest OS.
In one aspect, IOMMUs implemented according to the disclosure are software-managed only, which means that address mappings in the IOMMU are programmed by a hypervisor for each guest, or for root address translation. In such an implementation, memory mappings would be comparatively static, as no capability would exist to service a translation miss by the IOMMU and then restart a particular device request. For example, mappings can be static through an active time of a GuestOS or a thread executing in a GuestOS on an execution core. In such implementations, devices that require or benefit from dynamic page management would implement their own MMUs that would have a hardware-implemented page walking capability. In such instances, the IOMMU still prevents spurious accesses to memory.
In another implementation, an IOMMU according to the disclosure provides a page walking capability. In a specific example, such an IOMMU can walk root page tables on behalf of guest requests, in order to map Guest Physical Addresses to Root Physical Addresses. A TLB may be provided, so that if a TLB miss occurs, a page walk can occur in order to populate the TLB and continue with the request that originally missed in the TLB. In implementations such as these, devices may still implement their own MMUs. Additionally, IOMMU page table caching can be distributed in such implementations, where the caches are managed by a central IOMMU.
In some aspects, a Virtualized IOMMU according to the disclosure provides support for operation of multiple guest contexts. In one implementation, each GuestOS controls a non-overlapping set of I/O devices. In an implementation, physical I/O devices can be virtualized to present non-overlapping virtual I/O devices to each GuestOS. As will be explained, aspects of the disclosure provide simplification to a hypervisor portion of a virtualized environment.
Where a number of GuestOSes using the IOMMU is relatively low, a hypervisor may be able to achieve a static mapping between guest addresses and physical memory addresses within a TLB. However, in other implementations, too many guests may need IOMMU services, and in such an instance, the hypervisor would more actively manage the contents of the TLB based on the context switching behavior of the GuestOses. Also, page sizes indexed by the TLB can be selected to be relatively large, so that each GuestOS requires relatively few distinct entries in the TLB. Specific page sizes depend on an implementation, including how much memory is available as well as how many GuestOSes may need to use that memory.
In further overview, the disclosure presents an example IOMMU implementation using programmable CSRs to configure the IOMMU. These CSRs are accessible through MMIO address space. Such IOMMU supports an I/O Page-Table for translating device-originated guest physical addresses to root (real) physical addresses. Any CPU accesses to I/O devices are first checked against the Device Table of the IOMMU to determine if the guest has permission to access the device. If not, an error is signaled.
The Hypervisor can interact with the IOMMU through a Command Queue (CQ). Commands available to the Hypervisor include management commands, such as commands for controlling table contents and translations cached in the IOMMU. In a fully virtualized operating mode, each GuestOS also can initiates transactions by submitting commands to a respective CQ for that GuestOS. The IOMMU services the CQs first by a permissions check and then by checking for an appropriate address mapping within a TLB. On a miss, the IOMMU can walk a page table to identify the address and restart the transaction. The IOMMU monitors device access to the IOMMU, and checks programmed state for protocol errors. Responsive to an error, the IOMMU can terminate device access and log an error in an Error Log. A valid event in the Error Log will interrupt the hypervisor. Each GuestOS also may have a respective error log and respond to errors. The IOMMU would store or cache translations in the TLB for acceleration of translation requests. An extent of such caching is implementation dependent.
In another example implementation, no hardware page table walker is provided in the IOMMU, which then requires that the hypervisor setup and maintain all address translations available to the IOMMU. In one implementation according to this example, GuestOSes may be modified to include a hypercall which can be used to setup appropriate mappings, preceding a device DMA transaction executed on behalf of that GuestOS. The hypercall requests the hypervisor to setup a particular translation. Such hypercall can be included in kernel code for the GuestOS, or a driver for the device, loaded for the GuestOS may include the hypercall. A GuestOS may request setup of a range of GPAs that have large page sizes, so that these mappings may be useful for a number of device accesses. The usage of such a hypercall or other pre-fetching strategy may still be used with an IOMMU that provides a page walker. Such hypercalls may also allow debugging and TLB entry invalidation.
In some implementations, a Virtualized IOMMU according to the disclosure does not support the capability of allowing an I/O device to be programmed with a virtual address, from the perspective of a GuestOS. Such capability would require an (additional) table walk to translate the GuestOS virtual address to a Guest Physical Address, as well as availability of more page tables to the IOMMU. Instead, I/O devices are programmed with physical addresses, from a GuestOS perspective (which are GPAs, which are translated into RPAs as explained). However, such an IOMMU may still permit guest privileged software to program devices; such capability is provided by the hypervisor setting up appropriate mappings for the guest access within a CPU MMU accessible by the GuestOS.
Further details and related aspects concerning such implementations are explained below.
Overview of Example System
Now turning to
The example location of IOMMU 21 is appropriate for a situation where there are multiple masters on bus 24. If there is only one master on bus 24, such as an Ethernet controller 42, then an IOMMU may be positioned as depicted by IOMMU 27. Another possible configuration is to have a central IOMMU with a Caching Only IOMMU associated with a GPU (for example).
In some implementations, a Caching Only (CO)-IOMMU 36 that contains a remote TLB 39 may be provided with GPU 30, and can cache TLB information for use by GPU 30. CO-IOMMU 36 provides address translation and protection capability in a distributed manner where I/O devices may have attached MMUs. In an implementation, each Co-IOMMU requests translations only through a main IOMMU (e.g., IOMMU 21) and does not walk I/O page tables itself (and if a main IOMMU does not walk page tables, then data available from caching only IOMMUs may be a subset of data in the main IOMMU populated by a hypervisor).
Build and Operating Modes
A system in accordance with the examples of
The Para-Virtualized mode relies on GuestOSs that have been modified to make hypercalls to a Hypervisor to set-up device memory access. Thus in para-virtualization, a Device-Table is Hypervisor managed. Also, a Command Queue and Error Log are Hypervisor-managed. Accordingly, entries in the Device-Table, Command Queue and Error Log are tagged with identifiers for a GuestOS associated with those entries (a GuestID). A Fully-Virtualized mode assumes that GuestOSes can be unmodified (unmodified for virtualization purposes).
IOMMU 112 includes a set of registers that each identify a base address for a particular system memory resident. In the example IOMMU 112, these base addresses include a set of device table base addresses 114, a set of command queue base addresses 116, and a set of error log base addresses 118. In a fully-virtualized mode, each of 112, 114, and 116 may have an entry for each GuestOS, which reference guest I/O page tables 152, guest device tables 154, guest command queues 156 and guest error logs 158. IOMMU 112 also includes a root page (PTBA) table base address 130 and a root device remapping table (RDRT) base address 132, which identify locations of root I/O page table 160 and RDRT 162 in memory 150.
IOMMU 112 also includes caches for caching information obtained from these tables: a device table entry cache 122 stores entries retrieved from device tables, a root device table entry cache 124 stores entries from the root device table, and a page table entry cache 126 stores entries obtained from page tables. Cache 122 and cache 124 can be implemented as a single physical cache or as separate caches. If implemented as a single cache, then tags would have one or more bits to distinguish root from guest entries. IOMMU 112 also includes functional logic 131, which can be implemented as circuitry comprising logic gates and interconnect to perform tasks such as retrieving and storing data in the caches, updating TLB 128, responding to new commands, adding errors to the error log, and so on. The circuitry and interconnect used to implement these functions can be understood by those of ordinary skill in the art, based on the description of the functions and what elements may read and/or write to each such element depicted in the figures.
In this example implementation, each GuestOS can be allowed to set up a respective Device Table, and has access to a respective Command Queue and Error Log, as if it has its own independent instance of each. A GuestOS can write commands to be implemented by the IOMMU, such as an invalidation of a cached Device Table Entry (DTE), invalidation of an I/O Page Table Entry and so on. The IOMMU reads each Command Queue 56.
In an example where an IOMMU includes a page table walker 121, a GuestOS can generate an initial GuestOS MMIO access to device programming address space, which, if not yet mapped, will cause a page-miss. Hypervisor will choose to grant access to the Guest-OS, or pend the request. Hypervisor will program RDRT 162 to indicate which GuestOS has been granted access to a Device (if any). Each device access first causes a determination of which GuestOS that access is associated with by a lookup in RDRT 162. Thus, in a fully-virtualized mode according to this implementation, there can be n GuestOSs, resulting in n+1 device tables, and command and error queues, and a single RDRT 162.
This example shows that these data structures are implemented as memory-based data-structures. Alternatively, some or all of these structures may be configured as tables (e.g., fixed size tables) in IOMMU 112. A reason for using in-memory data structures is a software view of IOMMU 112 can be independent of a hardware implementation of IOMMU 112. IOMMU 112 can scale the implementation, and provide various optimizations, such as caching I/O Page Table PTEs, while software'"'"'s view of IOMMU 112 remains static. Further, software may be able to tolerate longer latencies of interaction with IOMMU 112 in such an implementation. However, some designs (such as designs for embedded uses) and related software may be implemented by storing the data described below in hardware-implemented memories that are private to IOMMU 112. Here, the term “software” is used to describe processes executing on hardware execution resources, and not to describe software programs per se.
In the context of an implementation where GPAs are used, but not Guest Virtual Addresses, I/O page tables 152 provide mappings between GPAs and RPAs, and are indexed by GPA. Devices also can share Page Tables through a common device Group-ID. A Group-ID is used in the tag for matching translation entries in Translation Lookaside Buffer (TLB) 128 implemented within the IOMMU.
The following paragraphs provide further detail concerning the various data structure identified above. Various elements in the detail below are given names, such as names for particular types of data, or collections of data. These names are provided for ease of understanding and convenience, but not to imply any requirement that implementations refer to like data with similar names, or necessarily provide the same data, or organize that data in accordance with the examples presented.
A Device Table (DT) (e.g., guest device tables 154) is a structure in memory than can be indexed by a device number associated with a device request. Contents of the device table may be initialized by hypervisor 110, and read by IOMMU 112. An entry for a particular device provides device-specific information related to translation and access permissions. The DT associates access permissions with devices. In operation, IOMMU 112 indexes a DT with a device number obtained from a device request. The DT also can map a device request to a specific GuestOS through a GuestID. The DT may be configured to be a fixed-size table in the IOMMU, or be implemented as a memory-mapped table.
Hypervisor 110 manages/tracks ownership of devices by GuestOSes. Hypervisor 110 must initialize Device Table entries with appropriate GuestIDs, before granting a GuestOS access to a device in I/O space (such initialization can be in response to a trapped request or an initialization that occurs in advance of a request). Once the Device Table is initialized, then any GuestOS device reads or writes will be checked against the Device Table for correct association of GuestID. In a situation where devices can be associated with only one GuestOS at a time, different GuestOSes can use the same device at different points in time, and hypervisor 110 initializes and reinitializes corresponding Device Table entries to support ownership of the same device by different GuestOSes. Hypervisor 110 uses invalidate commands to ensure an appropriate context is established. An example implementation of a DT Entry (DTE) is in Table 1, below:
By way of further example, entries in a device table may be simpler than the example of Table 1. For example, an entry in a device table may have only a valid bit and a GuestID. A base address of a page table may be omitted, if the IOMMU does not support page walking. In such an instance, a device address (e.g., a GPA) can be used to identify a corresponding GuestID in the DT, which is then used to identify an entry in the IOMMU TLB.
Entries in DT entry cache 122 may be tagged with a GuestID, GroupID, and device address. However, GroupID is optional. Providing DT entry cache 122 is optional, and some implementations may require that a hypervisor establish and maintain mappings within a device table, and may omit hardware page walking capability.
Quality of Service (QoS) attributes may be specified per device. QoS bits may have a meaning established by a usage convention being employed. In one usage convention, QoS bits are used to determine an allocation of DMA bandwidth among contending devices. Such an allocation approach may restrict sideband information available about other DMA devices within a system, to other DMA device, based on response or throughput metrics. Other usages may be to support different kinds of DMA transactions differently according to the QoS bits, which may be used to indicate a kind of computation being performed by GuestOS processes associated with each device. QoS also can be used to prioritize requests based on latency constraints.
A Device Remap Table (DRT) 162 may be provided. DRT 162 remaps certain fields of device tables to require Hypervisor intervention, such as for verifying access controls and implementing other management functionality, such as quality of service enforcement. Thus, guests can populate respective guest tables and permissions can be verified by IOMMU 112 using DRT 162. In an example, DRT 162 contains the same number of entries as the Device Table. In an example implementation, each DRT Entry (DRTE) is specified so that each Device maps to a unique GuestOS. In such an implementation, to allow for sharing of a Device between different GuestOSes (e.g, for multi-threading), such Device must be programmed to issue or use a different DeviceID for each GuestOS-initiated transaction. In another implementation, devices may issue DeviceIDs on a thread-specific basis, and these thread-specific DeviceIDs can be associated with specific GuestOSes. Other approaches to allowing sharing of a device among multiple GuestOses can be provided, and these are example implementations. An example DRT entry is provided below, in Table 2.
A number of devices capable of being physically supported in an IOMMU implementation, or system including such, may be fewer than a number of entries in the Device Table. Unused entries should have valid bits initialized to invalid. In addition, in Virtualization mode, unused entries in the DRT should have valid bits initialized to invalid. IOMMU implementations according to the disclosure may support dynamic addition and removal of I/O devices, which would cause entries in the device tables and/or DRT to be added, removed, or status updated accordingly.
At a minimum, Device R/W permissions obtained from a DTE are ANDed with R/W permissions from a Page-Table PTE to determine a final R/W permission (in implementations where such structures are provided). Additionally, in Virtualization mode, device R/W permissions are further ANDed with read or write permissions maintained in the DRT (DRTE[RDOV/WROV] in Table 2, above).
QoS can be defined in both DTE and in a DRTE for a given device. The QoS information in a DRTE can be a superset of the information in a DTE, and DRTE can override information in the DTE, in an example. For example, if GCFG[VZEN]=1 & GCFG[CEQM]=1, then GUID is used to determine whether device access has been initiated by Guest or Hypervisor. If GUID is 0, then device is Hypervisor enabled, else it is Guest enabled.
Page Tables (PTs) maintained by hypervisor are used to translate device addresses to root (or real) physical addresses.
Directory Pointers in the I/O Page Table referenced by a Device Table Entry are always Physical. In Virtualization mode, if the Device is programmed by Guest, then the pointer is a GPA, else if it is programmed by Hypervisor, then the pointer is an RPA. A GPA must always be walked through the Root Page Table to generate an RPA. Directory Pointers in the Root Page Table are always RPA.
In an example implementation, a format of the Page Tables can follow a format of CPU page tables used for a processor architecture with which the IOMMU will be used. However, in an example implementation, a base address of the Table, and intermediate directory pointer addresses are RPA (root physical addresses). This may be in contrast with CPU Page Tables, which may be virtually addressed. A CPU Page Table may also be accompanied by an Address Segment Map which allows for an unmapped translation of virtual to physical addresses within a specific segment of memory (e.g., kseg0 in MIPS™ architecture). The IOMMU on the other hand does not have an accompanying Address Segment Map and thus cannot translate guest virtual to physical addresses without a Page Table.
Commands and Command Queues
Some implementations may supply a hypervisor managed command queue; other implementations may provide a hypervisor managed command queue and per-GuestOS command queues. Some implementations may support one or more registers in which commands can be inserted, which may not be managed as a queue.
In an example, queued commands are dequeued and processed by IOMMU 112. These commands can be used, for example, to invalidate device related state such as a DTE (Device Table Entry), or a PTE (Page Table Entry) obtained on a page-table walk of the I/O Page Table, which are locally cached in the IOMMU. The invalidation commands allow software to keep the state of IOMMU 112 consistent with the state of the Device Table, and Page Table in memory. Other commands can be provided, such as prefetch and debug commands.
A Command Queue can be implemented as a circular buffer in memory, or alternatively in IOMMU 112, managed by hypervisor. Commands are inserted by software (hypervisor and/or guests, depending on operating mode) into the buffer through a tail pointer (Command Queue Tail Pointer (CQTP)), whereas commands are read from the buffer by the IOMMU 112 through a head pointer, (Command Queue Head Pointer (CQHP)). These pointers also can be read and writable by software, such by hypervisor in a para-virtualized operating mode, or by guests in a fully virtualized operating mode (although guests would be able to write only to the pointers associated with its respective command queue). Other than regular software writes and hardware reads, the state of the pointers may be modified on initialization to read empty, or when a command error is encountered and thus the Command Queue needs to be reinitialized.
Where these command queues are implemented in system memory, the terms CQTP and CQHP are distinguished from the related memory addresses of the Command Queue in memory. In particular, CQTP and CQHP can be implemented as indices, whereas CQ Tail and Head Addresses (CQTA and CQHA) refer to respective physical memory addresses. If the CQ is implemented in IOMMU 112 itself, then no CQ Tail/Head Address is implemented.
If CQHP and CQTP are not equal, then unread commands are present in the Command Queue. IOMMU 112 will increment CQHP by the number of commands read. In some implementations, a requirement can be that CQTA writes are kept coherent within the cache & memory hierarchy such that a read from CQHA obtains the latest copy of the command at the head of the Command Queue.
Table 3, below, enumerates example commands that can be implemented in an IOMMU (e.g. IOMMU 112) according to the disclosure. As noted above, not all of these commands may be provided in different implementations, commands may be called different names without changing their effect, and some implementations may provide other commands.
GuestID, where specified, only applies to Virtualization mode. A GuestID for a particular transaction can be obtained from a Device Remapping Table, if available. If a remote TLB is supported, invalidate commands may be provided for invalidating entries in the remote TLB. There need not be commands specific to Hypervisor, as Hypervisor can, through its own Command Queue, invalidate all entries, including GuestOS entries, by specifying the appropriate GuestID, and its own cache entries. GuestOSes do not specify their own GuestID. GuestIDs are associated with a respective Command Queue. The GuestID is used for example to index the I/O Page Table, or to associate an error with a specific guest, as explained in the error log description below.
A SYNC command is complete if all invalidation commands between it and a prior SYNC command are completed. The SYNC command indicates completion either through interrupt by setting STATUS[SYNINT] or by updating a semaphore in memory which a waiting process can poll. The address of the semaphore and store data is given in the SYNC command. If the completion of a SYNC is indicated through interrupt, then software must clear STATUS[SYNINT] when interrupt servicing is finished.
An INVALIDATE_DTE command is complete if the DTE cache entry has been invalidated for the tag associated with that command, and there are no outstanding reads to memory for that specified entry in the DT. The INVALIDATE_DTE command will specify whether the invalidation will force a reload of the entry from the Device Table. This may often be helpful if software reclaims pages related to a device and then reinitiates DMA from the device.
An INVALIDATE_IOMMU command is complete if the TLB has been invalidated by tag, and there are no outstanding reads to memory for the specified entry in the I/O page table.
In an implementation, commands are always read in FIFO order, but may be executed concurrently. Software, e.g., a GuestOS or Hypervisor may follow a series of invalidations by a SYNC command to ensure completion is visible to software.
The address is assumed to be a PA in non-Virtualized mode. It is a GPA if SYNC is written by Guest, else RPA if SYNC is written by Hypervisor. Command Queue and Error Log associated with Hypervisor is always labeled w/GNUM=0. If GPA, then it must be translated to RPA by IOMMU.
Where implementations allowing grouping of devices based on a GroupID, or invalidation commands that can relate to groupings of entries, an invalidate command may have unintended consequences of invalidating translations for other devices within a TLB. This may result in a performance impact, but would not result in incorrect behavior, since a missing translation would be reloaded.
In Virtualization mode, Hypervisor may choose to assign devices to itself for programming. The IOMMU knows that a particular device is assigned to Hypervisor by checking GUID. If GUID=0, then device is assigned to Hypervisor. The Device Address in this case would be translated through the Root I/O Page Table. Similarly if a GuestOS is executed in Root mode, then the device address is translated through the Root I/O Page Table.
Errors and Error Queues
The IOMMU may encounter errors while processing a device request. The errors are written to the Error Log by the IOMMU. Subsequently, the IOMMU informs the hypervisor of the presence of errors by signaling an interrupt. The Error Log is multiple entry because multiple devices may cause errors simultaneously. The Error Log may be configured to be a fixed size FIFO in the IOMMU. Examine IOMMU Error Types are found in Table 4, below.
An error related to a device will cause processing of that device'"'"'s requests to stop. Hardware will update a status bit accordingly. Errors also can be flagged in response to non-zero bits in reserved fields.
Memory for the Command Queue and Error Log can be allocated in multiples of 128 entries, in an implementation. A 128 entry allocation provides a relatively fine granularity of allocation; allocations that are more or less granular can be provided in other implementations. In general, any pages related to IOMMU data-structures, and I/O Page Tables can be pinned in memory to avoid Page Faults.
Access Control and Status Registers (ACSRs)
In the example implementation here, twelve ACSRs are available in the IOMMU. The ACSRs may be placed in a core (e.g., within a CPU system core) or in the IOMMU, in different implementations. Each can be assigned a 64 byte Device Register Block with an ASCR (Access Control and Status Register). Privilege Access Control is determined by bit fields in an ASCR, which enables User/Supervisor/Kernel access. In Virtualization mode, access to an ASCR is only by Hypervisor, whereas in non-Virtualized mode, such access is only by a process that has Kernel privileges.
IOMMU Global Configuration Description
A Global Configuration Register (GCFG) is provided in a Virtualized mode of operation and is accessible by Hypervisor. A single GCFG can be used per IOMMU. Contents of an example GCFG is provided in Table 5, below.
The IOMMU does not have to support the logical maximum number of entries specified by DTLEN. Software should write all 1s to field and read back a stored value to determine an actual number of devices supported. Typical implementations may support on the order of 128 entries. Information can be repeated between GCFG and a GuestOS specific Local ConFiGuration register (LCFG). For example, 64/32 bit hardware support can be indicated in both GCFG and in LCFG. Duplicating such values eases access to those values by different processes, such as the hypervisor. In this example, GCFG[GNUM] is 8 bits to allow for support for up to 255 Guests. This number can be linked to a maximum number of architectural threads supported in a architecture in which the IOMMU will be used (under a circumstance where there is pre-defined ratio (e.g., 1:1) between GuestOSes and threads). A ratio of GuestOS to threads does not have to be 1:1.
In an implementation, a Common Root Page Table shared by GuestOSes is a default. If an implementation supports only a Common Root Page Table, then GCFG[CRPT] is tied to 0, and can be read for capability determination. Command and Error Queues may be managed by either the Guest or Hypervisor. Guest Management is Fully-Virtualized, whereas Hypervisor Management is considered Para-Virtualized, from the perspective of the IOMMU. GCFG[CEQM] is used to indicate hardware support. Hardware may provide only Hypervisor managed support in which case GCFG[CEQM] is tied to 0. Even if hardware supports full virtualization, software may run in a para-virtualized mode, by using only set of hardware available with GNUM=0.
A number of GuestOSes supported by hardware is in GCFG[GNUM]. Software can discover how many GuestOSes are supported by hardware by writing all ones to this field and reading a value ultimately stored there. In Virtualization mode, when GCFG[CEQM]=1, then the number of sets of Command+Error Queues is GNUM+1, with one additional for Hypervisor. In para-virtualization (GCFG[CEQM]=0), one set of Command+Error Queues is required for Hypervisor.
In some fully-virtualized implementations, each Guest may address its own set of CSRs with the same address that another Guest does. The Guests can be dealiased by IOMMU using a GuestID.
For an IOMMU implementation that does not support Virtualization, VZEN is tied to 0. In an implementation of the IOMMU with hardware support for virtualization, if operating in a non-virtualized mode, then a hardware page walker (if provided) makes only one pass of a Root/Guest shared TLB or translates only through Root TLB w/non-shared TLB to obtain PA that maps to provided Device Address.
IOMMU Local Configuration Register Description
The “Local” Configuration Register (LCFG) can be multiple instances per IOMMU. For example, it would be replicated per Guest if GCFG[VZEN]=1 & GCFG[CEQM]=1. The number of Guests is determined by GCFG[GNUM]. Each Guest will have its own configuration register, command queue, error log, and associated base addresses (where these structures are memory resident) and head/tail pointers. The MMIO addresses for these structures is the same for all guests, except the accesses to such memory addresses are differentiated/disambiguated by GuestID, which originating core sends with memory transaction setup request. If the IOMMU is in a Virtualization mode, then Hypervisor has a Command Queue and Error Log, (and thus for a fully virtualized mode, a total number of sets of these data structures is GCFG[GNUM]+1). Contents of an example LCFG register are depicted in Table 6, below.
Pre-Enable State means additional state that must be valid before enable is set. SYIEN, ELGIEN, CMQEN, ELGEN must be explicitly set before a device is enabled by software.
To avoid accidental/malicious overwrites of memory by software in Virtualization mode of Command Queue or Error Log contents, Hypervisor can allocate memory for these structures equal to the maximum of each of Command and Error Log (such that no guest would have write permissions outside of that allocated space, which would be entirely consumed by its own CQ or error log, and thus subject to appropriate permissions checking).
A write to CMQEN empties the command queue and initializes both CQHP & CQTP to 0. Setting STATUS[CMQRA] indicates that reads are active. A write to ELGEN empties the error log and initializes both ELHP & ELTP to 0. Setting STATUS[ELGWA] to 1 makes writes active.
Post-Set Action dictates how software can change a status bit once set, either by a direct or indirect write. SYNC Command format specifies whether interrupt needs to be signaled on completion of SYNC. It can alternatively update a semaphore in memory. Reset state of both CMQRA and ELGWA is 0. Some implementations can require software to enable both Command Queue and Error Log by writing 1 to LCFG[CMQEN] and LCFG[ELGEN]. This will cause both CMQRA and ELGWA to be set to 1.
Access Permission for IOMMU CSRs
Access to CSRs can be controlled according to privileges set through a privileged mode architecture specification. An example of such access control is found in Table 8, below. In Table 8, the ‘Address’ column shows how the IOMMU is to interpret addresses. Because in this example, the IOMMU does not have access to CPU page tables, the addresses are always physical, being either GPA or RPA. The Device Table Base Address (DTBA) is always a Physical Address. In an IOMMU implementation that includes a page table walker, DTBA can be a GPA. If a GPA, then the IOMMU will translate with a Page Walk of Root Page Table. If the IOMMU does not include a page table walker, then DTBA is an RPA. In an example, a minimum size of a Device Table is 128 entries of 128b each in 64b mode, and 128 entries of 64b each in 32b mode, and a maximum size is 16 times the minimum size.
RPTBA is only required for Virtualization. RPTBA is always an RPA. There is only one RPTBA, regardless of number of simultaneously existing Guests. Hypervisor can be configured to merge Guest Physical to Root Physical Address pages into this common Root Table across all Guests. Such also applies to an OS executed in Root Mode with RVA as its Virtual Address.
An example implementation provides a minimum size for a 64b IOMMU of 128×16B=2 KB and a maximum size of 8×2 KB=16 KB. An example minimum size for a 32b IOMMU is 128×8B=1 KB and an maximum size is 8×1 KB=8 KB.
The CMD Queue Head Pointer is read only for software and also is read by the IOMMU. If the head and tail pointers are not equal, then unread commands are present in the Command Queue. The IOMMU will increment the head pointer for each command that is read. CQHP read requests are always issued as coherent.
Commands in general do not need to be read serially based on completion. Software must follow up non-SYNC commands with a SYNC command if software needs to ensure completion. The semantics of completion are visible with respect to local and possibly remote caches of translations, but are globally visible events.
In a fully virtualized mode (GCFG[CEQM]=1 as shown above), Guests may write CQTP. With GCFG[CEQM]=0, Hypervisor writes CQTP. The tail pointer is updated when software wants the IOMMU to read commands, so that software can write multiple commands and then increment the tail pointer by the number of commands written. In an implementation, CQTP write requests by a Guest are issued as coherent by default.
CQTP and CQHP can be treated as signed pointers since the buffer is circular. On wraparound of pointer, sign bit must be flipped. In non-Virtualization mode, LCFG[CMQLEN] determines wraparound point. On write of CQTP by software, hardware detects wraparound and sets sign bit accordingly.
Error Log Base Address Register (ELBA) is a Physical Address. In a virtualization mode, Hypervisor has an ELBA, ELHP & ELTP, and in a fully virtualized mode (GCFG[CEQM]=1), each Guest has its own copy of ELBA, ELHP & ELTP.
The Error Log Head Pointer (ELHP) is read by software. In full virtualization mode (GCFG[CEQM]=1), Guests can read their respective ELHP. When not in full virtualization mode (GCFG[CEQM]=0), Hypervisor reads ELHP. In an implementation, ELHP read requests are always issued as coherent by IOMMU.
An Error Log Tail Pointer (ELTP) is written by IOMMU. If the head and tail pointers are not equal, then errors are present in the Error log which software needs to read. IOMMU may choose to write multiple errors in the Error Log before incrementing the tail pointer. ELTP write request are always issued as coherent by IOMMU. ELTP and ELHP are treated as signed pointers since the buffer is circular. On wraparound of pointer, sign bit is flipped. In non-Virtualization mode, LCFG[ELGLEN] determines wraparound point.
The above example related to an IOMMU implementation where command and error queues could be provided for each GuestOS and a hypervisor. However, other implementations may provide a memory mapped I/O location for a GuestOS to store a command to be executed, rather than providing a queue. Still further implementations may provide that hypervisor communicates with GuestOSes, and provides a relatively static mapping for address translations in the IOMMU. Such an implementation may be particularly appropriate where the IOMMU does not provide a hardware page table walking capability.
An error status register may be provided, which indicates a device ID, a size of the DMA request, a count of errors of this type, a type of device address (e.g., GPA, mapped or unmapped RVA), an error type (e.g, no matching TLB entry, no read or write permission, matching TLB entry is invalid, device table entry is invalid, or a specified device identifier is out of range of the device table), an indication that the error log has overflowed, and whether the error has been reported to the core or CPU. When a new error arises, the IOMMU may be configured to combine that error with another error of the same type that exists in the queue and increment the error count.
In addition to the above configuration capabilities, the TLB may be configured to support a fixed page size. For example, fixed page sizes from 4 KB to 256 TB may be supported in powers of 2. A hypervisor can set a minimum page size that is allowed to be established for a TLB entry. A set associativity of the TLB also can be configured as a build option. As an example, the TLB can be setup to be direct-mapped mode through 16 way associative mapping. A number of sets for each way also can be a build mode option, and can vary from 16 to 2048 in an example. In some implementations, the TLB also may be configured to support variable page sizes among different entries. These capabilities may be indicated (if hardware build option) or set (if capable of being adjusted in software) in a TLB configuration register.
Implementations according to the disclosure may implement memory coherency requirements as follows. In an implementation, any writes to memory-based data structures (Device Table, Command Queue, Error Log) will be treated as cached coherent. This allows visibility in the L2 cache, which the IOMMU (e.g., IOMMU 110) will access through an IOCU (e.g., IOCU 66). These writes may be initiated by software (to Device Table, Command Queue) or by IOMMU (to Error Log). A Cache Coherency Attribute (CCA) of IOMMU writes may follows semantics of a write invalidate, as defined in a relevant architecture specification (e.g., a MIPS Coherence Protocol Specification).
Any reads by software of Error Log are similarly cached coherent. Any reads by IOMMU (from Command Queue) are cached coherent and are always discarded after read and interpretation. In an example, the Cache Coherency Attributes (CCA) of IOMMU reads may follow semantics of a read to discard defined in a relevant architecture specification. There is no concept of “ownership” of data in the IOMMU even though data may be cached temporarily (i.e., data in IOMMU is not snooped). It is the responsibility of software to ensure any data is flushed from the IOMMU using invalidate commands before that data address is reused.
Device DMA transactions inherent the CCA attributes provided by an OCP command. IOMMU will not modify the CCA except in that hypervisor may override a guest through its Device Table entry and impose a coherent attribute on a guest non-coherent attribute for access protection purposes. Writes to Error Log by IOMMU require that the write be globally visible in hardware before the ELTP (Error Log Tail Pointer) is updated and interrupt signaled by IOMMU. Otherwise software may attempt a read and a race between software read and hardware write may result in inconsistent data. Similarly, software can only update the CQTP (Command Queue Tail Pointer) in the IOMMU once the corresponding write is globally visible. Otherwise the IOMMU may read stale data from CQHP (Command Queue Head Pointer).
At 201-202, a device table for each guest can be initialized at the addresses determined. At 205-206, a device driver within each guest can program I/O devices that are assigned to that guest. As guests require access to different I/O devices, the device tables (and RDRT 162) will be updated, with entries being invalidated or revised at 210-211. At 214, TLB can be updated using pre-fetch commands issued from different guests or hypervisor 110. At 215, a root page table is maintained based on entries made to guest-specific page tables and changes made by hypervisor to the root page table. These process portions may be performed in an order different than presented; some portions may be omitted in some implementations, while in others, additional actions may be taken. In general, the base addresses for the tables and queues would not change during normal operation, and so, this action may not need to be repeated. However, the remaining actions described may be repeated, as guests context-switch and require access to different I/O devices over time (depicted with the arrow returning from 215 to 201).
With respect to actions taken by the IOMMU 112, IOMMU 112 can trap, at 218, to hypervisor 110 on an unmapped guest access to memory, by generating, at 221, an error that is stored in an error queue read by hypervisor 110. Hypervisor 110 determines whether or not such access should be permitted, and if permitted, then proceeds to make appropriate adjustments to DRDT 162, showing that the guest generating the access is permitted to do so. Then, on a subsequent attempt to access that address, IOMMU 112 will permit access. Such access can be for adding entries to a device table or page table for that guest. As will be explained later, these entries added by guest still will be qualified against information maintained by hypervisor 110 in DRDT 162. If the access is unauthorized, then hypervisor 110 can return an error to that guest, at 124.
IOMMU also can receive, at 224, commands from hypervisor 110 and guests to maintain translation information stored in IOMMU 112. For a received command, IOMMU 112 validates such command, and if valid, executes such, and otherwise generates an error to be placed in an appropriate error queue, at 230. Examples of commands that can be received and processed by an implementation of IOMMU 112 are found in Table 3 above. Some implementations may not permit guests to generate commands directly to IOMMU, but rather must use hypervisor 110 to effect any operations or changes, although after a particular set of mappings are setup, specific requests can proceed within those mappings without hypervisor intervention. As such, commands do not indicate specific IO requests, but rather affect permisssions and mappings.
If the TLB 128 has no matching entry, then a determination whether IOMMU has a page walker can be made, at 322 (this can be implemented by checking a configuration bit in a configuration register, as explained above). Determinations such as this can be implemented by hardware logic that inputs such configuration bit within a logic function, and as such, a determination is not necessarily a discrete or separately identifiable event. If there is no page walker, then, at 324, an error is generated for an error queue. If there is a page walker, then at 326, a page walk occurs. If there is a valid entry, as determined at 328, then TLB 128 is filled with that entry at 330, and then the transaction can be entered into a restart queue at 332. If there was no valid entry, then an error is generated at 324. If there is no page walker, then actions 326, 328, 330, and 332 would not be performed. Returning to 316, where the TLB has an entry, then the contents of that entry provides at least one of a GPA to RPA translation or a RVA to RPA translation. The resulting RPA is used, at 320, to initiate (permit) the memory transaction.
The example presented relative to
The ACSR registers described herein may have an addressing scheme specified by a privileged mode architecture description. Such architecture description may require that any software resource attempting to read and/or write such registers obey privileged resource access controls and have appropriate permissions.
An error status register 194 may be provided to maintain a current error status, but may not maintain a record of prior status changes. A set of control/configuration registers 188 can be provided, which track such configuration as fixed page size, set associativity, cache ways, interrupt enabling, number of device table entries, presence of page walker functionality, and so on.
Although some subject matter may have been described in language specific to examples of structural features and/or method steps, it is to be understood that the subject matter defined in the appended claims is not necessarily limited to these described features or acts. For example, a given structural feature may be subsumed within another structural element, or such feature may be split among or distributed to distinct components. Similarly, an example portion of a process may be achieved as a by-product or concurrently with performance of another act or process, or may be performed as multiple separate acts in some implementations. As such, implementations according to this disclosure are not limited to those that have a 1:1 correspondence to the examples depicted and/or described. Additionally, various examples of sizes for certain data fields, register layouts and other implementation details were provided. However, these examples do not limit the scope of implementations according to the disclosure. Also, for clarity, structures that are used for certain purposes were given names and/or abbreviations used in the disclosure; however, these names do not per se restrict the scope of implementations according to the disclosure. Also, the way that status, errors, or other conditions were conveyed through the setting of certain bits or bit fields to defined values is an example convention and other implementations are possible.
Aspects of functions, and methods described and/or claimed may be implemented in a special purpose or general-purpose computer including computer hardware, as discussed in greater detail below. Such hardware, firmware and software can also be embodied on a video card or other external or internal computer system peripherals. Various functionality can be provided in customized FPGAs or ASICs or other configurable processors, while some functionality can be provided in a management or host processor. Such processing functionality may be used in personal computers, desktop computers, laptop computers, message processors, hand-held devices, multi-processor systems, microprocessor-based or programmable consumer electronics, game consoles, network PCs, minicomputers, mainframe computers, mobile telephones, PDAs, tablets, embedded systems, and the like.
In addition to hardware embodiments (e.g., within or coupled to a Central Processing Unit (“CPU”), microprocessor, microcontroller, digital signal processor, processor core, System on Chip (“SOC”), or any other programmable or electronic device), implementations may also be embodied in software (e.g., computer readable code, program code, instructions and/or data disposed in any form, such as source, object or machine language) disposed, for example, in a computer usable (e.g., readable) medium configured to store the software. Such software can enable, for example, the function, fabrication, modeling, simulation, description, and/or testing of the apparatus and methods described herein. For example, this can be accomplished through the use of general programming languages (e.g., C, C++), GDSII databases, hardware description languages (HDL) including Verilog HDL, VHDL, SystemC Register Transfer Level (RTL) and so on, or other available programs, databases, and/or circuit (i.e., schematic) capture tools. Embodiments can be disposed in computer usable medium including non-transitory memories such as memories using semiconductor, magnetic disk, optical disk, ferrous, resistive memory, and so on.
As specific examples, it is understood that implementations of disclosed apparatuses and methods may be implemented in a semiconductor intellectual property core, such as a microprocessor core, or a portion thereof, embodied in a Hardware Description Language (HDL)), that can be used to produce a specific integrated circuit implementation. A computer readable medium may embody or store such description language data, and thus constitute an article of manufacture. A non-transitory machine readable medium is an example of computer readable media. Examples of other embodiments include computer readable media storing Register Transfer Language (RTL) description that may be adapted for use in a specific architecture or microarchitecture implementation. Additionally, the apparatus and methods described herein may be embodied as a combination of hardware and software that configures or programs hardware.
Also, in some cases terminology has been used herein because it is considered to more reasonably convey salient points to a person of ordinary skill, but such terminology should not be considered to impliedly limit a range of implementations encompassed by disclosed examples and other aspects. For example, various examples of configuration and status registers were disclosed, along with various abbreviations and other example implementations. This disclosure is not by way of limitation. These examples are also not to the exclusion of additional features or functions, availability of other information or status conditions, and so on.
By necessity, not every example can illustrate every aspect, and the examples do not illustrate exclusive compositions of such aspects. Instead, aspects illustrated and described with respect to one figure or example can be used or combined with aspects illustrated and described with respect to other figures. As such, a person of ordinary skill would understand from these disclosures that the above disclosure is not limiting as to constituency of embodiments according to the claims, and rather the scope of the claims define the breadth and scope of inventive embodiments herein. The summary and abstract sections may set forth one or more but not all exemplary embodiments and aspects of the invention within the scope of the claims.