3,5,3'-TRIIODOTHYRONINE SULFATE AS THYROMIMETIC AGENT AND PHARMACEUTICAL FORMULATIONS THEREOF
1. A solid oral dosage composition comprising T3S as the active principle, in a quantity ranging from 1 to 1000 μ
- g and further comprising diluents, glidants or lubricants and disintegrants.
The invention regards the use of triiodothyronine sulfate, commonly named T3S, as a medicament having thyromimetic activity for the treatment of pathologies due to organic deficiency of triiodothyronine (T3), as such or in association with thyroxine (T4), and pharmaceutical formulations for oral administration thereof.
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|3,5,3' -triiodothronine sulfate as thyromimetic agent and pharmaceutical formulations thereof|
Patent #US 20050272816A1
Current AssigneeBracco SPA
Sponsoring EntityBracco SPA
|3,5,3′ -triiodothronine sulfate as thyromimetic agent and pharmaceutical formulations thereof|
Patent #US 9,012,438 B2
Current AssigneeBracco SPA
Sponsoring EntityFerruccio Santini, Aldo Pinchera
|3,5,3′-triiodothyronine sulfate as thyromimetic agent and pharmaceutical formulations thereof|
Patent #US 9,044,441 B2
Current AssigneeBracco SPA
Sponsoring EntityBracco SPA
|3,5,3′-triiodothyronine sulfate as thyromimetic agent and pharmaceutical formulations thereof|
Patent #US 9,468,619 B2
Current AssigneeBracco SPA
Sponsoring EntityBracco SPA
|Process for the preparation of a sulfated derivative of 3,5-diiodo-O-[3-iodophenyl]-L-tyrosine|
Patent #US 9,890,116 B2
Current AssigneeBracco Imaging S.p.A.
Sponsoring EntityBracco Imaging S.p.A.
|3,5,3′-triiodothyronine sulfate as thyromimetic agent and pharmaceutical formulations thereof|
Patent #US 10,238,615 B2
Current AssigneeBracco SPA
Sponsoring EntityBracco SPA
|Process for the preparation of a sulfated derivative of 3,5-diiodo-o-[3-iodophenyl]-l-tyrosine|
Patent #US 10,457,635 B2
Current AssigneeBracco Imaging S.p.A.
Sponsoring EntityBracco Imaging S.p.A.
|PHARMACEUTICAL COMPOSITIONS CONTAINING QUETIAPINE FUMARATE|
Patent #US 20080193527A1
Current AssigneeLaboratorios Lesvi S.L.
Sponsoring EntityLaboratorios Lesvi S.L.
|PREPARATION AND UTILITY OF SUBSTITUTED CARBOXYLIC ACID COMPOUNDS|
Patent #US 20070276042A1
Current AssigneeAuspex Pharmaceuticals Inc.
Sponsoring EntityAuspex Pharmaceuticals Inc.
|Levothyroxine pharmaceutical compositions, methods of making and methods of administration|
Patent #US 20030198668A1
Current AssigneeRocco L. Gemma, Franz G. Andrew, Elaine A. Strauss, Phillip A. Dimenna
Sponsoring EntityRocco L. Gemma, Franz G. Andrew, Elaine A. Strauss, Phillip A. Dimenna
- 1. A solid oral dosage composition comprising T3S as the active principle, in a quantity ranging from 1 to 1000 μ
- g and further comprising diluents, glidants or lubricants and disintegrants.
- View Dependent Claims (2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 22, 25, 26, 27)
- 16. A non radioactive immunoassay for T3S quantitation comprising a non radioactive T3S-conjugate.
- 23. A therapeutic or prophylactic treatment method for a hypothyroid condition due to total thyroid hormone depletion before 131I radiotherapy comprising administering a thyroidectomised patient T3S as the sole thyroid hormone replacement up to 5 days before radioactive isotope administration.
This application is a continuation-in-part (CIP) of U.S. Ser. No. 10/532,447 filed Apr. 22, 2005, which is a U.S. national phase application of PCT/EP2003/12584 filed Nov. 11, 2003, which in turn claims priority from MI2002A002394 IT filed Nov. 13, 2002, the contents of each of which are incorporated herein by reference in their entireties.
The present invention regards the use of 3,5,3′-triiodothyronine sulfate, usually named triiodothyronine sulfate or T3 sulfate (T3S), as an active principle, alone or in combination with thyroxine, in the treatment of pathologies due to organic deficiency of 3,5,3′-triiodothyronine. Accordingly, the same is usable for the preparation of thyromimetic pharmaceutical compositions.
A number of iodothyronines are present in blood, which are directly produced by thyroid gland or are the result of peripheral metabolism of other iodothyronines. Among them, 3,5,3′-triiodothyronine (acronym T3) is deemed to be the biological active form of thyroid hormone (TH), because it has shown high affinity for the specific receptors of the same and is normally present in serum at a concentration sufficient for the activation of said receptors.
The main secretion product of thyroid gland in the healthy adult is thyroxine, commonly designated with the acronym T4. It is peripherally converted to its biologically active form, T3 (Ref. 1), through enzymatic removal of an iodine atom from the external aromatic ring of the molecule by both type I and type II 5′-iodothyronine monodeiodinases (type I MD and type II MD, respectively). This metabolic pathway is the main mechanism of endogenous production of T3; thus, T4 can properly be considered a pro-hormone. On the other hand, a minor part of T3 is also directly secreted by thyroid. On average, the amount of T4 produced in an adult being of 70 Kg weight every day amounts to 100 μg, while the total production of T3 amounts to around 25 μg. 4-8 μg of T3 out of said 25 μg are directly secreted by thyroid and the remaining ones derive from the peripheral conversion of T4.
T3 undergoes two different metabolic pathways. The main metabolic pathway consists in the partial deiodination of the inner aromatic ring by type III 5-iodothyronine monodeiodinase (type III MD) to give 3,3-diiodothyronine, which is biologically non-active and is further metabolized through deiodination or sulfoconjugation. The other metabolic pathway regards around 20% of the total amount of T3 produced by the body and brings on sulfoconjugation of T3 to give T3S, which is not able to bond to the thyroid hormones (Ref. 2), thus resulting biologically non-active (Ref. 3).
Contrary to what happens with T3, T3S is not deiodinated by type III MD. Rather, it is an excellent substrate for type I MD (Ref. 4), which converts it very quickly into to 3,3′-diiodothyronine sulphate. Thus it has been widespread common knowledge that, in the healthy adult being, sulfoconjugation of T3 to give T3S represents a way for speeding up the catabolism of T3, so facilitating its biliary and urinary excretion. Actually, it was found that serum levels of T3S, physiologically low in the healthy adult, are higher when type I MD activity is reduced.
Yet, it was found that, just in some body districts and organs, sulfatases exist which, under particular physiological conditions and situations, are able to convert again T3S into its active form T3 (Ref'"'"'s. 7-9).
Such enzymes have been described in the intestinal microflora as well as in body tissues like liver, kidneys and nervous central system (Ref. 10).
Recently, it has been found that endogenous T3S levels in serum are quite high during intrauterine life and as such are kept by the body, i.e. higher than the ones normally found in the adult being, at least until the forth month of postnatal life (Ref. 11). Considering the essential role played by thyroid hormones during growth, in particular as far as nervous central system functions are involved, hypotheses have been made about the possibility that, in this tissue, T3S may also possibly be used by the body as an occasional source of T3, if and when needed, during the first period of life. Studies performed on autoptic specimens of human nervous cerebral tissue post-mortem showed that the amount of T3 in the same results limited by type III MD (Ref. 12). While this enzyme does not attack T3S, it has been surmised that T3S may exceptionally represent an alternative endogenous source of T3 hormone in those tissues which contain sulfatases able to reconvert T3S into its active form, just in case a particular need of the hormone arises in said tissues (Ref'"'"'s. 8, 13).
Further studies have been performed, aimed at ascertaining the effective role played by T3S during production and metabolism of thyroid hormones. Said studies have recently demonstrated that when administered by intraperitoneal (i.p) administration in single or 3 to 10 daily doses a thyromimetic effect is observed in hypothyroid rats (Ref. 10). In euthyroid rats (Ref. 14) T3S, administered i.p., shows a thyromimetic effect on several parameters such as body weight and TSH serum levels.
In both references T3S has shown a potency of around one fifth that of T3. Moreover both treatments with T3S and with T3 produced a significant reduction of serum levels of thyreotropic hormone (TSH) in euthyroid rats, thus showing to possess similar capability in inhibiting its secretion. On the contrary, in the case of hypothyroid rats, T3S showed a poor capability of inhibiting TSH secretion when compared to T3. It is well known that TSH is a highly responsive indicator to the functional status of thyroid gland and detects the smallest alterations of its hormonal secretion. Actually, its levels are higher under conditions of reduced thyroid functionality, even in those conditions that are defined as sub-clinical, while they are reduced when an excess of thyroid hormones are present. As a consequence, T3S activity seems non-comparable to T3 as far as its capability of inhibition on formation of TSH is involved.
Therefore, particularly in view of the latest studies the biological role of T3S is still controversial.
In fact, its main, well-grounded and universally accepted, feature is its non-biological activity, i.e. it is a biologically inert metabolite of T3 (Ref'"'"'s. 2 and 3), and the sulfation pathway is regarded as a metabolic activator of T3 catabolism (Ref. 5).
On the other hand, only in particular tissues and under exceptional critical conditions due to shortage of thyroid hormone in those tissues, it has been shown its potential as an endogenous local source of T3.
As a result, today the skilled technician is still facing a complex, somewhat conflicting, situation, which highlights only some of the biological characteristics of the product and needs more exhaustive in depth studies.
To the best of our knowledge, however, none of the several documents forming the state-of-the-art discloses, shows or suggests the possibility of using this metabolite of T3 in therapy. No close prior-art document, either of experimental nature or substantially speculative, either taken alone or in combination with other related documents, suggests the use, or even the potential use of T3S as a medicament, taken as such or preferably in combination with other thyroid hormones or pro-hormones, like, for example T4. The fact that, only in some specific tissues of the body and under particular, peculiar circumstances, part of T3S can be reconverted into T3 does not mean, nor implies, nor suggests that it is possible to generalize this feature to the whole organism through exogenous administration of the product. In particular, there is no suggestion that oral administration of the product, even in protected form according to known methods of the pharmaceutical technique, may render it bioavailable also because it is well known that in those districts where suitable sulfatases are not present the same is rapidly metabolized and excreted through the bile and urines.
It has now unexpectedly been found, and this is one of the aspects of the present invention, that T3S (triiodothyronine or 3,5-diiodo-O-[3-iodo-4-(sulphoxy)phenyl]-L-thyronine), as the only active principle in a suitable composition or in association with other thyroid hormones or pro-hormones, preferably T4 (Tyroxine, or 3,5,3′,5′-tetraiodothyronine) and properly formulated according to the desired application for oral administration is particularly useful as a medicament to be used in all those pathologies caused by insufficient production by the body of the needed quantities of active thyroid hormones, in particular T3.
Another aspect of the present invention is a non-radioactive immunoassay for T3S quantitation, preferably based on chemiluminescence and the reagents developed therein.
A further object of the present invention is a method for the therapeutic treatment of a hypothyroid condition, which comprises the oral administration of T3S or the combination T3S and T4 as a thyroid hormone replacement therapy to a subject in need thereof.
According to a preferred embodiment oral administration is accomplished by solid compositions, preferably in the tablet form, comprising T3S alone or in combination with a second active principle, tyroxine (T4), in a dose comprised for T3S of from 1 to 1000 μg, preferably 2.5-500 μg and T4 of from 1 to 800 μg.
Preferred active principle quantities in the formulation comprising two active principles, are the following: T3S 5-250 μg and T4 5-400 μg, T3S 10-100 μg and T4 10-200 μg.
In any case, the preferred ratio between active principles (T4:T3S) is comprised to from 10:1 to 0.1:1, with a more preferred range comprised from 5:1 to 1:1. Even more preferred is the range comprised from 3:1 to 2:1 (T4:T3S).
Said compositions include diluents, glidants or lubricants and disintegrants and in a preferred embodiment consist essentially of: calcium carbonate, glycerol dibehenate, croscarmellose sodium salt, hydrate colloidal silica, magnesium stearate and microcrystalline cellulose, in an even more preferred embodiment these components are present in the amounts described below for a 80-150 mg tablet:
This composition is endowed with optimal dissolution rates and stability of the active principle(s) for at least 24 months.
It has been now been surprisingly found that T3S or salts thereof is not only a physiologic T3 catabolite, but that it may be also provided as a drug and administered in hypothyroid conditions. Accordingly, this represents the main aspect of the invention.
Furthermore, it has been found that T3S, once administered is converted to T3 and allows maintenance of steady levels of T3 in the body for long times (from 12 to at least 18 hrs, more preferably at least 48 hrs). This is not only particularly useful when a supplement thyroid hormone in its most active form is needed, but, once more, is completely unexpected given the rapid metabolism synthetic T3 undergoes once administered. In this case in fact a peak level is detected in serum at about 2-3 hours and after that rapidly and completely cleared from blood within 12-24 hrs.
Furthermore, it has also been found that T3S can be administered orally and this represents a further and particularly advantageous aspect of the invention. In fact its biological activity, measured for example by total T3 levels in the serum of thyrectomized individuals, is detected after oral administration. This result is quite unexpected because, at variance with thyroid hormones which are not very soluble in water, T3S or salts thereof is a polar molecule whose gastrointestinal absorption was expected to be rather inefficient. Therefore the present invention discloses that oral administration is possible and that by this route: a) T3S is found in the bloodstream thus demonstrating that it crosses the gastrointestinal barrier, b) is converted into the more active thyroid hormone, T3, c) maintains T3 levels in serum after administration for quite a long time (at least 48 hours).
According to this finding, a further object of the present invention is represented by a method for the therapeutic treatment of a hypothyroid condition, which comprises the oral administration of T3S or the combination T3S and T4 as a thyroid hormone replacement therapy for a subject in need thereof. Clinical signs of hypothyroidism are the following: asthenia, fatigue, skin dryness, somnolence, speech fluency impairment, cold intolerance, weight gain and/or memory deficit. Accordingly, any of these conditions may be improved by the oral administration of T3S alone or in combination with T4.
In general, oral administration of T3S and salts thereof in pharmaceutical compositions is proposed according to a preferred aspect of the invention for treating any hypothyroid conditions or for any T3 replacement therapy. The therapeutic treatment comprises administering compositions comprising T3S, either alone in a dose comprised for T3S of from 1 to 1000 μg, preferably from 2.5 to 500 μg, more preferably from 5 to 250 μg, or in combination with a second active principle, thyroxine (T4) (combination compositions) wherein T4 is present from 1 to 800 μg.
Preferred active principle quantities in the combination compositions are the following: T3S 5-250 μg and T4 5-400 μg, T3S 10-100 μg and T4 10-200 μg.
In any case, for combination compositions a preferred ratio between active principles (T4:T3S) is comprised from 10:1 to 0.1:1, with a more preferred range comprised from 5:1 to 1:1. Even more preferred is the range comprised from 3:1 to 2:1 (T4:T3S).
Preferred administration of the compositions is in a single daily dosage form.
Particularly preferred in the therapy of hypothyroidism, representing a further aspect of the present invention, is the association of T3S with T4. The hormonal association which, in theory, should more accurately mime the normal thyroid secretion is represented by a combination of T4 with T3. Actually, pharmaceutical compositions comprising both of said iodothyronines, formulated in proportions similar to the ones of the normal physiologic secretion, have already been tried and marketed. Unfortunately, the oral simultaneous administration of T4 with T3 was not able to reproduce the normal thyroid hormones serum levels, because of pharmacokinetics of T3. In fact, T3 undergoes a very quick absorption and an equally quick elimination after oral administration; its elimination rate is about 20 times higher than the one of T4. For this reason administration of T3 gives raise to a dangerous peak excess in hormone concentration, if compared to the normal physiologic levels, followed by a much too fast drop to sub-physiologic levels. Thus, today most of the specialised physicians prefer using T4 alone, even if in this way production of T3 only depends on the periferic deiodination of T4, because direct secretion of T3 by thyroid does not exists or is seriously insufficient.
On the contrary, the association of the invention avoids the above problems, because it has unexpectedly been found that, for example, after oral administration, T3S provides T3 serum levels that increase in a gradual way and keep steady for long periods of time, thus preventing the formation of too high peaks.
Another unexpected advantage deriving from the use of T3S in the treatment of pathologies due to organic deficiency of T3 consists in its recently found systemic thyromimetic activity linked to a poor inhibition of TSH secretion. This effect is particularly useful in the case of thyroidectomized patients suffering from thyroid carcinoma, when administration of T4 must be suspended in view of carrying out radiotherapy. In such a case administration of T3S instead of T4 may alleviate a patient'"'"'s symptoms or disease, such as asthenia, fatigue, skin dryness, somnolence, speech fluency impairment, cold intolerance, weight gain and/or memory deficit without interfering with radioactive iodine (usually 131I) radiotherapy.
According to this observation, a further aspect of the invention relates to T3S administration in thyroidectomized patients in case of 131I radiotherapy when T4 administration must be suspended. In fact, T4 is usually suspended at least 40 days before radiotherapy to allow an optimal radioisotope uptake. The lack of thyroid hormones for such a long time is usually very badly tolerated by the organism which is completely depleted of thyroid hormones within a few days, thus suffering from asthenia, fatigue, skin dryness, somnolence, speech fluency impairment, cold intolerance, weight gain or memory deficit. In contrast, T3S, due to its low thyromimetic properties, can be administered, preferably by the oral route, up to at least 5 days, more to preferably up to at least 4, 3, or 2 days, before radiotherapy.
Another further advantage of T3S in the therapy of hypothyroidism regards its autolimitation capability. In fact, it is actively deiodinated by type I MD, which, on its part, is stimulated by thyroid hormones. In hypothyroid subjects type I MD activity is reduced; thus T3S elimination is slowed. As a matter of fact, its effect on the body is greater. On the contrary, in case of over administration, type I MD activity is increased, thus giving more T3S elimination, i.e. limiting possible undesired collateral effects.
Last but not least, a further advantage of T3S is represented by the fact that it is a metabolite normally present in the body, usually non-active, i.e. non-toxic.
Accordingly, another main aspect of the present invention regards pharmaceutical formulations comprising T3S as an active principle, as such or in combination with other thyroid hormones or pro-hormones. Particularly preferred are formulations comprising T3S in association with T4.
The preferred ratio of the two active principles (T4:T3S) in composition s comprising both active principles ranges from 10:1 to 0.1:1, with a more preferred range comprised from 5:1 to 1:1. Even more preferred is the range comprised from 3:1 to 2:1 (T4:T3S).
Said formulations differ in the dosage of the active principle or principles, or in the type of pharmaceutical form provided, depending on the administration route used with enteral administration being preferred.
According to this embodiment, compositions for oral administration, either liquid or solid are both suitable. Preferred liquid compositions should take into account the generally poor solubility of thyroid hormones such as T4 and salts thereof, as well as the usually good solubility of T3 sulphate and salts thereof. Furthermore, the use of lactose, glucose and sucrose should be avoided.
The preparation of specific pharmaceutical formulations in response to particular needs will be described in the following.
It is known that thyroid hormones and especially levothyroxine sodium are compatible with some excipients but incompatible with others. Carbohydrates, such as starch and maltodextrin, are compatible with thyroid hormones, whereas lactose, glucose and sucrose, have been determined to be incompatible. By the use of suitable compatible diluents, glidants or lubricants and disintegrants, thyroid hormones can be to formulated into tablets, capsules, or powder dosage forms.
Thus, preferred compositions of the present invention are prepared in the substantial absence of lactose, glucose, sucrose, polyvinylpyrrolidone, and/or a Poloxamer. According to this embodiment, the solid composition comprises diluents or fillers, glidants and/or lubricants and disintegrants. The compositions may also further comprise excipients, stabilizers, preservatives or dissolution enhancers.
Preferred diluents are cellulose derivatives, such as microcrystalline cellulose, powdered cellulose, silicified microcrystalline cellulose, cellulose acetate, ethyl- or methylcellulose or salts thereof. However, other diluents may be used, such as kaolin, starch and derivatives thereof, or sodium or other alkaline inorganic salts such as trisodium phosphate, tricalcium phosphate, calcium carbonate or magnesium carbonate.
Suitable disintegrants for use in the present invention include corn starch, croscarmellose and salts thereof (i.e. croscarmellose sodium) and crospovidone or salts thereof. However other disintegrants may be used such as, polymethacrylates and maltodextrin or salts thereof, pregelatinized starch and sodium starch glycolate or sodium alginate, sometimes referred to as diluents as well.
Suitable lubricants for use in the present invention comprise silicates in general, including colloidal silicon dioxide hydrate silicon dioxide, hydrate colloidal silica, talc, as well as magnesium or zinc stearate the preferred ones.
Suitable glidants or lubricants are chosen among glycerol dibehenate, tribasic calcium phosphate, starch derivatives, talc, magnesium and zinc stearate, sodium stearate fumarate and sodium and magnesium lauryl sulphate. Preferred glidants or lubricants are glycerol dibehenate or tribasic calcium phosphate.
The term glidant comprises agents working also as lubricants, and for those, such as talc, magnesium or zinc stearate or sodium dibehenate, accordingly, classification might be interchangeable.
Flavorants and colorants may be added if desired as additional optional ingredients.
Thyroid hormones, especially levothyroxine sodium and T3S are particularly stable in connection with cellulose derivatives. According to this embodiment solid dosage compositions with improved and superior, stability, content uniformity, good tableting and dissolution properties which comprise T3S or salts thereof alone or in combination with T4 or salts thereof in the quantities above disclosed further in combination with a cellulose derivative, wherein microcrystalline cellulose or silicified microcrystalline cellulose are particularly preferred.
Thyroid hormones are preferably prepared by the synthetic route (e.g. as described for T3S in Mol and Visser, Endocrinology 1985, 117 N. 1, 1:1-8).
In the solid composition, diluents are preferably present in a predominant amount, preferably in the range of 50 to 99.99% by weight. More preferably they are present in an amount of from 60 to 80% by weight, more preferably from 65-75% by weight.
According to a preferred embodiment, cellulose or derivatives thereof are present and preferably a second diluent is also present, preferably calcium carbonate, up to 35% of the total diluent w/w.
Preferred glidants, are selected from the group consisting of glycerol dibehenate (most preferred), talc and silica derivatives, among which magnesium trisilicate, starch or derivatives thereof, amides, tribasic calcium phosphate, are usually present in the composition in a quantity range from 1 to 10%, most preferably 4 to 6% (w/w).
Lubricants are preferably selected in the group consisting of: magnesium or zinc stearate, hydrate colloidal silica and talc, more preferably magnesium stearate and hydrate colloidal silica, in a total quantity of from 0.1 to 7% even more preferably the first one comprised from 0.1 to 2% and the second comprised from 0.5 to 5%.
Disintegrants for use in the present invention include starch, croscarmellose sodium and crospovidone. Preferred is croscarmellose or sodium salts thereof in a quantity ranging from 0.5 to 10% even more preferably comprised from 1-5%, most preferably comprised from 2-to 4%.
The moisture content of the solid dosage form, such as of a capsule or tablet, is also important. It is preferred that the moisture content is not higher than 15%, even more preferably not higher than 10%. A buffer system may be present as a stabilizer in the solid dosage form.
A significant advantage of the preparations of the present invention is that they can be prepared as a direct compression formula, dry granulation formula, or as a wet granulation formula, with or without preblending of the drug, although preferably with preblending, and still achieve remarkable stability of the resulting solid dosage form preparation.
The amount of the thyroid hormone in the preparations of the present invention can vary widely, mainly depending on the administration protocol. However, due to the to high potency exhibited by most of the thyroid hormones, and especially levothyroxine sodium, normally very low amounts of this thyroid hormone will be utilized.
The solid compositions comprising T3S alone comprise T3S of from 1 to 1000 μg; according to a further embodiment they comprises also T4 (tyroxine): according to this embodiment (combination compositions) T3S is present in a quantity of from 2.5-500 μg and T4 of from 1 to 800 μg.
Even more preferred active principle quantities in the formulation comprising two active principles are the following: T3S 5-250 μg and T4 5-400 μg, T3S 10-100 μg and T4 10-200 μg.
In any case, the preferred ratio between active principles (T4:T3S) is comprised from 10:1 to 0.1:1, with a more preferred range comprised from 5:1 to 1:1. Even more preferred is the range comprised from 3:1 to 2:1 (T4:T3S).
In the present specification, solid composition percent values refers to weight/weight (w/w) ratios and the pharmaceutical dosage form is of about 50-200 mg.
The compositions of the present invention are usually prepared by blending the thyroid hormones with microcrystalline cellulose, calcium carbonate, glycerol dibehenate, crosscarmellose salt, hydrate colloidal silica.
The resulting blend can be lubricated with magnesium stearate and tableted using a tablet press.
According to the invention, the solid composition of the invention are prepared in tablets and comprise either T3S as the only active principle or T3S in combination with a second active principle, preferably T4, in the quantities and ratios above indicated, together with the following diluents, disintegrants, glidants, lubricants or excipients. In a preferred embodiment, the composition contains 1 to 1000 μg T3S, in a more preferred embodiment the compositions include 2.5 to 500 μg T3S or more preferably 5-250 μg T3S and the following further ingredients (in amounts described below for a 80-150 mg tablet):
For combination compositions T3S is preferably present in a quantity of from 2.5-500 μg and T4 of from 1 to 800 μg, or, even more preferably: T3S: 5-250 μg and T4: 5-400 μg, or T3S: 10-100 μg and T4 10-200 μg.
It is intended that the above quantities preferably refer to about 110 mg tablets, preferably for daily single dosage administration, even though the skilled artisan may envisage adjustments due to alternative composition forms and/or therapeutic treatment protocols. Due to the conversion rates of T3S to T3 within the body a single administration every two or three days may be also envisaged.
According to the embodiment above for tablets, the following composition for T3S or T4 and T3S as active principle(s) (0.01-1% w/w) represents a further object of the present invention:
- a diluent selected from cellulose or derivatives thereof, preferably together with a second diluent, preferably calcium carbonate, up to 35% of the total diluent (w/w);
- a glidant, selected from glycerol dibehenate (most preferred), talc, silica derivatives among which magnesium trisilicate, amides, tribasic calcium phosphate, are usually present in the composition in a quantity range from 1 to 10%, most preferably 4 to 6% (w/w);
- a disintegrant selected from starch, croscarmellose sodium and crospovidone. Preferred is croscarmellose sodium salt in a quantity ranging from 0.5 to 10% even more preferably comprised from 1-5%, most preferably comprised from 2-to 4% (w/w);
- a lubricant selected from magnesium stearate, hydrate colloidal silica and talc, more preferably magnesium stearate and colloidal silica, in a total quantity range comprised from 0.1 to 7% even more preferably the first one comprised from 0.1 to 2% and the second comprised from 0.5 to 5% (w/w).
Different tablet weight and active principle contents or different administration protocols may be envisaged for those skilled in the art.
The tablets according to the preferred embodiment show optimal dissolution rates (see table below) and an optimal stability of the active principle(s) (at least 24 months).
The following properties measured in conditions according to ICH Guidelines:
Liquid compositions, for example obtainable by crushing one or more tablets and dissolving such a mixture or the blended mixture in aqueous solutions are also possible. Optionally, trace amount (i.e. below 5%) of a pharmaceutically acceptable antioxidant is also present. It is contemplated that such compounds may include, for example, ammonium chloride and/or one or more iodide donors (e.g., sodium iodide).
The compositions of this invention may further comprise one or more physiologically acceptable formulation excipients, such as those described in “Remington, J. P, Gennaro, A. R., Remington'"'"'s Pharmaceutical Sciences, Mack Publishers, Easton, (20th Edition, 2000).
The compositions of this invention are particularly suitable for oral administration.
The term “oral formulation” means that the active ingredient(s) is formulated into a product suitable for administering to an animal via the mouth. These formulations may include apart from the solid compositions described above, for example, liquids or semi-liquids, gels, pastes, oral sprays, buccal formulations, or animal feeds containing the active ingredients. Said liquid or semi-liquid compositions are typically aqueous solution.
The pharmaceutical compositions described above are prepared preferably as tablets, obtainable by direct compression of the mixture above described in powder. In some such embodiments, for example, the process further comprises combining T3S or T3S and T4 in the solid compositions described above with an aqueous composition optionally comprising a buffer for the preparation of a pharmaceutical liquid composition for oral administration.
It should be kept in mind that when the association is taken into account, the formulations of the present invention will also possibly comprise individually formulated doses of T3S and T4, for sequential or combined administration. In this case, one suitable kit is provided, which permits administration of said active principles in ways that can differ from patient to patient, depending on the needed therapeutic application. In such a way, the specialized physician will have a wide choice of changing the prescription according to the actual need of the patient.
Just by way of a non-limitative example, in the case of oral administration, one package containing two individual blisters, which have different shape and/or color and/or different contents and/or doses, may suit the desired scope. Other possibilities exist and are easily available to the expert of the field.
The pharmaceutical compositions of the present invention are usable in the treatment of pathologies due to organic deficiency of triiodothyronine (T3), like, for example, original hypothyroidism from autoimmune thyroid affections, hormonal production defects, thyroidectomy, congenital hypothyroidism, as well as some disorders due to reduced activity of type I 5′-iodothyronine monodeiodinase (type I MD) which is induced, for example, by hypothyroidism, non thyroidal systemic illnesses, fast, selenium shortage and so on.
Once administered to a human patient in need thereof, preferably suffering from a hypothyroid conditions, T3S levels can be measured and adjusted accordingly by a non-radioactive method immunoassay, either based on colorimetric, fluorescent or chemiluminescent detection.
Accordingly, a further embodiment of the invention is represented by a non radioactive immunoassay. Preferably the immunoassay is an Enzyme Linked Immuno Assay (ELISA), more preferably a competitive ELISA in which increasing amounts of T3S compete for the binding to a solid phase bound anti-T3S antibody, (e.g. the polyclonal disclosed in Chopra et al., J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab., 1992, 75: 189-194) with a fixed amount of T3S conjugated with an avidin-derivative detectable moiety (i.e. biotin), preferably carried out in a multi-well plate. More preferably, the avidin-derivative is a streptavidin and the detectable moiety comprises a chemiluminescent moiety (such as Alkaline Phosphatase or Horseradish Peroxidase), preferably HRP. The use of biotin-avidin interaction, combined with the various detection luminescence as techniques for signal development, allows signal amplification and increased sensitivity, comparable to a RIA test (see i.e. Chopra et al., J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab., 1992, 75: 189-194) but without the need for radioactivity—a clear advantage over the prior art. The ELISA assay, the T3S-biotin reagent and its synthesis, and kits for T3S quantitation comprising such reagent, represent a further object of the present invention.
As an alternative embodiment, the T3S immunoassay is developed for a particular fluorescence technique, known as DELFIA® (Dissociation Enhanced Lanthanide to Fluorescence ImmunoAssay) by which the required sensitivity is obtained. This assay, the synthesized reagents, and kits for T3S quantitation comprising said reagents represent a further object of the invention.
Thus, accordingly, a DTPA-T3S monoamide (3,5-Diiodo-N-[[(carboxymethyl) [2-[(carboxymethyl) [2-[bis(carboxymethyl) amino]ethyl]amino]ethyl]amino]acetyl]-O-[3-iodo-4-(sulfooxy)phenyl]-L-tyrosine) of Formula I, represents a chelating compound according to a preferred embodiment:
Other molecules can be designed and synthesized by an expert in the field, through conjugation of T3S with a variety of chelating moieties, among those suitable for complexation of lanthanide ions, e.g., nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA), ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), ethylenediamine-N,N′-bis (2-hydroxyphenylacetic acid) (EDDHA), ethylenediaminedisuccinic acid (EDDS), propanediaminetetraacetic acid (PDTA), diethylenetriaminetetraacetic acid (DTTA), diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA), and similar molecules. Conjugation between the chelating agent and T3S can be obtained by a variety of methods already known to the expert in the field, including a direct amide bond formation, as exemplified in Experimental Part, or the use of bifunctional chelating agents, that may even be commercial products, such as (S)-1-p-isothiocyanatobenzyldiethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA isothiocyanate—Invitrogen cat. I24221), or similar products.
Suitable lanthanide metals to be used as chelate labels are selected in the group consisting of: samarium, terbium, dysprosium and europium.
Particularly preferred is the Europium chelate 3,5-Diiodo-N-[[(carboxymethyl)[2-[(carboxymethyl) [2-[bis(carboxymethyl)amino]ethyl]amino]ethyl]amino]acetyl]-O-[3-iodo-4-(sulfooxy)phenyl]-L-tyrosine (Formula II).
A schematic of its synthesis is shown in
Lanthanide complexation is obtained according to known procedures by adding an equimolar amount of a lanthanide salt to the monoamide water solution and adjusting the pH at 7 with a suitable base (e.g. NaOH). Optionally, the lanthanide chelated product can be desalted by adsorption on a resin column (e.g. Amberlite XAD1600) and elution with water/solvent mixtures.
Also in this case, a sensitivity comparable to the RIA test (see Chopra et al., ibidem) is obtained and the use of radioactive isotopes avoided this represents a clear advantage over the prior art.
According to a further embodiment, the invention comprises a kit for T3S administration and dosage in serum, wherein said kit comprises an administration/therapeutic kit with a number of T3S or T3S and T4 composition daily doses (i.e. the weekly, bi-weekly, monthly or bi-monthly need), preferably in the form of tablets as described above, and a dosage kit for T3S immunodetection by a non-radioactive assay.
A further preferred embodiment of the kit comprises tablets with both active principles and a kit for T3S immunodetection in serum. In a preferred embodiment the immunodetection is an ELISA test as described above.
The kit comprises a container for a non radioactive immunoassay according to the alternative embodiments described above and container for the weekly need of the solid daily dosage described above. The container for the solid daily dosage may be formulated for the weekly, bimonthly, monthly or even multiple months needs, according to the patients and therapeutic treatment need.
As an example, absolutely non-limiting for the skilled technician, T3S may be administered for oral use at doses ranging from 1 to 1000 μg, preferably from 2.5 to 500 μg, more preferably from 5 to 250 μg.
Analogously, when in association with T4, preferred doses range from 2.5-500 μg of T3S and 1 to 800 T4 or, even more preferably: T3S: 5-250 μg and T4: 5-400 μg, or T3S: 10-100 μg and T4 10-200 μg.
Two representative formulations for oral administration, selected among the preferred ones, are hereinafter enclosed by way of an example. Obviously, said formulations have no limiting effect on the other possible variations, which may also comprise different types of administration, different doses or different components depending on the specific pharmacological application or the particular pathology.
In a 2-L amber glass of mixer Turbola transfer a portion Avicel PH102 and a T3S salt and mix for 5′±15″.
In a stainless steel tank of double cone mixer, transfer the pre-mixture a second portion of Avicel PH102. Mix for 10 minutes at 10 RPM.
The mix was sieved in 1-mm opening sieve and the remaining excipients: Compritol 888 ATO, Syloid 244, Acdisol, Magnesium stearate and Socal S2V DC and the last portion of Avicel PH102 were added directly in the double cone mixer, with mixing for 20 minutes at 10 rpm.
The mixture was pressed in 110-mg tablets by a rotary tabletting machine equipped with 7-mm diameter, round, flat jewels, with one-sided break-mark in the middle.
Tablets were shown to have chemical and physical characteristics according to ICH Guidelines.
Tablets were prepared and have shown to have the following characteristics:
20 μg dosage (25° C./60%)
100 μg dosage (25° C./60%)
Stability tests were carried out demonstrating that tablets are stable for at least 24 months.
Synthesis of T3S biotin derivative
Briefly, T3S biotin derivative was synthesized as follows: N-hydroxysuccinimidyl d-biotin-15-amido-4,7,10,13-tetraoxapentadecylate A (50 mg; 0.0849 mmol) was solubilized in DMAC (2 mL), to which DIPEA (14.5 uL; 0.0866 mmol) was added, while maintaining the reaction mixture under continuous stirring at 0° C. T3S (68.4 mg; 0.0908 mmol, prepared as described in Mol & Visser, Endocrinology 1985, 117:1-7) was then added and after a few minutes the suspension was left to heat up to room temperature to give a clear solution. It was allowed to stir for 2 h, then kept overnight at the same temperature. DMAC was evaporated under reduced pressure (10 mbar; 40° C.) to give a colourless oil. The crude so obtained was dissolved in H2O and purified by Semi-preparative HPLC. The fractions containing the product were collected, concentrated and finally lyophilized to give T3S-biotin as a white solid (59.6 mg; 0.0495 mmol). Yield 58%.
A polyclonal anti-T3S antiserum was obtained in rabbits as described in Chopra et al., J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab., 1992, 75: 189-194.
The assay was based on a competitive ELISA in which increasing amounts of T3S competed for the antibody binding with a fixed amount of T3S conjugated with biotin, in a white 96 well plate. The employment of the biotin-avidin interaction, which allows signal amplification, combined with luminescence as technique for signal development allowed for a sensibility comparable to the RIA test (described in Chopra et al., J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab., 1992, 75: 189-194).
Standard solutions of T3S were prepared at the following concentrations: 1000, 200, 40, 8, 1.6 pg/mL in Diluent Buffer: PBS, 0.05% Tween, 0.3% BSA
The tracer solution (T3S-Biotin, 180.6 μM) was prepared in the above diluent buffer. Antibody solution: T3S rabbit antiserum was diluted 1:50000 in Diluent Buffer plus 8 mM ANS, 1.2 mg/mL Sodium Salicylate.
A 96 well white plate was coated over night at 4° C. with 100 μL/well of 2 μg/mL anti Rabbit IgG diluted in phosphate buffer pH 7.8. At the same time, Standard solutions of biotin labelled T3S were combined with the diluted antiserum and the T3S-biotin solution as reported in Table A. The mixed samples were incubated at room temperature in the dark, over night.
The day after, the plate was washed four times with Washing Buffer (0.05% Tween 20 in PBS), then incubated in Blocking Buffer (2% BSA in Washing Buffer) for 1 h at room temperature.
Afterwards, the plate was rinsed four times with Washing Buffer, 100 μL/well of the mixed samples were added in triplicate and the plate was incubated 3 h at room temperature.
Then, the plate was rinsed three times with Washing Buffer and incubated with Streptavidin Poly-HRP (10 ng/mL in RASA, 100 μL/well) for 1 h at room temperature. After additional six washes, the plate was incubated with SuperSignal ELISA Femto Maximum Sensitivity Substrate (100 μL/well) for 5 mM in the dark and the emitted light was read as counts per second (CPS) with a luminescence plate reader
The calibration curve was prepared in buffer using five concentrations of the test item in the range 1.6-1000 pg/mL. The curve is shown in
Synthesis of Eu-DTPA-T3S monoamide
The reaction scheme of the synthesis of 3,5-Diiodo-N-[[(carboxymethyl)[2-[(carboxymethyl) [2-[bis(carboxymethyl)amino]ethyl]amino]ethyl]amino]acetyl]-O-[3-iodo-4-(sulfooxy)phenyl]-L-tyrosine (DTPA-T3S monoamide) is shown in
A solution of H2O (0.282 ml; 15.64 mmol) in DMAC (43 mL) was added dropwise to a suspension of N,N-bis[2-(2,6-dioxylenol orange-4-morpholinyl)ethyl]glycine A (4.27 g; 11.94 mmol) in DMAC (85 mL) at room temperature. At the end of the addition the mixture was heated to 80° C. After 4.5 h the reaction mixture was cooled to 25° C. and a solution of T3S/1 (3 g; 3.98 mmol) and DIPEA (2.71 mL; 15.92 mmol) in DMAC (85 mL) was added dropwise over 20 min DMAC was evaporated under reduced pressure (10 mbar; 40° C.). The oily residue was diluted with H2O (200 mL), obtaining precipitation of a yellowish solid that was filtered washed with H2O and dried. The crude so obtained was dissolved in Acetone/H2O 20:80 (v/v), the solution (pH=2.97) was loaded on an Amberlite® XAD-1600 resin column (200 mL; diam. 6 cm) and eluted with a Acetone/H2O gradient. The fractions containing the product having similar composition were collected and evaporated to give the ligand DTPA-T3S as a solid (1.27 g; 1.15 mmol). Yield 26%.
Europium chloride hexahydrate (0.17 g, 0.46 mmol) was added in portions to a solution of the ligand DTPA-T3S (0.51 g; 0.46 mmol) in H2O (50 mL) at 20° C. (pH 2.93); after each addition the suspension was stirred until complete dissolution. Once the complexation was complete the pH was adjusted to 7 with 0.1 N NaOH and the solution was desalted by elution with water/acetone from a column of Amberlite® XAD-1600 resin (100 mL; diam. 3 cm). The fractions containing the desired product and free from salts were collected and evaporated to give the compound of Formula I (0.37 g, 0.28 mmol) a yellow solid. Yield: 61%.
The immunoassay method and solutions were as described in the Example D, with the following exceptions: a DELFIA® Wash (Perkin Elmer) was used instead of the above Washing buffer. The Tracer stock solution contained the Europium 100 μM and it was stored at +4° C., protected from light. Just before use it was diluted 1:300000 in Assay Buffer to obtain a final concentration of 440 pg/mL.
The assay was performed in Delfia Yellow plates (Perkin Elmer).
After the 3-h incubation with the mixed samples, the Formula II diluted compound solution was added (50 μL per well) to all wells. The plates were then sealed with plastic adhesive sheets and incubated under agitation for 1 h at 37° C.
After three washes, the plates were tapped dry on absorbent paper, and Delfia Enhancement Solution (Perkin Elmer) was added (200 μL) After 1 h at 25° C., the plates were read in a Victor3 instrument according to the “Europium” manufacturer protocol. A calibration curve was prepared using nine concentrations of the test item in the range 30-2000 pg/mL. The curve is shown in
1) Ethical Issues
This study was conducted in Pisa, Italy under the guidelines provided in the Declaration of Helsinki, ICH E6 Guideline for Good Clinical Practice, and the requirements of the European Directive 2001/20/EC, and Law Decree Jun. 24, 2003, n. 211 implementing Directive 2001/20/CE in Italy, as well as the European Commission Directive 2005/28/EC of 8 Apr. 2005, laying down principles and detailed guidelines for good clinical practice for investigational medicinal products for human use, as well as the requirements for authorisation of the manufacturing or importation of such products, and related guidance.
The study was designed to guarantee that plasma levels of total T3 could not exceed 196.6 ng/dl, the level obtained by the administration of the consolidated standard therapy of 20 μg T3
About 30 human subjects with surgically excised thyroids were administered a to single dose of an oral T3S composition of the invention containing 20, 40, 80 or 160 μg T3S in tablet form. Serum levels of thyroid hormone including T3S and triiodothyronine (“T3”) as both free T3 (“FT3”) and total T3 (“TT3”) were assessed by T3S RIA, as described in Chopra et al., J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab., 1992, 75: 189-194.
Forty eight hours prior to administration of the oral T3S composition of the invention, patients were screened for the study criteria and informed consent was requested and obtained. Twenty-four hours prior to administration of the oral T3S composition of the invention the subject was examined and all specimens for laboratory tests were collected, including thyroid function tests. On the day of the administration of the oral T3S composition of the invention, a further check of the inclusion/exclusion criteria was performed and patients were given a single dose of the oral T3S composition of the invention in tablet form according to the dose group in which they were placed.
The tablet composition was as follows:
The initial part of the study was aimed at determining the optimal dose: as none of the patients treated with the 20, 40, 80 and 160 μg doses of the oral T3S composition of the invention had serum levels of TT3 exceeding 196.6 ng/dl, the 160 μg dose was selected for use in the second part of the study.
12 subjects received a single dose of the oral composition of the invention containing 160 μg T3S. The absorption of T3S was assessed by measuring the serum levels of thyroid hormones TT3, FT3, T3S, free thyroxine (“FT4”) and Thyrotropin (or Thyroid Stimulating hormone, “TSH”).
T3S in serum was detected with a peak level two hours after administration of the oral composition, as shown in
Serum levels of TSH and FT4 were determined at 24 h and 30 minutes prior to administration, and at 24 and 48 hours±15 min after the administration of T3S composition. Gastrointestinal absorption of T3S was assessed by measurement of circulating serum concentrations of TT3, T3S and FT3. Circulating serum concentrations of FT3 was measured pre and post dose to verify the in-vivo T3S-FT3 conversion in patients.
Safety and tolerability were assessed by monitoring adverse events and by monitoring effects on vital signs, ECG, hematology, blood chemistry and urinalysis after administration of the oral compositions of the invention.
Regardless of dose, the oral T3S compositions of the invention were found to be safe and well tolerated. The mean serum concentration of T3S (in ng/dl) for each of the four dose groups in the initial part of the study is shown in
The mean serum concentration of T3S and TT3 after administration of a 160 μg dose of the oral composition of the invention is shown in
This data establishes that T3S is absorbed (i.e. it crosses the Gastrointestinal Barrier) and is found in serum after oral administration, is converted to the clinically active T3 in a dose-related fashion and that T3 levels in serum are still detectable 48 hrs after single dose administration.
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1. Triiodothyronine sulfate for use as a medicament.
2. Triiodothyronine sulphate for use as a medicament according to embodiment 1, having thyromimetic activity.
3. Triiodothyronine sulfate according to embodiment 2, for use in the treatment of pathologies due to organic deficiency of triiodothyronine.
4. Triiodothyronine sulfate according to embodiment 3, wherein said pathologies comprise original hypothyroidism from autoimmune thyroid affections, hormonal production defects, thyroidectomy, congenital hypothyroidism.
5. Triiodothyronine sulfate according to embodiment 2, for use in the treatment of disorders due to reduced activity of type I 5′-iodothyronine monodeiodinase.
6. Triiodothyronine sulfate according to embodiment 5, wherein said reduced activity of type I 5′-iodothyronine monodeiodinase comprises, among its grounds, hypothyroidism, non thyroidal systemic illnesses, fast, selenium shortage.
7. Pharmaceutical compositions comprising triiodothyronine sulfate as an active principle.
8. Pharmaceutical compositions according to embodiment 7, wherein said triiodothyronine sulfate is formulated in association with thyroxine.
9. Pharmaceutical compositions according to embodiment 7 and 8, wherein said compositions further comprise additives like excipients, diluents, dissolvents, solvents, carriers, dyestuffs, flavourings, sweeteners.
10. Pharmaceutical compositions according to embodiment 7, wherein triiodothyronine sulfate is administered at doses raging from 5 to 1000 μg.
11. Pharmaceutical compositions according to embodiment 10, wherein triiodothyronine sulfate is administered at doses raging from 10 to 500 μg.
12. Pharmaceutical compositions according to embodiment 10, wherein triiodothyronine sulfate is administered at doses raging from 25 to 250 μg.
13. Pharmaceutical compositions according to embodiment 8, wherein said association is administered at doses ranging from 10 to 500 μg of triiodothyronine sulfate and from 10 to 250 μg of thyroxine.
14. Pharmaceutical compositions according to embodiment 8, wherein said association is administered at doses ranging from 25 to 250 μg of triiodothyronine sulfate and from 25 to 200 μg of thyroxine.
15. Kit for the differential or sequential administration of the pharmaceutical compositions according to embodiments 8, 9 and 11 to 14.
16. Use of triiodothyronine sulfate for the preparation of the pharmaceutical compositions according to embodiments 7 to 15.