ENERGY HARVESTING DEVICES FOR LOW FREQUENCY APPLICATIONS
1. An energy harvesting device, comprising:
- a buckling member having a longitudinal axis and configured to exhibit a snap-through event in response to a force applied axially thereto, where the buckling member is constrained laterally in relation to the longitudinal axis; and
at least one cantilever having one end coupled to the buckling member and a mass disposed at an opposing end thereof, the cantilever extends outwardly from the buckling member and includes a piezoelectric material disposed on a surface thereof.
An energy harvesting device has been developed for low frequency applications. The energy harvesting device is comprised of a buckling member having a longitudinal axis and configured to exhibit multiple snap-through events in response to a deformation applied axially thereto, where the buckling member is constrained laterally in relation to the longitudinal axis; and at least one cantilever extends outwardly from the buckling member. The cantilever(s) is coated with a piezoelectric material and supports a mass disposed at an opposing end from which it is attached to the buckling member. In this arrangement, the buckling member is able to respond to axial deformations occurring at a frequency less than one Hertz.
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Patent #US 10,447,177 B2
Current AssigneeThe Research Foundation for The State University of New York
Sponsoring EntityThe Research Foundation for The State University of New York
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Current AssigneeHong Kong Applied Science And Technology Research Institute Company Limited
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Current AssigneeThe Boeing Co.
Sponsoring EntityThe Boeing Co.
- 1. An energy harvesting device, comprising:
a buckling member having a longitudinal axis and configured to exhibit a snap-through event in response to a force applied axially thereto, where the buckling member is constrained laterally in relation to the longitudinal axis; and at least one cantilever having one end coupled to the buckling member and a mass disposed at an opposing end thereof, the cantilever extends outwardly from the buckling member and includes a piezoelectric material disposed on a surface thereof.
- View Dependent Claims (2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9)
- 10. An energy harvesting device, comprising:
a strip defining a longitudinal axis and having two opposing planar surfaces substantially larger than remaining surfaces of the strip; at least one cantilever having one end coupled to the strip and a mass disposed at an opposing end of cantilever, wherein the cantilever extends outwardly from the strip; a piezoelectric material disposed on at least one surface of the cantilever; a first wall disposed adjacent to one of the planar surfaces of the strip and a second wall disposed adjacent to the other of the planar surface of the strip, wherein the strip exhibits a snap-through event in response to a force applied axially thereto and the first and second walls laterally constrain the snap-through event of the strip.
- View Dependent Claims (11, 12, 13, 14, 15)
- 16. An energy harvesting device, comprising:
a hollow cylinder configured to exhibit a snap-through event in response to a force applied axially thereto, where the snap-through event is constrained laterally by curvature of the cylinder; at least one cantilever having one end coupled to a curved surface of the cylinder and a mass disposed at an opposing end of cantilever; and a piezoelectric material disposed on a surface of the cantilever.
- View Dependent Claims (17, 18, 19, 20, 21)
This application claims the benefit of U.S. Provisional Application No. 61/680,071, filed on Aug. 6, 2012. The entire disclosure of the above application is incorporated herein by reference.
The present disclosure relates generally to energy harvesting devices and, more particularly, to methods for energy generation and conversion in the unexplored quasi-static frequency range less than one Hertz.
One of the major obstacles that are limiting the development of deployable integrated sensing and actuation solutions in smart structures is the scarcity of power. Several applications require of the use of miniaturized low-powered sensing and actuation systems. These applications include civil and mechanical structures monitoring, machinery/equipment monitoring, home automation, efficient office energy control, surveillance and security, agricultural management, long range asset tracking, and remote patient monitoring. As a result, the power consumption, speed and size of integrated circuits have dramatically decreased. It is now becoming feasible to embed electronics in everyday objects to potentially enhance their performance. For example, a typical wireless sensor node would consist of an embedded microprocessor, digital logic circuits, radio receiver, radio transmitter, timer and an analog-to-digital converter. Current commercial electronics have sleep-power consumptions as low as 200 nW. The processor is capable of 0.5 million operations per second at 350 μW power consumption. Commercial sensor nodes require about 50 mW of power to run the sampling, processing and communication functions. These sensors would typically process and transmit approximately 500 bytes of data per milli-joule of energy. Recently, a data computation and logging system for sensing applications have been reported to achieve data processing and storage at power levels below 1 μW. The actual power consumption in real applications strongly depends on the complexity of the processed signal quantity and on the number of times per second it has to be transmitted. Several recent practical implementations of sensor nodes showed that 20 μW to 100 μW is enough to process and transmit data. The value of 100 μW is considered representative of the latest developments of relatively complex nodes for systems operating at relative high data-rate.
In spite of the significant developments in the area of localized sensing and actuation, most of the developed systems to date still rely on batteries, thus limiting the lifetime of the device as well as the diagnosis possibilities. Therefore, energy harvesting has been a topic given great attention in recent years as a viable alternative. A myriad of potential energy sources have been identified. Among the identified methods, piezoelectric harvesters are the most promising for deployment in structures, given the size limitations and the possibility of being embedded within the construction material.
A major disadvantage that hinders the use of piezoelectric scavengers in most of the civil and mechanical applications is their narrow-band frequency response. For example,
This section provides background information related to the present disclosure which is not necessarily prior art.
This section provides a general summary of the disclosure, and is not a comprehensive disclosure of its full scope or all of its features.
In one aspect of this disclosure, an energy harvesting device has been developed for low frequency applications. The energy harvesting device is comprised of a buckling member having a longitudinal axis and configured to exhibit a snap-through event in response to a force applied axially thereto, where the buckling member is constrained laterally in relation to the longitudinal axis; and at least one cantilever extends outwardly from the buckling member. The cantilever(s) is coated with a piezoelectric material and supports a mass disposed at an opposing end from which it is attached to the buckling member. In this arrangement, the buckling member is able to respond to axial deformations occurring at a frequency less than one Hertz.
In some embodiments, the buckling member is further defined as a strip, where the strip is defined by two opposing planar surfaces substantially larger than remaining surfaces of the strip. A first wall may be disposed adjacent to a first of the planar surfaces of the strip and a second wall may be disposed adjacent to a second of the planar surfaces of the strip, such that the walls laterally constrain the snap-through events of the strip.
In other embodiments, the buckling member is further defined as a hollow cylinder, such that the snap-through events can be generated, for example by the geometry of the cylinder, by the anisotropy that can be obtained by using laminated composite materials, by modifying the material distribution within the cylinder, by modifying the stiffness distribution with the cylinder and/or by providing inner or outer constraints.
Further areas of applicability will become apparent from the description provided herein. The description and specific examples in this summary are intended for purposes of illustration only and are not intended to limit the scope of the present disclosure.
The drawings described herein are for illustrative purposes only of selected embodiments and not all possible implementations, and are not intended to limit the scope of the present disclosure.
Corresponding reference numerals indicate corresponding parts throughout the several views of the drawings.
Example embodiments will now be described more fully with reference to the accompanying drawings.
The theory of buckling and postbuckling of elastic structures, and its applications is an area of research that has been studied extensively over the past 80 or more years. While most efforts have been guided by the need to develop improved understanding for preventing global and local instability, recent attention has been paid to the potential of using postbuckling behavior for deployable and active structures. Within the current research concept, if snap-through buckling can be used as a means to increase the frequency of response of a vibrating energy harvester for increased wideband operation, then it is of interest to have not only two positions of postbuckling equilibrium (bistable configuration) but multiple stable positions. Thus, is there a way to obtain and control multistable postbuckling response as shown in FIG. 2? The answer is yes, as long as lateral constrains are provided to the buckling element so as to allow multiple stable post-buckling equilibrium configurations.
In response to a force applied axially to the strip as indicated at 39, the strip is configured to exhibit a snap-through buckling event. By constraining the strip laterally, the strip is able to exhibit multiple snap-through events between stable positions. Three of such configurations, or buckling mode shapes are shown in
In an alternative embodiment, the lateral constraint of the strip can be applied by discrete elements placed on both side of the planar surfaces of the strip. For example, the discrete elements could take the form of pins or protrusions that would create the required transverse constraining force when the deformed strip touches the elements. It is understood that there can be multiple discrete elements placed on either side of the strip and the spacing between them can control the buckling modes and the snap-through events that the strip can experience. Other continuous or discrete means for laterally constraining the strip are also contemplated by this disclosure.
Multistable behavior of strips has been analytically and experimentally proven to be possible provided that discrete or continuous lateral constraints are provided. In such conditions, the increased transverse deformations from a buckled shape under axial compressive demands would lead to contact interaction with a discrete or continuous boundary, such as that provided by the two walls 35A, 35B. The contact interaction would lead to secondary restraining forces that allow the development of a higher order buckling configuration. Increased transverse deformations of the second postbuckled configuration would lead to new transverse forces from the lateral constraints thus inducing a third postbuckled stable configuration, as best seen in
The cantilever 32 has one end coupled to the strip 31 and a mass 34 disposed at an opposing end thereof. The cantilever extends outwardly from the buckling member and can be orientated substantially transverse to the longitudinal axis of the strip. Other orientations are also contemplated. Likewise, the cantilever is preferably positioned at the location along the strip that experiences the greatest lateral acceleration during the snap-through event. However, this position can vary for different post-buckling positions. Thus, the cantilever oscillators are placed at the locations of maximum transverse amplitude of the buckling strip element. The mounting of single or multiple cantilever oscillators along the strip length is contemplated.
A piezoelectric material is disposed on one or more surfaces of the cantilever 32. Different types of piezoelectric material may be used, including but not limited to lead zirconate titanate (PZT) and semi-crystalline plastic polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF). The piezoelectric material of the cantilever is in turn electrically connected via a harvesting circuit to an energy storage device, such as a battery. In this way, the output voltage produced by the vibrating cantilever can be captured and stored for later use.
The post-buckling response of the bilaterally constrained strip 31 was evaluated. The test setup consisted of an axially loaded polycarbonate (E=2.3 GPa) strip (L=227 mm, w=30 mm, t=4 mm) with fix-fix support conditions and with continuous bilateral constraints allowing a gap of 4 mm for transverse deformations. The reproducibility of the behavior and its cyclic response was evaluated. The force-displacement response of one loading cycle is shown in
To evaluate the frequency-up conversion capability gained from the post-buckling behavior, the cantilever 32 was mounted at mid-span of the polycarbonate strip 31. The cantilever 32 included a PVDF film (E≈3 GPa) on a polyester cantilever strip (w=16.5 mm, L=32 mm, I=3e-5 mm4) with a tip lumped mass (0.92 g). The restrained strip 31 was compressed past its fifth buckling mode as the starting position. The loading cycle was then started by compressing the strip further until past the 7th buckling mode, then unloading the strip (tension load) past the 3rd mode and then compressing again until past the 5th mode. The load histories of the strip and the voltage output from the piezoelectric material are shown in
Continuing with the evaluation set forth above, the energy generated by a cantilever piezoelectric PVDF beam measured across a 10 MΩ resistor in shown in
Large-strain nonlinear dynamic finite element analyses were conducted on the bilaterally constrained column test. Four-node isoparametric shell elements were used to model the strip and rigid no-penetration contact behavior with friction coefficient 0.2 was defined for the interaction between the strip and side walls. The introduction of friction is important because this force creates a pseudo-softening effect on the load-deformation response as it acts against the direction of loading. Geometric imperfection was introduced to the strip by using superposition of buckling eigenmodes. An implicit dynamic analysis procedure was used. The numerically simulated force-displacement response from the models is shown in
The energy harvesting device 30 may be packaged in different manners.
The housing 70 includes two end caps 71 and a means for compressive preloading the strip of the energy harvesting device. In an example embodiment, the strip is preloaded using a screw 72 threaded through one of the end caps 71. The head of the screw is accessible on the exterior of the housing; whereas, the opposing end of the screw engages an axial end of the strip 31. By rotating the screw, the compressive preload for centering can be applied mechanically by the screw. Other techniques for preloading the strip also fall within the scope of this technique.
The cylindrical housing 70 may also be configured with two metal rods 74. Each rod 74 extends axially from the one of the end caps 71 and functions to better anchor the housing 70 in a structure from which energy is to be harvested. One or more of the housings 70 may be arranged in the structure as shown in
Obtaining multiple postbuckling configurations for one dimensional elements, such as strips, requires lateral constraints. It would be of interest, however, if a similar behavior could be obtained without exterior restraints. Such a phenomenon occurs in the response of thin cylindrical shells.
One or more cantilevers 92 are coupled at one end of the cylinder 90. The cantilevers 92 extend away from the attached surface and support a mass at a distal end thereof. It is understood that the cantilevers could extend inward from an inner surface of the cylinder or extend outward from an outer surface of the cylinder. It is also understood the cantilevers may be placed at different positions along the attachment surface.
An experimental and numerical investigation was conducted to confirm that static path jumping could be achieved in cylinders under compression.
Understanding how the postbuckling behavior can be controlled is an important step towards harnessing such instability phenomenon. First, the equilibrium path is expected to have multiple mode transitions rather than a single bifurcation point. From a physical perspective, the number of multiple mode transitions (k) indicates the localized elastic interactions of the cylindrical shell while one larger jump may indicate damage. A second feature of interest is the magnitude of the drops in load (ΔPi,i=1, 2, 3 . . . n) and separation of the snap-through events as indicated by the end shortening (δi,i=1, 2, 3 . . . n). It should be noted that the magnitude of the first bifurcation event is not of primary interest. Rather, maximizing the number of load drops is of more importance. Lastly, it is of interest to maximize the enclosed area in the force-displacement response as it is associated with the dissipated energy from the equilibrium path transactions.
Research has shown that the geometry of a cylindrical shell dictates their buckling response, and that obtaining multiple local buckling patterns requires cylinders with a small length to radius ratio (L/R) and a large radius thickness (R/t) ratio. Thus, the base cylinder used for this study had an effective length of 203 mm and internal diameter of 203 mm. The thickness varied from 1.32 mm to 0.28 mm depending on the material design as described in the following sections. It is understood that cylinders having different dimensions fall within the scope of this disclosure.
Anisotropic coupling effects in composite laminates are known to reduce the bucking capacity of cylindrical shells. Coupling terms are thus generally avoided through special laminate designs. However, anisotropic coupling can provide useful response characteristics. Thus, coupling terms may help induce local mode jumps and trigger desirable equilibrium paths in the postbuckling response.
Eight 4-ply CFRP cylinders with laminate stacking sequences exhibiting different coupling behavior, see Table 1, were considered. The cylinders were assumed to be made from unidirectional carbon/epoxy tape with a ply thickness of 0.1397 mm and ply properties of: E11=144.8 GPa; E22=9.655 GPa; G12=5.862 GPa; ν12=0.25.
It is noted that the structural x-axis is along the longitudinal cylinder axis. B11, B12 and B22 are extension-bend coupling terms; B16 and B26 is an extension-twist coupling term; D16 and D26 are bend-twist coupling terms.
The first buckling mode for Cases 1, 2, 5 and 6 (see Table 1) shown in
A pilot study to evaluate the effects of locally varying material stiffness on the postbuckling response of cylindrical shells is also presented. Typically, local variation of geometry for cylindrical shells refers to stiffeners/ribs along the surface or holes/bumps on the surface; which have a significant effect on buckling load. As noted on the discussion of imperfection sensitivity, the postbuckling response is driven by the extent of imperfections and their amplitude. The aim here was to induce a similar effect through artificial changes on the material properties and their distribution on the cylinder such that dominant buckling modes can be triggered.
A set of eight cylinders (Table 2) with ad-hoc patterned material distributions were considered. The patterns were empirically chosen upon evaluation of the eigenshapes observed from linear and non-linear buckling studies on isotropic and laminated cylinders. The approach to the material layout distributions consisted in providing regions of locally varying (softer) material stiffness. The patterned material distributions were grouped in four categories as shown in
M and n are the number of segments along the circumferential and axial direction, respectively; the number in parenthesis is the number of segments with weaker material properties.
The postbuckling response of four characteristic cases is shown in
From the discussion and results presented before it is clear that postbuckling response after the first bifurcation is usually characterized by a quick loss of stiffness and load-bearing capacity. The load-displacement responses show that the stiffness is near zero half way along the loading history. This occurs when buckling waves in the longitudinal direction increase in amplitude (in the transverse direction) without the development of a mode transition. Further, it can be observed that the number of local mode transitions obtained in the studied cases with anisotropic coupling or patterned material layouts were no more than six, and no more than two significant load drops during mode transitions were observed. A way to control the growth of transverse deformations and induce multiple post-buckling transitions is to provide lateral restraints to the postbuckling shape. Thus, the effects of unilateral and bilateral constraints on the cylindrical shell were studied by considering three conditions: unilateral outer and inner constraints, respectively, and bilateral constraints. In total, eight cases were considered whereby the lateral constraint or the gap between the constraint and the cylinder were changed, see Table 3.
The shell molded for this evaluation was a [45°/−45°] graphite/epoxy cylinder. The material properties and stiffness characteristics are as that of Case 7 in Table 1. The reference gap between the cylinder and the rigid constraint was taken to be 3.5 mm, since this was the maximum transverse displacement obtained in the study of Case 7 (Table 1). Reduction in the gap was studied for cases with inner unilaterial constraints since cylindrical shells are more prone to buckle inward due to the geometric constraint from the structure'"'"'s curvature.
The lateral constraint was assumed to be rigid and was numerically modeled by defining a rigid cylinder and contact interaction parameters between the constraining surfaces and the cylindrical shell. The contact interaction properties were a no-penetration condition in the normal direction to the surfaces and a frictionless response in the tangential direction. Further investigation is needed with consideration of friction between the interacting surfaces. All models in this section were subjected to a 5 mm shortening in the axial direction. The analysis only considered nonlinear elastic response.
The postbuckling responses of Cases 2, 3 and 4 (see Table 3) along with the base or unconstrained shell (Case 1) are plotted in
The postbuckling responses of Cases 5 and 6 (see Table 3) along with the base specimen are plotted in
Multi-stability refers to the ability of a structure to attain two or more stable geometric configurations and transition between them in an elastic manner upon the application of load. In another aspect of this disclosure, bistability can be provided by the internal state that develops upon cool-down from curing asymmetric angle ply composite laminates. The residual thermal stresses in the thin plates lead to stable shapes with opposing mid-plane curvatures as shown in
Bistable laminated plates were manufactured by introducing residual stresses due to thermal cool down from their curing temperature. A PVDF piezoelectric oscillator was mounted on one of the plate'"'"'s corner in a cantilever configuration as shown in
Another option to control the amplitude and frequency output of the piezoelectric harvester is to arrange the mechanical elastic elements in assemblies or arrays. It has been discussed that the post-buckling response of laterally restrained columns and cylinders can attain multiple post-buckling positions. For the bistable plates, this is not possible and the system is essentially monotonic, that is, the snap-through can only occur in one of possible stable directions of the laminate. Both the laterally restrained columns and the bistable plate systems can be enhanced in the number, degree of energy release, and the spacing of the high-rate motion events by creating arrays of elements in series or parallel. Concepts for this output signal tailoring scheme are shown in
Experimental and numerical studies have been conducted to validate the concept of using arrays of slender elastic strips to increase the number of snap-through events. The setup described above was extended to accommodate three parallel strips with fixed end supports. The constraining walls were kept separated by a 4 mm gap and three columns of the same length were placed inside the gaps adjacent to one of the constraining walls. Two sets of experiments were conducted. In the first experiment, three strips with the same geometry and material properties as described above were used. The strips were axially loaded in compression under displacement control to a total end shortening of 5 mm and then unloaded. The displacement control was applied to the top boundaries of all strips simultaneously. In the second experiment, the thickness of the third strip to the right was reduced to 1.47 mm from the original 2.3 mm, changing only one parameter for better understanding of the observed behavior. The same loading procedure was applied.
The foregoing description of the embodiments has been provided for purposes of illustration and description. It is not intended to be exhaustive or to limit the disclosure. Individual elements or features of a particular embodiment are generally not limited to that particular embodiment, but, where applicable, are interchangeable and can be used in a selected embodiment, even if not specifically shown or described. The same may also be varied in many ways. Such variations are not to be regarded as a departure from the disclosure, and all such modifications are intended to be included within the scope of the disclosure.