VEHICLE SOFTWARE UPGRADE TECHNIQUES
System and method for maintaining functionality of software includes initially providing the vehicle with software resident on computer-readable medium to enable it to operate and interact with components thereof and updating the vehicle software by receiving a wireless transmission from one or more remote locations, e.g., a location maintained by a dealer or manufacturer of the vehicle. The software may be diagnostic software for a diagnostic module which diagnoses operability of components of the vehicle. Different remote locations may be responsible for different portions of the vehicle-resident software and may therefore provide different software upgrades, based on need.
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- 16. A method for providing status data for vehicle maintenance, comprising:
- monitoring for a triggering event on a vehicle during operation of the vehicle on a road having a wireless communications unit, the triggering event relating to a diagnostic or prognostic analysis of at least one of a plurality of different components or subsystems of the vehicle; and
initiating a wireless transmission between the communications unit and a remote site separate and apart from the vehicle in response to the triggering event, the transmission including a diagnostic or prognostic message about the at least one component or subsystem;
wherein the diagnostic or prognostic message includes an identification of the at least one component or subsystem and an identification of whether the at least one component or subsystem should be either repaired or replaced.
- View Dependent Claims (17)
- monitoring for a triggering event on a vehicle during operation of the vehicle on a road having a wireless communications unit, the triggering event relating to a diagnostic or prognostic analysis of at least one of a plurality of different components or subsystems of the vehicle; and
- 18. A system for providing status data for vehicle maintenance, comprising:
- a diagnostic module including at least one sensor for monitoring a plurality of different components or subsystems of the vehicle during operation of the vehicle on a road, the diagnostic module being arranged to analyze monitoring data provided by the at least one sensor and detect a triggering event relating to a diagnostic or prognostic analysis of at least one of the plurality of different components or subsystems of the vehicle; and
a wireless communications unit arranged to interface with a wireless communications network, the communications unit being coupled to the diagnostic module and initiating a wireless transmission between the communications unit and a remote site separate and apart from the vehicle in response to the triggering event, the transmission including a diagnostic or prognostic message about the at least one component or subsystem, wherein the diagnostic or prognostic message includes an identification of the at least one of the plurality of different components or subsystems of the vehicle and an identification of whether the at least one of the plurality of different components or subsystems of the vehicle should be either repaired or replaced.
- View Dependent Claims (19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25)
- a diagnostic module including at least one sensor for monitoring a plurality of different components or subsystems of the vehicle during operation of the vehicle on a road, the diagnostic module being arranged to analyze monitoring data provided by the at least one sensor and detect a triggering event relating to a diagnostic or prognostic analysis of at least one of the plurality of different components or subsystems of the vehicle; and
This application is:
A. a continuation-in-part (CIP) of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 11/082,739 filed Mar. 17, 2005, which is a CIP of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 10/701,361 filed Nov. 4, 2003, now U.S. Pat. No. 6,988,026, which claims priority under 35 U.S.C. §119(e) of U.S. provisional patent application Ser. No. 60/423,613 filed Nov. 4, 2002, now expired, and U.S. provisional patent application Ser. No. 60/461,648 filed Apr. 8, 2003, now expired, and is
- 1) a CIP of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 09/925,062 filed Aug. 8, 2001, now U.S. Pat. No. 6,733,036, which is a CIP of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 09/356,314 filed Jul. 16, 1999, now U.S. Pat. No. 6,326,704, which is a CIP of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 09/137,918 filed Aug. 20, 1998, now U.S. Pat. No. 6,175,787 which is a CIP of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 08/476,077 filed Jun. 7, 1995, now U.S. Pat. No. 5,809,437;
- 2) a CIP of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 10/079,065 filed Feb. 19, 2002, now U.S. Pat. No. 6,662,642, which claims priority under 35 U.S.C. §119(e) of U.S. provisional patent application Ser. No. 60/269,415 filed Feb. 16, 2001, now expired, U.S. provisional patent application Ser. No. 60/291,511 filed May 16, 2001, now expired, and U.S. provisional patent application Ser. No. 60/304,013 filed Jul. 9, 2001, now expired;
- 3) a CIP of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 10/188,673 filed Jul. 3, 2002, now U.S. Pat. No. 6,738,697, which is a CIP of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 09/753,186 filed Jan. 2, 2001, now U.S. Pat. No. 6,484,080, which is a CIP of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 09/137,918 filed Aug. 20, 1998, now U.S. Pat. No. 6,175,787 which is a CIP of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 08/476,077 filed Jun. 7, 1995, now U.S. Pat. No. 5,809,437; and
- 4) a CIP of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 10/613,453 filed Jul. 3, 2003, now U.S. Pat. No. 6,850,824; and
B. a CIP of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 11/379,078 filed Apr. 18, 2006 which is a CIP of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 11/220,139 filed Sep. 6, 2005, now U.S. Pat. No. 7,103,460, which is a CIP of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 11/120,065 filed May 2, 2005, now abandoned, which claims priority under 35 U.S.C. §119(e) of U.S. provisional patent application Ser. No. 60/592,838 filed Jul. 30, 2004, now expired.
All of the references, patents and patent applications that are referred to herein are incorporated by reference in their entirety as if they had each been set forth herein in full. Note that this application is one in a series of applications covering safety and other systems for vehicles and other uses. The disclosure herein goes beyond that needed to support the claims of the particular invention set forth herein. This is not to be construed that the inventor is thereby releasing the unclaimed disclosure and subject matter into the public domain. Rather, it is intended that patent applications have been or will be filed to cover all of the subject matter disclosed below and in the current assignee's granted and pending applications. Also please note that the terms frequently used below “the invention” or “this invention” is not meant to be construed that there is only one invention being discussed. Instead, when the terms “the invention” or “this invention” are used, it is referring to the particular invention being discussed in the paragraph where the term is used.
This invention relates generally to systems and methods for updating software on a vehicle, i.e., vehicle-resident software, and more specifically to upgrading the vehicle-resident software automatically over a telematics channel which may be an Internet channel.
There are numerous methods and components described and disclosed herein. Many combinations of these methods and components are described but in order to conserve space the inventor has not described all combinations and permutations of these methods and components, however, the inventor intends that each and every such combination and permutation is an invention to be considered disclosed by this disclosure. The inventor further intends to file continuation and continuation-in-part applications to cover many of these combinations and permutations, if necessary.
A detailed background of the invention is found in the parent application, U.S. patent application Ser. No. 11/220,139, incorporated by reference herein.
The definitions set forth in section 1.0 of the Background of the Invention section of the '139 application are also incorporated by reference herein.
All of the patents, patent applications, technical papers and other references referenced in the '139 application and herein are incorporated herein by reference in their entirety.
It is an object of the present invention to provide systems and methods for updating software on a vehicle, i.e., vehicle-resident software.
In order to achieve this object and others, a method for maintaining functionality of software in a vehicle in accordance with the invention includes initially providing the vehicle with software resident on computer-readable medium to enable it to operate and interact with components thereof and updating the vehicle software by receiving a wireless transmission from one or more remote locations, e.g., a location maintained by a dealer or manufacturer of the vehicle. The software may be diagnostic software for a diagnostic module which diagnoses operability of components of the vehicle. As such, when the diagnostic software provides a new data value or sequence, the new data value or sequence can be transmitted to the remote location which searches for similar data values and sequences and provides results of the search to the vehicle, e.g., in the form of a software upgrade to address the new data value or sequence. Different remote locations may be responsible for different portions of the vehicle-resident software and may therefore provide different software upgrades, based on need.
The remote location may receive reports from similar vehicles, analyze the reports to create software upgrades and provides the upgrades to the vehicles in the form of the updates. The reports may be diagnostic reports about operability of components of the vehicles. Updating of the vehicle software may be done via the Internet.
When one of the components is a sensor system, the software may be arranged to interact with the sensor system to ascertain whether it is able to obtain data from the sensor system and if not, communicates with the remote location to obtain a software upgrade if it determines that it is not able to interact with the sensor system.
A system for maintaining functionality of software in a vehicle in accordance with the invention includes a plurality of sensor systems for providing data about operation of the vehicle, and a diagnostic module coupled to the sensor systems for diagnosing the state of the vehicle based on the data provided by the sensor systems. The diagnostic module includes software resident on computer-readable medium to enable it to operate and interact with the sensor systems and receive software updates via a wireless transmission from a remote location. The software may be arranged to determine when a new data value or sequence is obtained from the data provided by the sensor systems. The vehicle may include a communications unit coupled to the diagnostic module for communicating with the remote location. The diagnostic module cause transmissions of the new data value of sequence to the remote location via the communications unit which enables the remote location to search for similar data values and sequences and provide results of the search to the vehicle. The diagnostic module may be arranged to interact with each sensor system to ascertain whether it has software to enable it to obtain data from the sensor system and communicate with the remote location to obtain a software upgrade if it determines that it is not able to interact with the sensor system.
Other objects and advantages of the present claimed invention and inventions disclosed below are set forth in the '139 application and others will become apparent from the following description of the preferred embodiments taken in conjunction with the accompanying drawings.
The following drawings are illustrative of embodiments of the systems developed or adapted using the teachings of these inventions and are not meant to limit the scope of the invention as encompassed by the claims.
The output of a diagnostic system is generally the present condition of the vehicle or component. However the vehicle operator wants to repair the vehicle or replace the component before it fails, but a diagnosis system in general does not specify when that will occur. Prognostics is the process of determining when the vehicle or a component will fail. At least one of the inventions disclosed herein in concerned with prognostics. Prognostics can be based on models of vehicle or component degradation and the effects of environment and usage. In this regard it is useful to have a quantitative formulation of how the component degradation depends on environment, usage and current component condition. This formulation may be obtained by monitoring condition, environment and usage level, and by modeling the relationships with statistical techniques or pattern recognition techniques such as neural networks, combination neural networks and fuzzy logic. In some cases, it can also be obtained by theoretical methods or from laboratory experiments.
A preferred embodiment of the vehicle diagnostic and prognostic unit described below performs the diagnosis and prognostics, i.e., processes the input from the various sensors, on the vehicle using, for example, a processor embodying a pattern recognition technique such as a neural network. The processor thus receives data or signals from the sensors and generates an output indicative or representative of the operating conditions of the vehicle or its component. A signal could thus be generated indicative of an under-inflated tire, or an overheating engine.
For the discussion below, the following terms are defined as follows:
The term “component” as used herein generally refers to any part or assembly of parts which is mounted to or a part of a motor vehicle and which is capable of emitting a signal representative of its operating state. The following is a partial list of general automobile and truck components, the list not being exhaustive:
Engine; transmission; brakes and associated brake assembly; tires; wheel; steering wheel and steering column assembly; water pump; alternator; shock absorber; wheel mounting assembly; radiator; battery; oil pump; fuel pump; air conditioner compressor; differential gear assembly; exhaust system; fan belts; engine valves; steering assembly; vehicle suspension including shock absorbers; vehicle wiring system; and engine cooling fan assembly.
The term “sensor” as used herein generally refers to any measuring, detecting or sensing device mounted on a vehicle or any of its components including new sensors mounted in conjunction with the diagnostic module in accordance with the invention. A partial, non-exhaustive list of sensors that are or can be mounted on an automobile or truck is:
Airbag crash sensor; microphone; camera; chemical sensor; vapor sensor; antenna, capacitance sensor or other electromagnetic wave sensor; stress or strain sensor; pressure sensor; weight sensor; magnetic field sensor; coolant thermometer; oil pressure sensor; oil level sensor; air flow meter; voltmeter; ammeter; humidity sensor; engine knock sensor; oil turbidity sensor; throttle position sensor; steering wheel torque sensor; wheel speed sensor; tachometer; speedometer; other velocity sensors; other position or displacement sensors; oxygen sensor; yaw, pitch and roll angular sensors; clock; odometer; power steering pressure sensor; pollution sensor; fuel gauge; cabin thermometer; transmission fluid level sensor; gyroscopes or other angular rate sensors including yaw, pitch and roll rate sensors; accelerometers including single axis, dual axis and triaxial accelerometers; an inertial measurement unit; coolant level sensor; transmission fluid turbidity sensor; brake pressure sensor; tire pressure sensor; tire temperature sensor, tire acceleration sensor; GPS receiver; DGPS receiver; and coolant pressure sensor.
The term “signal” as used herein generally refers to any time-varying output from a component including electrical, acoustic, thermal, electromagnetic radiation or mechanical vibration.
Sensors on a vehicle are generally designed to measure particular parameters of particular vehicle components. However, frequently these sensors also measure outputs from other vehicle components. For example, electronic airbag crash sensors currently in use contain one or more accelerometers for determining the accelerations of the vehicle structure so that the associated electronic circuitry of the airbag crash sensor can determine whether a vehicle is experiencing a crash of sufficient magnitude so as to require deployment of the airbag. This or these accelerometers continuously monitors the vibrations in the vehicle structure regardless of the source of these vibrations. If a wheel is out of balance, or if there is extensive wear of the parts of the front wheel mounting assembly, or wear in the shock absorbers, the resulting abnormal vibrations or accelerations can, in many cases, be sensed by a crash sensor accelerometer. There are other cases, however, where the sensitivity or location of an airbag crash sensor accelerometer is not appropriate and one or more additional accelerometers or gyroscopes may be mounted onto a vehicle for the purposes of this invention. Some airbag crash sensors are not sufficiently sensitive accelerometers or have sufficient dynamic range for the purposes herein.
For example, a technique for some implementations of an invention disclosed herein is the use of multiple accelerometers and/or microphones that will allow the system to locate the source of any measured vibrations based on the time of flight, time of arrival, direction of arrival and/or triangulation techniques. Once a distributed accelerometer installation, or one or more IMUs, has been implemented to permit this source location, the same sensors can be used for smarter crash sensing as it can permit the determination of the location of the impact on the vehicle. Once the impact location is known, a highly tailored algorithm can be used to accurately forecast the crash severity making use of knowledge of the force vs. crush properties of the vehicle at the impact location.
Every component of a vehicle can emit various signals during its life. These signals can take the form of electromagnetic radiation, acoustic radiation, thermal radiation, vibrations transmitted through the vehicle structure and voltage or current fluctuations, depending on the particular component. When a component is functioning normally, it may not emit a perceptible signal. In that case, the normal signal is no signal, i.e., the absence of a signal. In most cases, a component will emit signals that change over its life and it is these changes which typically contain information as to the state of the component, e.g., whether failure of the component is impending. Usually components do not fail without warning. However, most such warnings are either not perceived or if perceived, are not understood by the vehicle operator until the component actually fails and, in some cases, a breakdown of the vehicle occurs.
An important system and method as disclosed herein for acquiring data for performing the diagnostics, prognostics and health monitoring functions makes use of the acoustic transmissions from various components. This can involve the placement of one or more microphones, accelerometers, or other vibration sensors onto and/or at a variety of locations within the vehicle where the sound or vibrations are most effectively sensed. In addition to acquiring data relative to a particular component, the same sensors can also obtain data that permits analysis of the vehicle environment. A pothole, for example, can be sensed and located for possible notification to a road authority if a location determining apparatus is also resident on the vehicle.
In a few years, it is expected that various roadways will have systems for automatically guiding vehicles operating thereon. Such systems have been called “smart highways” and are part of the field of intelligent transportation systems (ITS). If a vehicle operating on such a smart highway were to breakdown due to the failure of a component, serious disruption of the system could result and the safety of other users of the smart highway could be endangered.
When a vehicle component begins to change its operating behavior, it is not always apparent from the particular sensors which are monitoring that component, if any. The output from any one of these sensors can be normal even though the component is failing. By analyzing the output of a variety of sensors, however, the pending failure can frequently be diagnosed. For example, the rate of temperature rise in the vehicle coolant, if it were monitored, might appear normal unless it were known that the vehicle was idling and not traveling down a highway at a high speed. Even the level of coolant temperature which is in the normal range could be in fact abnormal in some situations signifying a failing coolant pump, for example, but not detectable from the coolant thermometer alone.
The pending failure of some components is difficult to diagnose and sometimes the design of the component requires modification so that the diagnosis can be more readily made. A fan belt, for example, frequently begins failing as a result of a crack of the inner surface. The belt can be designed to provide a sonic or electrical signal when this cracking begins in a variety of ways. Similarly, coolant hoses can be designed with an intentional weak spot where failure will occur first in a controlled manner that can also cause a whistle sound as a small amount of steam exits from the hose. This whistle sound can then be sensed by a general purpose microphone, for example.
In addition, various other sensors48, 49measure other parameters of other components that in some manner provide information directly or indirectly on the operation of component35. Each of the sensors illustrated in
The diagnostic module51will analyze the received data in light of the data values or patterns itself either statically or over time. In some cases, a pattern recognition algorithm as discussed below will be used and in others, a deterministic algorithm may also be used either alone or in combination with the pattern recognition algorithm. Additionally, when a new data value or sequence is discovered, the information can be sent to an off-vehicle location, perhaps a dealer or manufacturer site, and a search can be made for other similar cases and the results reported back to the vehicle. Also additionally as more and more vehicles are reporting cases that perhaps are also examined by engineers or mechanics, the results can be sent to the subject vehicle or to all similar vehicles and the diagnostic software updated automatically. Thus, all vehicles can have the benefit from information relative to performing the diagnostic function. Similarly, the vehicle dealers and manufacturers can also have up-to-date information as to how a particular class or model of vehicle is performing. This telematics function is discussed in more detail elsewhere herein. By means of this system, a vehicle diagnostic system can predict component failures long before they occur and thus prevent on-road problems.
An important function that can be performed by the diagnostic system herein is to substantially diagnose the vehicle's own problems rather then, as is the case with the prior art, forwarding raw data to a central site for diagnosis. Eventually, a prediction as to the failure point of all significant components can be made and the owner can have a prediction that the fan belt will last another 20,000 miles, or that the tires should be rotated in 2,000 miles or replaced in 20,000 miles. This information can be displayed or reported orally or sent to the dealer who can then schedule a time for the customer to visit the dealership or for the dealer to visit the vehicle wherever it is located. If it is displayed, it can be automatically displayed periodically or when there is urgency or whenever the operator desires. The display can be located at any convenient place such as the dashboard or it can be a heads-up display. The display can be any convenient technology such as an LCD display or an OLED based display. This can permit the vehicle manufacturer to guarantee that the owner will never experience a vehicle breakdown provided he or she permits the dealer to service the vehicle at appropriate times based on the output of the prognostics system.
It is worth emphasizing that in many cases, it is the rate that a parameter is changing that can be as or more important than the actual value in predicting when a component is likely to fail. In a simple case when a tire is losing pressure, for example, it is a quite different situation if it is losing one psi per day or one psi per minute. Similarly for the tire case, if the tire is heating up at one degree per hour or 100 degrees per hour may be more important in predicting failure due to delamination or overloading than the particular temperature of the tire.
The diagnostic module, or other component, can also consider situation awareness factors such as the age or driving habits of the operator, the location of the vehicle (e.g., is it in the desert, in the arctic in winter), the season, the weather forecast, the length of a proposed trip, the number and location of occupants of the vehicle etc. The system may even put limits on the operation of the vehicle such as turning off unnecessary power consuming components if the alternator is failing or limiting the speed of the vehicle if the driver is an elderly woman sitting close to the steering wheel, for example. Furthermore, the system may change the operational parameters of the vehicle such as the engine RPM or the fuel mixture if doing so will prolong vehicle operation. In some cases where there is doubt whether a component is failing, the vehicle operating parameters may be temporarily varied by the system in order to accentuate the signal from the component to permit more accurate diagnosis.
In addition to the above discussion there are some diagnostic features already available on some vehicles some of which are related to the federally mandated OBD-II and can be included in the general diagnostics and health monitoring features of this invention. In typical applications, the set of diagnostic data includes at least one of the following: diagnostic trouble codes, vehicle speed, fuel level, fuel pressure, miles per gallon, engine RPM, mileage, oil pressure, oil temperature, tire pressure, tire temperature, engine coolant temperature, intake-manifold pressure, engine-performance tuning parameters, alarm status, accelerometer status, cruise-control status, fuel-injector performance, spark-plug timing, and a status of an anti-lock braking system.
The data parameters within the set describe a variety of electrical, mechanical, and emissions-related functions in the vehicle. Several of the more significant parameters from the set are:
Pending DTCs (Diagnostic Trouble Codes)
Ignition Timing Advance
Calculated Load Value
Air Flow Rate MAF Sensor
Engine Coolant Temperature
Intake Air Temperature
Absolute Throttle Position Sensor
Short-Term Fuel Trim
Long-Term Fuel Trim
MIL Light Status
Oxygen Sensor Voltage
Oxygen Sensor Location
Delta Pressure Feedback EGR Pressure Sensor
Evaporative Purge Solenoid Duty cycle
Fuel Level Input Sensor
Fuel Tank Pressure Voltage
Engine Load at the Time of Misfire
Engine RPM at the Time of Misfire
Throttle Position at the Time of Misfire
Vehicle Speed at the Time of Misfire
Number of Misfires
Transmission Fluid Temperature
PRNDL position (1, 2, 3, 4, 5=neutral, 6=reverse)
Number of Completed OBDII Trips, and
When the diagnostic system determines that the operator is operating the vehicle in such a manner that the failure of a component is accelerated, then a warning can be issued to the operator. For example, the driver may have inadvertently placed the automatic gear shift lever in a lower gear and be driving at a higher speed than he or she should for that gear. In such a case, the driver can be notified to change gears.
Managing the diagnostics and prognostics of a complex system has been termed “System Health Management” and has not been applied to over the road vehicles such as trucks and automobiles. Such systems are used for fault detection and identification, failure prediction (estimating the time to failure), tracking degradation, maintenance scheduling, error correction in the various measurements which have been corrupted and these same tasks are applicable here.
Various sensors, both wired and wireless, will be discussed below. Representative of such sensors are those available from Honeywell which are MEMS-based sensors for measuring temperature, pressure, acoustic emission, strain, and acceleration. The devices are based on resonant microbeam force sensing technology. Coupled with a precision silicon microstructure, the resonant microbeams provide a high sensitivity for measuring inertial acceleration, inclination, and vibrations. Alternate designs based on SAW technology lend themselves more readily to wireless and powerless operation as discussed below. The Honeywell sensors can be networked wirelessly but still require power.
Since this system is independent of the dedicated sensor monitoring system and instead is observing more than one sensor, inconsistencies in sensor output can be detected and reported indicating the possible erratic or inaccurate operation of a sensor even if this is intermittent (such as may be caused by a lose wire) thus essentially eliminating many of the problems reported in the above-referenced article “What's Bugging the High-Tech Car”. Furthermore, the software can be independent of the vehicle specific software for a particular sensor and system and can further be based on pattern recognition, to be discussed next, rendering it even less likely to provide the wrong diagnostic. Since the output from the diagnostic and prognostic system herein described can be sent via telematics to the dealer and vehicle manufacturer, the occurrence of a sensor or system failure can be immediately logged to form a frequency of failure log for a particular new vehicle model allowing the manufacturer to more quickly schedule a recall if a previously unknown problem surfaces in the field.
In accordance with at least one invention, each of the signals emitted by the sensors can be converted into electrical signals and then digitized (i.e., the analog signal is converted into a digital signal) to create numerical time series data which is entered into a processor. Pattern recognition algorithms can be applied by the processor to attempt to identify and classify patterns in this time series data. For a particular component, such as a tire for example, the algorithm attempts to determine from the relevant digital data whether the tire is functioning properly or whether it requires balancing, additional air, or perhaps replacement.
Frequently, the data entered into the pattern recognition algorithm needs to be preprocessed before being analyzed. The data from a wheel speed sensor, for example, might be used “as is” for determining whether a particular tire is operating abnormally in the event it is unbalanced, whereas the integral of the wheel speed data over a long time period (a preprocessing step), when compared to such sensors on different wheels, might be more useful in determining whether a particular tire is going flat and therefore needs air. This is the basis of some tire monitors now on the market. Such indirect systems are not permitted as a means for satisfying federal safety requirements. These systems generally depend on the comparison of the integral of the wheel speed to determine the distance traveled by the wheel surface and that system is then compared with other wheels on the vehicle to determine that one tire has relatively less air than another. Of course this system fails if all of the tires have low pressure. One solution is to compare the distance traveled by a wheel with the distance that it should have traveled. If the angular motion (displacement and/or velocity) of the wheel axle is known, than this comparison can be made directly. Alternately, if the position of the vehicle is accurately monitored so that the actual travel along its path can be determined through a combination of GPS and an IMU, for example, then again the pressure within a vehicle tire can be determined.
In some cases, the frequencies present in a set of data are a better predictor of component failures than the data itself. For example, when a motor begins to fail due to worn bearings, certain characteristic frequencies began to appear. In most cases, the vibrations arising from rotating components, such as the engine, will be normalized based on the rotational frequency. Moreover, the identification of which component is causing vibrations present in the vehicle structure can frequently be accomplished through a frequency analysis of the data. For these cases, a Fourier transformation of the data can be made prior to entry of the data into a pattern recognition algorithm. Wavelet transforms and other mathematical transformations are also made for particular pattern recognition purposes in practicing the teachings of this invention. Some of these include shifting and combining data to determine phase changes for example, differentiating the data, filtering the data and sampling the data. Also, there exist certain more sophisticated mathematical operations that attempt to extract or highlight specific features of the data. The inventions herein contemplate the use of a variety of these preprocessing techniques and the choice of which one or ones to use is left to the skill of the practitioner designing a particular diagnostic and prognostic module. Note, whenever diagnostics is used below it will be assumed to also include prognostics.
As shown in
Important to some embodiments of the inventions herein is the manner in which the diagnostic module51determines a normal pattern from an abnormal pattern and the manner in which it decides what data to use from the vast amount of data available. This can be accomplished using pattern recognition technologies such as artificial neural networks and training and in particular, combination neural networks as described in U.S. patent application Ser. No. 10/413,426 (Publication 20030209893). The theory of neural networks including many examples can be found in several books on the subject including: (1) Techniques And Application Of Neural Networks, edited by Taylor, M. and Lisboa, P., Ellis Horwood, West Sussex, England, 1993; (2) Naturally Intelligent Systems, by Caudill, M. and Butler, C., MIT Press, Cambridge Mass., 1990; (3) J. M. Zaruda, Introduction to Artificial Neural Systems, West Publishing Co., N.Y., 1992, (4) Digital Neural Networks, by Kung, S. Y., PTR Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1993, Eberhart, R., Simpson, P., (5) Dobbins, R., Computational Intelligence PC Tools, Academic Press, Inc., 1996, Orlando, Fla., (6) Cristianini, N. and Shawe-Taylor, J. An Introduction to Support Vector Machines and other kernal-based learning methods, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge England, 2000; (7) Proceedings of the2000 6thIEEE International Workshop on Cellular Neural Networks and their Applications(CNNA2000), IEEE, Piscataway N.J.; and (8) Sinha, N. K. and Gupta, M. M. Soft Computing& Intelligent Systems, Academic Press 2000 San Diego, Calif. The neural network pattern recognition technology is one of the most developed of pattern recognition technologies. The invention described herein frequently uses combinations of neural networks to improve the pattern recognition process, as discussed in detail in U.S. patent application Ser. No. 10/413,426.
The neural network pattern recognition technology is one of the most developed of pattern recognition technologies. The neural network will be used here to illustrate one example of a pattern recognition technology but it is emphasized that this invention is not limited to neural networks. Rather, the invention may apply any known pattern recognition technology including various segmentation techniques, sensor fusion and various correlation technologies. In some cases, the pattern recognition algorithm is generated by an algorithm-generating program and in other cases, it is created by, e.g., an engineer, scientist or programmer. A brief description of a particular simple example of a neural network pattern recognition technology is set forth below.
Neural networks are constructed of processing elements known as neurons that are interconnected using information channels called interconnects and are arranged in a plurality of layers. Each neuron can have multiple inputs but generally only one output. Each output however is usually connected to many, frequently all, other neurons in the next layer. The neurons in the first layer operate collectively on the input data as described in more detail below. Neural networks learn by extracting relational information from the data and the desired output. Neural networks have been applied to a wide variety of pattern recognition problems including automobile occupant sensing, speech recognition, optical character recognition and handwriting analysis.
To train a neural network, data is provided in the form of one or more time series that represents the condition to be diagnosed, which can be induced to artificially create an abnormally operating component, as well as normal operation. In the training stage of the neural network or other type of pattern recognition algorithm, the time series data for both normal and abnormal component operation is entered into a processor which applies a neural network-generating program to output a neural network capable of determining abnormal operation of a component.
As an example, the simple case of an out-of-balance tire will be used. Various sensors on the vehicle can be used to extract information from signals emitted by the tire such as an accelerometer, a torque sensor on the steering wheel, the pressure output of the power steering system, a tire pressure monitor or tire temperature monitor. Other sensors that might not have an obvious relationship to tire unbalance (or imbalance) are also included such as, for example, the vehicle speed or wheel speed that can be determined from the anti-lock brake (ABS) system. Data is taken from a variety of vehicles where the tires were accurately balanced under a variety of operating conditions also for cases where varying amounts of tire unbalance was intentionally introduced. Once the data had been collected, some degree of pre-processing (e.g., time or frequency modification) and/or feature extraction is usually performed to reduce the total amount of data fed to the neural network-generating program. In the case of the unbalanced tire, the time period between data points might be selected such that there are at least ten data points per revolution of the wheel. For some other application, the time period might be one minute or one millisecond.
Once the data has been collected, it is processed by the neural network-generating program, for example, if a neural network pattern recognition system is to be used. Such programs are available commercially, e.g., from NeuralWare of Pittsburgh, Pa. or from International Scientific Research, Inc., of Panama for modular neural networks. The program proceeds in a trial and error manner until it successfully associates the various patterns representative of abnormal behavior, an unbalanced tire in this case, with that condition. The resulting neural network can be tested to determine if some of the input data from some of the sensors, for example, can be eliminated. In this manner, the engineer can determine what sensor data is relevant to a particular diagnostic problem. The program then generates an algorithm that is programmed onto a microprocessor, microcontroller, neural processor, FPGA, or DSP (herein collectively referred to as a microprocessor or processor). Such a microprocessor appears inside the diagnostic module51in
Once trained, the neural network, as represented by the algorithm, is installed in a processor unit of a motor vehicle and will now recognize an unbalanced tire on the vehicle when this event occurs. At that time, when the tire is unbalanced, the diagnostic module51will receive output from the sensors, determine whether the output is indicative of abnormal operation of the tire, e.g., lack of tire balance, and instruct or direct another vehicular system to respond to the unbalanced tire situation. Such an instruction may be a message to the driver indicating that the tire should now be balanced, as described in more detail below. The message to the driver is provided by an output device coupled to or incorporated within the module51, e.g., an icon or text display, and may be a light on the dashboard, a vocal tone or any other recognizable indication apparatus. A similar message may also be sent to the dealer, vehicle manufacturer or other repair facility or remote facility via a communications channel between the vehicle and the dealer or repair facility which is established by a suitable transmission device.
It is important to note that there may be many neural networks involved in a total vehicle diagnostic system. These can be organized either in parallel, series, as an ensemble, cellular neural network or as a modular neural network system. In one implementation of a modular neural network, a primary neural network identifies that there is an abnormality and tries to identify the likely source. Once a choice has been made as to the likely source of the abnormality, another, specific neural network of a group of neural networks can be called upon to determine the exact cause of the abnormality. In this manner, the neural networks are arranged in a tree pattern with each neural network trained to perform a particular pattern recognition task.
Discussions on the operation of a neural network can be found in the above references on the subject and are understood by those skilled in the art. Neural networks are the most well-known of the pattern recognition technologies based on training, although neural networks have only recently received widespread attention and have been applied to only very limited and specialized problems in motor vehicles such as occupant sensing (by the current assignee) and engine control (by Ford Motor Company). Other non-training based pattern recognition technologies exist, such as fuzzy logic. However, the programming required to use fuzzy logic, where the patterns must be determine by the programmer, usually render these systems impractical for general vehicle diagnostic problems such as described herein (although their use is not impossible in accordance with the teachings of the invention). Therefore, preferably the pattern recognition systems that learn by training are used herein. It should be noted that neural networks are frequently combined with fuzzy logic and such a combination is contemplated herein. The neural network is the first highly successful of what will be a variety of pattern recognition techniques based on training. There is nothing that suggests that it is the only or even the best technology. The characteristics of all of these technologies which render them applicable to this general diagnostic problem include the use of time-of frequency-based input data and that they are trainable. In most cases, the pattern recognition technology learns from examples of data characteristic of normal and abnormal component operation.
A diagram of one example of a neural network used for diagnosing an unbalanced tire, for example, based on the teachings of this invention is shown in
Each of the input nodes is usually connected to each of the second layer nodes, h-1, h-2, . . . , h-n, called the hidden layer, either electrically as in the case of a neural computer, or through mathematical functions containing multiplying coefficients called weights, in the manner described in more detail in the above references. At each hidden layer node, a summation occurs of the values from each of the input layer nodes, which have been operated on by functions containing the weights, to create a node value. Similarly, the hidden layer nodes are, in a like manner, connected to the output layer node(s), which in this example is only a single node 0 representing the decision to notify the driver, and/or a remote facility, of the unbalanced tire. During the training phase, an output node value of 1, for example, is assigned to indicate that the driver should be notified and a value of 0 is assigned to not notifying the driver. Once again, the details of this process are described in above-referenced texts and will not be presented in detail here.
In the example above, twenty input nodes were used, five hidden layer nodes and one output layer node. In this example, only one sensor was considered and accelerations from only one direction were used. If other data from other sensors such as accelerations from the vertical or lateral directions were also used, then the number of input layer nodes would increase. Again, the theory for determining the complexity of a neural network for a particular application has been the subject of many technical papers and will not be presented in detail here. Determining the requisite complexity for the example presented here can be accomplished by those skilled in the art of neural network design. Also one particular preferred type of neural network has been discussed. Many other types exist as discussed in the above references and the inventions herein is not limited to the particular type discussed here.
Briefly, the neural network described above defines a method, using a pattern recognition system, of sensing an unbalanced tire and determining whether to notify the driver, and/or a remote facility, and comprises the steps of:
(a) obtaining an acceleration signal from an accelerometer mounted on a vehicle;
(b) converting the acceleration signal into a digital time series;
(c) entering the digital time series data into the input nodes of the neural network;
(d) performing a mathematical operation on the data from each of the input nodes and inputting the operated on data into a second series of nodes wherein the operation performed on each of the input node data prior to inputting the operated-on value to a second series node is different from that operation performed on some other input node data (e.g., a different weight value can be used);
(e) combining the operated-on data from most or all of the input nodes into each second series node to form a value at each second series node;
(f) performing a mathematical operation on each of the values on the second series of nodes and inputting this operated-on data into an output series of nodes wherein the operation performed on each of the second series node data prior to inputting the operated-on value to an output series node is different from that operation performed on some other second series node data;
(g) combining the operated-on data from most or all of the second series nodes into each output series node to form a value at each output series node; and,
(h) notifying a driver if the value on one output series node is within a selected range signifying that a tire requires balancing.
This method can be generalized to a method of predicting that a component of a vehicle will fail comprising the steps of:
(a) sensing a signal emitted from the component;
(b) converting the sensed signal into a digital time series;
(c) entering the digital time series data into a pattern recognition algorithm;
(d) executing the pattern recognition algorithm to determine if there exists within the digital time series data a pattern characteristic of abnormal operation of the component; and
(e) notifying a driver and/or a remote facility if the abnormal pattern is recognized.
The particular neural network described and illustrated above contains a single series of hidden layer nodes. In some network designs, more than one hidden layer is used, although only rarely will more than two such layers appear. There are of course many other variations of the neural network architecture illustrated above which appear in the referenced literature. For the purposes herein, therefore, “neural network” can be defined as a system wherein the data to be processed is separated into discrete values which are then operated on and combined in at least a two stage process and where the operation performed on the data at each stage is in general different for each discrete value and where the operation performed is at least determined through a training process. A different operation here is meant any difference in the way that the output of a neuron is treated before it is inputted into another neuron such as multiplying it by a different weight or constant.
The implementation of neural networks can take on at least two forms, an algorithm programmed on a digital microprocessor, FPGA, DSP or in a neural computer (including a cellular neural network or support vector machine). In this regard, it is noted that neural computer chips are now becoming available.
In the example above, only a single component failure was discussed using only a single sensor since the data from the single sensor contains a pattern which the neural network was trained to recognize as either normal operation of the component or abnormal operation of the component. The diagnostic module51contains preprocessing and neural network algorithms for a number of component failures. The neural network algorithms are generally relatively simple, requiring only a relatively small number of lines of computer code. A single general neural network program can be used for multiple pattern recognition cases by specifying different coefficients for the various node inputs, one set for each application. Thus, adding different diagnostic checks has only a small affect on the cost of the system. Also, the system can have available to it all of the information available on the data bus.
During the training process, the pattern recognition program sorts out from the available vehicle data on the data bus or from other sources, those patterns that predict failure of a particular component. If more than one sensor is used to sense the output from a component, such as two spaced-apart microphones or acceleration sensors, then the location of the component can sometimes be determined by triangulation based on the phase difference, time of arrival and/or angle of arrival of the signals to the different sensors. In this manner, a particular vibrating tire can be identified, for example. Since each tire on a vehicle does not always make the same number of revolutions in a given time period, a tire can be identified by comparing the wheel sensor output with the vibration or other signal from the tire to identify the failing tire. The phase of the failing tire will change relative to the other tires, for example. This technique can also be used to associate a tire pressure monitor RF signal with a particular tire. An alternate method for tire identification makes use of an RFID tag or an RFID switch as discussed below.
In view of the foregoing, a method for diagnosing whether one or more components of a vehicle are operating abnormally would entail in a training stage, obtaining output from the sensors during normal operation of the components, adjusting each component to induce abnormal operation thereof and obtaining output from the sensors during the induced abnormal operation, and
determining which sensors provide data about abnormal operation of each component based on analysis of the output from the sensors during normal operation and during induced abnormal operation of the component, e.g., differences between signals output from the sensors during normal and abnormal operation. The output from the sensors can be processed and pre-processed as described above. When obtaining output from the sensors during abnormal component operation, different abnormalities can be induced in the components, one abnormality in one component at each time and/or multiple abnormalities in multiple components at one time.
During operation of the vehicle, output from the sensors is received and a determination is made whether any of the components are operating abnormally by analyzing the output from those sensors which have been determined to provide data about abnormal operation of that component. This determination is used to alert a driver of the vehicle, a vehicle manufacturer, a vehicle dealer or a vehicle repair facility about the abnormal operation of a component. As mentioned above, the determination of whether any of the components are operating abnormally may involve considering output from only those sensors which have been determined to provide data about abnormal operation of that component. This could be a subset of the sensors, although it is possible when using a neural network to input all of the sensor data with the neural network being designed to disregard output from sensors which have no bearing on the determination of abnormal operation of the component operating abnormally.
When a combination neural network810is used, its training can involve multiple steps. With reference to
With reference to
Neural networks819, 820, 821can be provided with only a subset of the data from all of the sensors, namely, data only from those sensors determined in the training stage to have an effect on the determination of the problem with the particular component the neural network is diagnosing a problem with.
The output of the specific problem from one of neural networks819, 820, 821is sent to the driver, a vehicle dealer, manufacturer, repair facility, etc. 822via a display device, transmission device and other notification, alert, alarm and/or warning systems. After a preset time interval or upon occurrence of a condition, new data is acquired.
To preclude the bad data situation, an additional neural network can be used in either combination neural network810or815to process the data and ascertain whether it is good or bad before providing the data to the neural network which determines abnormal operation of a component. In
Note, where applicable in one or more of the inventions disclosed herein, any form of wireless communication is contemplated for intra vehicle communications between various sensors and components including amplitude modulation, frequency modulation, TDMA, CDMA, spread spectrum, ultra wideband and all variations. Similarly, all such methods are also contemplated for vehicle-to-vehicle or vehicle-to-infrastructure communication.
Sensor 1 is a crash sensor having an accelerometer (alternately one or more dedicated accelerometers or IMUs31can be used), sensor 2 is represents one or more microphones, sensor 3 is a coolant thermometer, sensor 4 is an oil pressure sensor, sensor 5 is an oil level sensor, sensor 6 is an air flow meter, sensor 7 is a voltmeter, sensor 8 is an ammeter, sensor 9 is a humidity sensor, sensor 10 is an engine knock sensor, sensor 11 is an oil turbidity sensor, sensor 12 is a throttle position sensor, sensor 13 is a steering torque sensor, sensor 14 is a wheel speed sensor, sensor 15 is a tachometer, sensor 16 is a speedometer, sensor 17 is an oxygen sensor, sensor 18 is a pitch/roll sensor, sensor 19 is a clock, sensor 20 is an odometer, sensor 21 is a power steering pressure sensor, sensor 22 is a pollution sensor, sensor 23 is a fuel gauge, sensor 24 is a cabin thermometer, sensor 25 is a transmission fluid level sensor, sensor 26 is a yaw sensor, sensor 27 is a coolant level sensor, sensor 28 is a transmission fluid turbidity sensor, sensor 29 is brake pressure sensor and sensor 30 is a coolant pressure sensor. Other possible sensors include a temperature transducer, a pressure transducer, a liquid level sensor, a flow meter, a position sensor, a velocity sensor, a RPM sensor, a chemical sensor and an angle sensor, angular rate sensor or gyroscope.
If a distributed group of acceleration sensors or accelerometers are used to permit a determination of the location of a vibration source, the same group can, in some cases, also be used to measure the pitch, yaw and/or roll of the vehicle eliminating the need for dedicated angular rate sensors. In addition, as mentioned above, such a suite of sensors can also be used to determine the location and severity of a vehicle crash and additionally to determine that the vehicle is on the verge of rolling over. Thus, the same suite of accelerometers optimally performs a variety of functions including inertial navigation, crash sensing, vehicle diagnostics, roll-over sensing etc.
Consider now some examples. The following is a partial list of potential component failures and the sensors from the list in
Several interesting facts can be deduced from a review of the above list. First, all of the failure modes listed can be at least partially sensed by multiple sensors. In many cases, some of the sensors merely add information to aid in the interpretation of signals received from other sensors. In today's automobile, there are few if any cases where multiple sensors are used to diagnose or predict a problem. In fact, there is virtually no failure prediction (prognostics) undertaken at all. Second, many of the failure modes listed require information from more than one sensor. Third, information for many of the failure modes listed cannot be obtained by observing one data point in time as is now done by most vehicle sensors. Usually an analysis of the variation in a parameter as a function of time is necessary. In fact, the association of data with time to create a temporal pattern for use in diagnosing component failures in automobile is believed to be unique to the inventions herein as is the combination of several such temporal patterns. Fourth, the vibration measuring capability of the airbag crash sensor, or other accelerometer or IMU, is useful for most of the cases discussed above yet there is no such current use of accelerometers. The airbag crash sensor is used only to detect crashes of the vehicle. Fifth, the second most used sensor in the above list, a microphone, does not currently appear on any automobiles, yet sound is the signal most often used by vehicle operators and mechanics to diagnose vehicle problems. Another sensor that is listed above which also does not currently appear on automobiles is a pollution sensor. This is typically a chemical sensor mounted in the exhaust system for detecting emissions from the vehicle. It is expected that this and other chemical and biological sensors will be used more in the future. Such a sensor can be used to monitor the intake of air from outside the vehicle to permit such a flow to be cut off when it is polluted. Similarly, if the interior air is polluted, the exchange with the outside air can be initiated.
In addition, from the foregoing depiction of different sensors which receive signals from a plurality of components, it is possible for a single sensor to receive and output signals from a plurality of components which are then analyzed by the processor to determine if any one of the components for which the received signals were obtained by that sensor is operating in an abnormal state. Likewise, it is also possible to provide for a plurality of sensors each receiving a different signal related to a specific component which are then analyzed by the processor to determine if that component is operating in an abnormal state. Neural networks can simultaneously analyze data from multiple sensors of the same type or different types (a form of sensor fusion).
As can be appreciated from the above discussion, an invention described herein brings several new improvements to vehicles including, but not limited to, the use of pattern recognition technologies to diagnose potential vehicle component failures, the use of trainable systems thereby eliminating the need of complex and extensive programming, the simultaneous use of multiple sensors to monitor a particular component, the use of a single sensor to monitor the operation of many vehicle components, the monitoring of vehicle components which have no dedicated sensors, and the notification of both the driver and possibly an outside entity of a potential component failure prior to failure so that the expected failure can be averted and vehicle breakdowns substantially eliminated. Additionally, improvements to the vehicle stability, crash avoidance, crash anticipation and occupant protection are available.
To implement a component diagnostic system for diagnosing the component utilizing a plurality of sensors not directly associated with the component, i.e., independent of the component, a series of tests are conducted. For each test, the signals received from the sensors are input into a pattern recognition training algorithm with an indication of whether the component is operating normally or abnormally (the component being intentionally altered to provide for abnormal operation). The data from the test are used to generate the pattern recognition algorithm, e.g., neural network, so that in use, the data from the sensors is input into the algorithm and the algorithm provides an indication of abnormal or normal operation of the component. Also, to provide a more versatile diagnostic module for use in conjunction with diagnosing abnormal operation of multiple components, tests may be conducted in which each component is operated abnormally while the other components are operating normally, as well as tests in which two or more components are operating abnormally. In this manner, the diagnostic module may be able to determine based on one set of signals from the sensors during use that either a single component or multiple components are operating abnormally Additionally, if a failure occurs which was not forecasted, provision can be made to record the output of some or all of the vehicle data and later make it available to the vehicle manufacturer for inclusion into the pattern recognition training database. Also, it is not necessary that a neural network system that is on a vehicle be a static system and some amount of learning can, in some cases, be permitted. Additionally, as the vehicle manufacturer updates the neural networks, the newer version can be downloaded to particular vehicles either when the vehicle is at a dealership or wirelessly via a cellular network or by satellite.
Furthermore, the pattern recognition algorithm may be trained based on patterns within the signals from the sensors. Thus, by means of a single sensor, it would be possible to determine whether one or more components are operating abnormally To obtain such a pattern recognition algorithm, tests are conducted using a single sensor, such as a microphone, and causing abnormal operation of one or more components, each component operating abnormally while the other components operate normally and multiple components operating abnormally. In this manner, in use, the pattern recognition algorithm may analyze a signal from a single sensor and determine abnormal operation of one or more components. Note that in some cases, simulations can be used to analytically generate the relevant data.
The discussion above has centered mainly on the blind training of a pattern recognition system, such as a neural network, so that faults can be discovered and failures forecast before they happen. Naturally, the diagnostic algorithms do not have to start out being totally dumb and in fact, the physics or structure of the systems being monitored can be appropriately used to help structure or derive the diagnostic algorithms Such a system is described in a recent article “Immobots Take Control”, MIT Technology Review December, 2002. Also, of course, it is contemplated that once a potential failure has been diagnosed, the diagnostic system can in some cases act to change the operation of various systems in the vehicle to prolong the time of a failing component before the failure or in some rare cases, the situation causing the failure might be corrected. An example of the first case is where the alternator is failing and various systems or components can be turned off to conserve battery power and an example of the second case is rollover of a vehicle may be preventable through the proper application of steering torque and wheel braking force. Such algorithms can be based on pattern recognition or on models, as described in the Immobot article referenced above, or a combination thereof and all such systems are contemplated by the invention described herein.
Many sensors are now in vehicles and many more will be installed in vehicles. The following disclosure is primarily concerned with wireless sensors which can be based on MEMS, SAW and/or RFID technologies. Vehicle sensors include tire pressure, temperature and acceleration monitoring sensors; weight or load measuring sensors; switches; vehicle temperature, acceleration, angular position, angular rate, angular acceleration sensors; proximity; rollover; occupant presence; humidity; presence of fluids or gases; strain; road condition and friction, chemical sensors and other similar sensors providing information to a vehicle system, vehicle operator or external site. The sensors can provide information about the vehicle and/or its interior or exterior environment, about individual components, systems, vehicle occupants, subsystems, and/or about the roadway, ambient atmosphere, travel conditions and external objects.
For wireless sensors, one or more interrogators can be used each having one or more antennas that transmit energy at radio frequency, or other electromagnetic frequencies, to the sensors and receive modulated frequency signals from the sensors containing sensor and/or identification information. One interrogator can be used for sensing multiple switches or other devices. For example, an interrogator may transmit a chirp form of energy at 905 MHz to 925 MHz to a variety of sensors located within and/or in the vicinity of the vehicle. These sensors may be of the RFID electronic type and/or of the surface acoustic wave (SAW) type or a combination thereof. In the electronic type, information can be returned immediately to the interrogator in the form of a modulated backscatter RF signal. In the case of SAW devices, the information can be returned after a delay. RFID tags may also exhibit a delay due to the charging of the energy storage device. Naturally, one sensor can respond in both the electronic (either RFID or backscatter) and SAW delayed modes.
When multiple sensors are interrogated using the same technology, the returned signals from the various sensors can be time, code, space or frequency multiplexed. For example, for the case of the SAW technology, each sensor can be provided with a different delay or a different code. Alternately, each sensor can be designed to respond only to a single frequency or several frequencies. The radio frequency can be amplitude, code or frequency modulated. Space multiplexing can be achieved through the use of two or more antennas and correlating the received signals to isolate signals based on direction.
In many cases, the sensors will respond with an identification signal followed by or preceded by information relating to the sensed value, state and/or property. In the case of a SAW-based or RFID-based switch, for example, the returned signal may indicate that the switch is either on or off or, in some cases, an intermediate state can be provided signifying that a light should be dimmed, rather than or on or off, for example. Alternately or additionally, an RFID based switch can be associated with a sensor and turned on or off based on an identification code or a frequency sent from the interrogator permitting a particular sensor or class of sensors to be selected.
SAW devices have been used for sensing many parameters including devices for chemical and biological sensing and materials characterization in both the gas and liquid phase. They also are used for measuring pressure, strain, temperature, acceleration, angular rate and other physical states of the environment.
Economies are achieved by using a single interrogator or even a small number of interrogators to interrogate many types of devices. For example, a single interrogator may monitor tire pressure and temperature, the weight of an occupying item of the seat, the position of the seat and seatback, as well as a variety of switches controlling windows, door locks, seat position, etc. in a vehicle. Such an interrogator may use one or multiple antennas and when multiple antennas are used, may switch between the antennas depending on what is being monitored.
Similarly, the same or a different interrogator can be used to monitor various components of the vehicle's safety system including occupant position sensors, vehicle acceleration sensors, vehicle angular position, velocity and acceleration sensors, related to both frontal, side or rear impacts as well as rollover conditions. The interrogator could also be used in conjunction with other detection devices such as weight sensors, temperature sensors, accelerometers which are associated with various systems in the vehicle to enable such systems to be controlled or affected based on the measured state.
Some specific examples of the use of interrogators and responsive devices will now be described.
The antennas used for interrogating the vehicle tire pressure transducers can be located outside of the vehicle passenger compartment. For many other transducers to be sensed the antennas can be located at various positions within passenger compartment. At least one invention herein contemplates, therefore, a series of different antenna systems, which can be electronically switched by the interrogator circuitry. Alternately, in some cases, all of the antennas can be left connected and total transmitted power increased.
There are several applications for weight or load measuring devices in a vehicle including the vehicle suspension system and seat weight sensors for use with automobile safety systems. As described in U.S. Pat. No. 4,096,740, U.S. Pat. No. 4,623,813, U.S. Pat. No. 5,585,571, U.S. Pat. No. 5,663,531, U.S. Pat. No. 5,821,425 and U.S. Pat. No. 5,910,647 and International Publication No. WO 00/65320(A1), SAW devices are appropriate candidates for such weight measurement systems, although in some cases RFID systems can also be used with an associated sensor such as a strain gage. In this case, the surface acoustic wave on the lithium niobate, or other piezoelectric material, is modified in delay time, resonant frequency, amplitude and/or phase based on strain of the member upon which the SAW device is mounted. For example, the conventional bolt that is typically used to connect the passenger seat to the seat adjustment slide mechanism can be replaced with a stud which is threaded on both ends. A SAW or other strain device can be mounted to the center unthreaded section of the stud and the stud can be attached to both the seat and the slide mechanism using appropriate threaded nuts. Based on the particular geometry of the SAW device used, the stud can result in as little as a 3 mm upward displacement of the seat compared to a normal bolt mounting system. No wires are required to attach the SAW device to the stud other than for an antenna.
In use, the interrogator transmits a radio frequency pulse at, for example, 925 MHz that excites antenna on the SAW strain measuring system. After a delay caused by the time required for the wave to travel the length of the SAW device, a modified wave is re-transmitted to the interrogator providing an indication of the strain of the stud with the weight of an object occupying the seat corresponding to the strain. For a seat that is normally bolted to the slide mechanism with four bolts, at least four SAW strain sensors could be used. Since the individual SAW devices are very small, multiple devices can be placed on a stud to provide multiple redundant measurements, or permit bending and twisting strains to be determined, and/or to permit the stud to be arbitrarily located with at least one SAW device always within direct view of the interrogator antenna. In some cases, the bolt or stud will be made on non-conductive material to limit the blockage of the RF signal. In other cases, it will be insulated from the slide (mechanism) and used as an antenna.
If two longitudinally spaced apart antennas are used to receive the SAW or RFID transmissions from the seat weight sensors, one antenna in front of the seat and the other behind the seat, then the position of the seat can be determined eliminating the need for current seat position sensors. A similar system can be used for other seat and seatback position measurements.
For strain gage weight sensing, the frequency of interrogation can be considerably higher than that of the tire monitor, for example. However, if the seat is unoccupied, then the frequency of interrogation can be substantially reduced. For an occupied seat, information as to the identity and/or category and position of an occupying item of the seat can be obtained through the multiple weight sensors described. For this reason, and due to the fact that during the pre-crash event, the position of an occupying item of the seat may be changing rapidly, interrogations as frequently as once every 10 milliseconds or faster can be desirable. This would also enable a distribution of the weight being applied to the seat to be obtained which provides an estimation of the center of pressure and thus the position of the object occupying the seat. Using pattern recognition technology, e.g., a trained neural network, sensor fusion, fuzzy logic, etc., an identification of the object can be ascertained based on the determined weight and/or determined weight distribution.
There are many other methods by which SAW devices can be used to determine the weight and/or weight distribution of an occupying item other than the method described above and all such uses of SAW strain sensors for determining the weight and weight distribution of an occupant are contemplated. For example, SAW devices with appropriate straps can be used to measure the deflection of the seat cushion top or bottom caused by an occupying item, or if placed on the seat belts, the load on the belts can determined wirelessly and powerlessly. Geometries similar to those disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 6,242,701 (which discloses multiple strain gage geometries) using SAW strain-measuring devices can also be constructed, e.g., any of the multiple strain gage geometries shown therein.
Generally there is an RFID implementation that corresponds to each SAW implementation. Therefore, where SAW is used herein the equivalent RFID design will also be meant where appropriate.
Although a preferred method for using the invention is to interrogate each of the SAW devices using wireless mechanisms, in some cases, it may be desirable to supply power to and/or obtain information from one or more of the SAW devices using wires. As such, the wires would be an optional feature.
One advantage of the weight sensors of this invention along with the geometries disclosed in the '701 patent and herein below, is that in addition to the axial stress in the seat support, the bending moments in the structure can be readily determined. For example, if a seat is supported by four “legs”, it is possible to determine the state of stress, assuming that axial twisting can be ignored, using four strain gages on each leg support for a total of 16 such gages. If the seat is supported by three legs, then this can be reduced to 12 gages. Naturally, a three-legged support is preferable to four since with four legs, the seat support is over-determined which severely complicates the determination of the stress caused by an object on the seat. Even with three supports, stresses can be introduced depending on the nature of the support at the seat rails or other floor-mounted supporting structure. If simple supports are used that do not introduce bending moments into the structure, then the number of gages per seat can be reduced to three, provided a good model of the seat structure is available Unfortunately, this is usually not the case and most seats have four supports and the attachments to the vehicle not only introduce bending moments into the structure but these moments vary from one position to another and with temperature. The SAW strain gages of this invention lend themselves to the placement of multiple gages onto each support as needed to approximately determine the state of stress and thus the weight of the occupant depending on the particular vehicle application. Furthermore, the wireless nature of these gages greatly simplifies the placement of such gages at those locations that are most appropriate.
An additional point should be mentioned. In many cases, the determination of the weight of an occupant from the static strain gage readings yields inaccurate results due to the indeterminate stress state in the support structure. However, the dynamic stresses to a first order are independent of the residual stress state. Thus, the change in stress that occurs as a vehicle travels down a roadway caused by dips in the roadway can provide an accurate measurement of the weight of an object in a seat. This is especially true if an accelerometer is used to measure the vertical excitation provided to the seat.
Some vehicle models provide load leveling and ride control functions that depend on the magnitude and distribution of load carried by the vehicle suspension. Frequently, wire strain gage technology is used for these functions. That is, the wire strain gages are used to sense the load and/or load distribution of the vehicle on the vehicle suspension system. Such strain gages can be advantageously replaced with strain gages based on SAW technology with the significant advantages in terms of cost, wireless monitoring, dynamic range, and signal level. In addition, SAW strain gage systems can be more accurate than wire strain gage systems.
A strain detector in accordance with this invention can convert mechanical strain to variations in electrical signal frequency with a large dynamic range and high accuracy even for very small displacements. The frequency variation is produced through use of a surface acoustic wave (SAW) delay line as the frequency control element of an oscillator. A SAW delay line comprises a transducer deposited on a piezoelectric material such as quartz or lithium niobate which is arranged so as to be deformed by strain in the member which is to be monitored. Deformation of the piezoelectric substrate changes the frequency control characteristics of the surface acoustic wave delay line, thereby changing the frequency of the oscillator. Consequently, the oscillator frequency change is a measure of the strain in the member being monitored and thus the weight applied to the seat. A SAW strain transducer can be more accurate than a conventional resistive strain gage.
Other applications of weight measuring systems for an automobile include measuring the weight of the fuel tank or other containers of fluid to determine the quantity of fluid contained therein as described in more detail below.
One problem with SAW devices is that if they are designed to operate at the GHz frequency, the feature sizes become exceeding small and the devices are difficult to manufacture, although techniques are now available for making SAW devices in the tens of GHz range. On the other hand, if the frequencies are considerably lower, for example, in the tens of megahertz range, then the antenna sizes become excessive. It is also more difficult to obtain antenna gain at the lower frequencies. This is also related to antenna size. One method of solving this problem is to transmit an interrogation signal in the high GHz range which is modulated at the hundred MHz range. At the SAW transducer, the transducer is tuned to the modulated frequency. Using a nonlinear device such as a Shocky diode, the modified signal can be mixed with the incoming high frequency signal and re-transmitted through the same antenna. For this case, the interrogator can continuously broadcast the carrier frequency.
Devices based on RFID or SAW technology can be used as switches in a vehicle as described in U.S. Pat. No. 6,078,252, U.S. Pat. No. 6,144,288 and U.S. Pat. No. 6,748,797. There are many ways that this can be accomplished. A switch can be used to connect an antenna to either an RFID electronic device or to a SAW device. This of course requires contacts to be closed by the switch activation. An alternate approach is to use pressure from an occupant's finger, for example, to alter the properties of the acoustic wave on the SAW material much as in a SAW touch screen. The properties that can be modified include the amplitude of the acoustic wave, and its phase, and/or the time delay or an external impedance connected to one of the SAW reflectors as disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 6,084,503. In this implementation, the SAW transducer can contain two sections, one which is modified by the occupant and the other which serves as a reference. A combined signal is sent to the interrogator that decodes the signal to determine that the switch has been activated. By any of these technologies, switches can be arbitrarily placed within the interior of an automobile, for example, without the need for wires. Since wires and connectors are the cause of most warranty repairs in an automobile, not only is the cost of switches substantially reduced but also the reliability of the vehicle electrical system is substantially improved.
The interrogation of switches can take place with moderate frequency such as once every 100 milliseconds. Either through the use of different frequencies or different delays, a large number of switches can be time, code, space and/or frequency multiplexed to permit separation of the signals obtained by the interrogator. Alternately, an RF activated switch on some or all of the sensors can be used as discussed in more detail below.
Another approach is to attach a variable impedance device across one of the reflectors on the SAW device. The impedance can therefore be used to determine the relative reflection from the reflector compared to other reflectors on the SAW device. In this manner, the magnitude as well as the presence of a force exerted by an occupant's finger, for example, can be used to provide a rate sensitivity to the desired function. In an alternate design, as shown U.S. Pat. No. 6,144,288, the switch is used to connect the antenna to the SAW device. Of course, in this case, the interrogator will not get a return from the SAW switch unless it is depressed.
Temperature measurement is another field in which SAW technology can be applied and the invention encompasses several embodiments of SAW temperature sensors.
U.S. Pat. No. 4,249,418 is one of many examples of prior art SAW temperature sensors. Temperature sensors are commonly used within vehicles and many more applications might exist if a low cost wireless temperature sensor is available such as disclosed herein. The SAW technology can be used for such temperature sensing tasks. These tasks include measuring the vehicle coolant temperature, air temperature within passenger compartment at multiple locations, seat temperature for use in conjunction with seat warming and cooling systems, outside temperatures and perhaps tire surface temperatures to provide early warning to operators of road freezing conditions. One example, is to provide air temperature sensors in the passenger compartment in the vicinity of ultrasonic transducers used in occupant sensing systems as described in U.S. Pat. No. 5,943,295, since the speed of sound in the air varies by approximately 20% from −40° C. to 85° C. Current ultrasonic occupant sensor systems do not measure or compensate for this change in the speed of sound with the effect of reducing the accuracy of the systems at the temperature extremes. Through the judicious placement of SAW temperature sensors in the vehicle, the passenger compartment air temperature can be accurately estimated and the information provided wirelessly to the ultrasonic occupant sensor system thereby permitting corrections to be made for the change in the speed of sound.
Since the road can be either a source or a sink of thermal energy, strategically placed sensors that measure the surface temperature of a tire can also be used to provide an estimate of road temperature.
Acceleration sensing is another field in which SAW technology can be applied and the invention encompasses several embodiments of SAW accelerometers.
U.S. Pat. No. 4,199,990, U.S. Pat. No. 4,306,456 and U.S. Pat. No. 4,549,436 are examples of prior art SAW accelerometers. Most airbag crash sensors for determining whether the vehicle is experiencing a frontal or side impact currently use micromachined accelerometers. These accelerometers are usually based on the deflection of a mass which is sensed using either capacitive or piezoresistive technologies. SAW technology has previously not been used as a vehicle accelerometer or for vehicle crash sensing. Due to the importance of this function, at least one interrogator could be dedicated to this critical function. Acceleration signals from the crash sensors should be reported at least preferably every 100 microseconds. In this case, the dedicated interrogator would send an interrogation pulse to all crash sensor accelerometers every 100 microseconds and receive staggered acceleration responses from each of the SAW accelerometers wirelessly. This technology permits the placement of multiple low-cost accelerometers at ideal locations for crash sensing including inside the vehicle side doors, in the passenger compartment and in the frontal crush zone. Additionally, crash sensors can now be located in the rear of the vehicle in the crush zone to sense rear impacts. Since the acceleration data is transmitted wirelessly, concern about the detachment or cutting of wires from the sensors disappears. One of the main concerns, for example, of placing crash sensors in the vehicle doors where they most appropriately can sense vehicle side impacts, is the fear that an impact into the A-pillar of the automobile would sever the wires from the door-mounted crash sensor before the crash was sensed. This problem disappears with the current wireless technology of this invention. If two accelerometers are placed at some distance from each other, the roll acceleration of the vehicle can be determined and thus the tendency of the vehicle to rollover can be predicted in time to automatically take corrective action and/or deploy a curtain airbag or other airbag(s). Other types of sensors such as crash sensors based on pressure measurements, such as supplied by Siemens, can also now be wireless.
Although the sensitivity of measurement is considerably greater than that obtained with conventional piezoelectric or micromachined accelerometers, the frequency deviation of SAW devices remains low (in absolute value). Accordingly, the frequency drift of thermal origin should be made as low as possible by selecting a suitable cut of the piezoelectric material. The resulting accuracy is impressive as presented in U.S. Pat. No. 4,549,436, which discloses an angular accelerometer with a dynamic a range of 1 million, temperature coefficient of 0.005%/deg F, an accuracy of 1 microradian/sec2, a power consumption of 1 milliwatt, a drift of 0.01% per year, a volume of 1 cc/axis and a frequency response of 0 to 1000 Hz. The subject matter of the '436 patent is hereby included in the invention to constitute a part of the invention. A similar design can be used for acceleration sensing.
In a similar manner as the polymer-coated SAW device is used to measure pressure, a device wherein a seismic mass is attached to a SAW device through a polymer interface can be made to sense acceleration. This geometry has a particular advantage for sensing accelerations below 1 G, which has proved to be very difficult for conventional micro-machined accelerometers due to their inability to both measure low accelerations and withstand high acceleration shocks.
Gyroscopes are another field in which SAW technology can be applied and the inventions herein encompass several embodiments of SAW gyroscopes.
SAW technology is particularly applicable for gyroscopes as described in International Publication No. WO 00/79217A2 to Varadan et al. The output of such gyroscopes can be determined with an interrogator that is also used for the crash sensor accelerometers, or a dedicated interrogator can be used. Gyroscopes having an accuracy of approximately 1 degree per second have many applications in a vehicle including skid control and other dynamic stability functions. Additionally, gyroscopes of similar accuracy can be used to sense impending vehicle rollover situations in time to take corrective action.
The inventors have represented that SAW gyroscopes of the type described in WO 00/79217A2 have the capability of achieving accuracies approaching about 3 degrees per hour. This high accuracy permits use of such gyroscopes in an inertial measuring unit (IMU) that can be used with accurate vehicle navigation systems and autonomous vehicle control based on differential GPS corrections. Such a system is described in U.S. Pat. No. 6,370,475. An alternate preferred technology for an IMU is described in U.S. Pat. No. 4,711,125 to Morrison discussed in more detail below. Such navigation systems depend on the availability of four or more GPS satellites and an accurate differential correction signal such as provided by the OmniStar Corporation, NASA or through the National Differential GPS system now being deployed. The availability of these signals degrades in urban canyon environments, in tunnels and on highways when the vehicle is in the vicinity of large trucks. For this application, an IMU system should be able to accurately control the vehicle for perhaps 15 seconds and preferably for up to five minutes. IMUs based on SAW technology, the technology of U.S. Pat. No. 4,549,436 discussed above or of the U.S. Pat. No. 4,711,125 are the best-known devices capable of providing sufficient accuracies for this application at a reasonable cost. Other accurate gyroscope technologies such as fiber optic systems are more accurate but can be cost-prohibitive, although recent analysis by the current assignee indicates that such gyroscopes can eventually be made cost-competitive. In high volume production, an IMU of the required accuracy based on SAW technology is estimated to cost less than about $100. A cost competing technology is that disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 4,711,125 which does not use SAW technology.
What follows is a discussion of the Morrison Cube of U.S. Pat. No. 4,711,125 known as the QUBIK™. Let us review the typical problems that are encountered with sensors that try to measure multiple physical quantities at the same time and how the QUBIK solves these problems. These problems were provided by an IMU expert unfamiliar with the QUBIK and the responses are provided by Morrison.
1. Problem: Errors of measurement of the linear accelerations and angular speed are mutually correlated. Even if every one of the errors, taken separately, does not accumulate with integration (the inertial system's algorithm does that), the cross-coupled multiplication (such as one during re-projecting the linear accelerations from one coordinate system to another) will have these errors detected and will make them a systematic error similar to a sensor's bias.
Solution: The QUBIK IMU is calibrated and compensated for any cross axis sensitivity. For example: if one of the angular accelerometer channels has a sensitivity to any of the three of linear accelerations, then the linear accelerations are buffered and scaled down and summed with the buffered angular accelerometer output to cancel out all linear acceleration sensitivity on all three angular accelerometer channels. This is important to detect pure angular rate signals. This is a very common practice throughout the U.S. aerospace industry to make navigation grade IMU's. Even when individual gyroscopes and accelerometers are used in navigation, they have their outputs scaled and summed together to cancel out these cross axis errors. Note that competitive MEMS products have orders of magnitude higher cross axis sensitivities when compared to navigation grade sensors and they will undoubtedly have to use this practice to improve performance MEMS angular rate sensors are advertised in degrees per second and navigation angular rate sensors are advertised in degrees per hour. MEMS angular rate sensors have high linear acceleration errors that must be compensated for at the IMU level.
2. Problem: The gyroscope and accelerometer channels require settings to be made that contradict one another physically. For example, a gap between the cube and the housing for the capacitive sensors (that measure the displacements of the cube) is not to exceed 50 to 100 microns. On the other hand, the gyroscope channels require, in order to enhance a Coriolis effect used to measure the angular speed, that the amplitude and the linear speed of vibrations are as big as possible. To do this, the gap and the frequency of oscillations should be increased. A greater frequency of oscillations in the nearly resonant mode requires the stiffness of the electromagnetic suspension to be increased, too, which leads to a worse measurement of the linear accelerations because the latter require that the rigidity of the suspension be minimal when there is a closed feedback.
Solution: The capacitive gap all around the levitated inner cube of the QUBIK is nominally 0.010 inches. The variable capacitance plates are excited by a 1.5 MHz 25 volt peak to peak signal. The signal coming out is so strong (five volts) that there is no preamp required. Diode detectors are mounted directly above the capacitive plates. There is no performance change in the linear accelerometer channels when the angular accelerometer channels are being dithered or rotated back and forth about an axis. This was discovered by having a ground plane around the electromagnets that eliminated transformer coupling. Dithering or driving the angular accelerometer which rotates the inner cube proof mass is a gyroscopic displacement and not a linear displacement and has no effect on the linear channels Another very important point to make is the servo loops measure the force required to keep the inner cube at its null and the servo loops are integrated to prevent any displacements. The linear accelerometer servo loops are not being exercised to dither the inner cube. The angular accelerometer servo loop is being exercised. The linear and angular channels have their own separate set of capacitance detectors and electromagnets. Driving the angular channels has no effect on the linear ones.
The rigidity of an integrated closed loop servo is infinite at DC and rolls off at higher frequencies. The QUBIK IMU measures the force being applied to the inner cube and not the displacement to measure angular rate. There is a force generated on the inner cube when it is being rotated and the servo will not allow any displacement by applying equal and opposite forces on the inner cube to keep it at null. The servo readout is a direct measurement of the gyroscopic forces on the inner cube and not the displacement.
The servo gain is so high at the null position that one will not see the null displacement but will see a current level equivalent to the force on the cube. This is why integrated closed loop servos are so good. They measure the force required to keep the inner cube at null and not the displacement. The angular accelerometer channel that is being dithered will have a noticeable displacement at its null. The sensor does not have to be driven at its resonance. Driving the angular accelerometer at resonance will run the risk of over-driving the inner cube to the point where it will bottom out and bang around inside its cavity. There is an active gain control circuit to keep the alternating momentum constant.
Note that competitive MEMS based sensors are open loop and allow displacements which increase cross axis errors. MEMS sensors must have displacements to work and do not measure the Coriolis force, they measure displacement which results in huge cross axis sensitivity issues.
3. Problem: As the electromagnetic suspension is used, the sensor is going to be sensitive to external constant and variable (alternating) fields. Its errors will vary with its position, for example, with respect to the Earth's magnetic field or other magnetic sources.
Solution: The earths magnetic field varies from −0.0 to +0.3 gauss and the magnets have gauss levels over 10,000. The earth field can be shielded if necessary.
4. Problem: The QUBIT sensing element is relatively heavy so the sensor is likely to be sensitive to angular accelerations and impacts. Also, the temperature of the environment can affect the micron-sized gaps, magnetic fields of the permanent magnets, the resistance of the inductance coils etc., which will eventually increase the sensor errors.
Solution: The inner cube has a gap of 0.010 inches and does not change significantly over temperature.
The resistance of the coils is not a factor in the active closed loop servo. Anybody who make this statement does not know what they are talking about. There is a stable one PPM/C current readout resistor in series with the coil that measures the current passing through the coil which eliminates the temperature sensitivity of the coil resistance.
Permanent magnets have already proven themselves to be very stable over temperature when used in active servo loops used in navigation gyroscopes and accelerometers.
Note that the sensitivity that the QUBIK IMU has achieved 0.01 degrees per hour.
5. Problem: High Cost. To produce the QUBIK, one may need to maintain micron-sized gaps and highly clean surfaces for capacitive sensors; the devices must be assembled in a dust-free room, and the device itself must be hermetic (otherwise dust or moisture will put the capacitive sensor and the electromagnetic suspension out of operation), the permanent magnets must have a very stable performance because they're going to work in a feedback circuit, and so on. In our opinion, all these issues make the technology overly complex and expensive, so an additional metrological control will be required and no full automation can be ever done.
Solution: The sensor does not have micron size gaps and does not need to be hermetic unless the sensor is submerged in water! Most of the QUBIK IMU sensor is a cut out PCB's that can certainly be automated. The PCB design can keep dust out and does not need to be hermetic. Humidity is not a problem unless the sensor is submerged in water. The permanent magnets achieve parts per million stability at a cost of $0.05 each for a per system cost of under one dollar. There are may navigation grade gyroscopes and accelerometers that use permanent magnets.
Competitive MEMS sensors can of course have process contamination problems. To my knowledge, there are no MEMS angular rate sensors that do not require human labor and/or calibration. The QUBIK IMU can instead use programmable potentiometers at calibration instead of human labor.
Once an IMU of the accuracy described above is available in the vehicle, this same device can be used to provide significant improvements to vehicle stability control and rollover prediction systems.
Keyless entry systems are another field in which SAW technology can be applied and the invention encompasses several embodiments of access control systems using SAW devices.
A common use of SAW or RFID technology is for access control to buildings however, the range of electronic unpowered RFID technology is usually limited to one meter or less. In contrast, the SAW technology, when powered or boosted, can permit sensing up to about 30 meters. As a keyless entry system, an automobile can be configured such that the doors unlock as the holder of a card containing the SAW ID system approaches the vehicle and similarly, the vehicle doors can be automatically locked when the occupant with the card travels beyond a certain distance from the vehicle. When the occupant enters the vehicle, the doors can again automatically lock either through logic or through a current system wherein doors automatically lock when the vehicle is placed in gear. An occupant with such a card would also not need to have an ignition key. The vehicle would recognize that the SAW-based card was inside vehicle and then permit the vehicle to be started by issuing an oral command if a voice recognition system is present or by depressing a button, for example, without the need for an ignition key.
Although they will not be discussed in detail, SAW sensors operating in the wireless mode can also be used to sense for ice on the windshield or other exterior surfaces of the vehicle, condensation on the inside of the windshield or other interior surfaces, rain sensing, heat-load sensing and many other automotive sensing functions. They can also be used to sense outside environmental properties and states including temperature, humidity, etc.
SAW sensors can be economically used to measure the temperature and humidity at numerous places both inside and outside of a vehicle. When used to measure humidity inside the vehicle, a source of water vapor can be activated to increase the humidity when desirable and the air conditioning system can be activated to reduce the humidity when necessary or desirable. Temperature and humidity measurements outside of the vehicle can be an indication of potential road icing problems. Such information can be used to provide early warning to a driver of potentially dangerous conditions. Although the invention described herein is related to land vehicles, many of these advances are equally applicable to other vehicles such as airplanes and even, in some cases, homes and buildings. The invention disclosed herein, therefore, is not limited to automobiles or other land vehicles.
Road condition sensing is another field in which SAW technology can be applied and the invention encompasses several embodiments of SAW road condition sensors.
The temperature and moisture content of the surface of a roadway are critical parameters in determining the icing state of the roadway. Attempts have been made to measure the coefficient of friction between a tire and the roadway by placing strain gages in the tire tread. Naturally, such strain gages are ideal for the application of SAW technology especially since they can be interrogated wirelessly from a distance and they require no power for operation. As discussed herein, SAW accelerometers can also perform this function. The measurement of the friction coefficient, however, is not predictive and the vehicle operator is only able to ascertain the condition after the fact. Boosted SAW or RFID based transducers have the capability of being interrogated as much as 100 feet from the interrogator. Therefore, the judicious placement of low-cost powerless SAW or RFID temperature and humidity sensors in and/or on the roadway at critical positions can provide an advance warning to vehicle operators that the road ahead is slippery. Such devices are very inexpensive and therefore could be placed at frequent intervals along a highway.
An infrared sensor that looks down the highway in front of the vehicle can actually measure the road temperature prior to the vehicle traveling on that part of the roadway. This system also would not give sufficient warning if the operator waited for the occurrence of a frozen roadway. The probability of the roadway becoming frozen, on the other hand, can be predicted long before it occurs, in most cases, by watching the trend in the temperature. Once vehicle-to-vehicle communications are common, roadway icing conditions can be communicated between vehicles.
Some lateral control of the vehicle can also be obtained from SAW transducers or electronic RFID tags placed down the center of the lane, either above the vehicles and/or in the roadway, for example. A vehicle having two receiving antennas, for example, approaching such devices, through triangulation or direct proportion, is able to determine the lateral location of the vehicle relative to these SAW devices. If the vehicle also has an accurate map of the roadway, the identification number associated with each such device can be used to obtain highly accurate longitudinal position determinations. Ultimately, the SAW devices can be placed on structures beside the road and perhaps on every mile or tenth of a mile marker. If three antennas are used, as discussed herein, the distances from the vehicle to the SAW device can be determined. These SAW devices can be powered in order to stay below current FCC power transmission limits Such power can be supplied by a photocell, energy harvesting where applicable, by a battery or power connection.
Electronic RFID tags are also suitable for lateral and longitudinal positioning purposes, however, the range available for current electronic RFID systems can be less than that of SAW-based systems unless either are powered. On the other hand, as disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 6,748,797, the time-of-flight of the RFID system can be used to determine the distance from the vehicle to the RFID tag. Because of the inherent delay in the SAW devices and its variation with temperature, accurate distance measurement is probably not practical based on time-of-flight but somewhat less accurate distance measurements based on relative time-of-arrival can be made. Even if the exact delay imposed by the SAW device was accurately known at one temperature, such devices are usually reasonably sensitive to changes in temperature, hence they make good temperature sensors, and thus the accuracy of the delay in the SAW device is more difficult to maintain. An interesting variation of an electronic RFID that is particularly applicable to this and other applications of this invention is described in A. Pohl, L. Reindl, “New passive sensors”, Proc. 16th IEEE Instrumentation and Measurement Technology Conf., IMTC/99, 1999, pp. 1251-1255.
Many SAW devices are based on lithium niobate or similar strong piezoelectric materials. Such materials have high thermal expansion coefficients. An alternate material is quartz that has a very low thermal expansion coefficient. However, its piezoelectric properties are inferior to lithium niobate. One solution to this problem is to use lithium niobate as the coupling system between the antenna and the material or substrate upon which the surface acoustic wave travels. In this manner, the advantages of a low thermal expansion coefficient material can be obtained while using the lithium niobate for its strong piezoelectric properties. Other useful materials such as Langasite™ have properties that are intermediate between lithium niobate and quartz.
The use of SAW tags as an accurate precise positioning system as described above would be applicable for accurate vehicle location, as discussed in U.S. Pat. No. 6,370,475, for lanes in tunnels, for example, or other cases where loss of satellite lock, and thus the primary vehicle location system, is common.
The various technologies discussed above can be used in combination. The electronic RFID tag can be incorporated into a SAW tag providing a single device that provides both a quick reflection of the radio frequency waves as well as a re-transmission at a later time. This marriage of the two technologies permits the strengths of each technology to be exploited in the same device. For most of the applications described herein, the cost of mounting such a tag in a vehicle or on the roadway far exceeds the cost of the tag itself. Therefore, combining the two technologies does not significantly affect the cost of implementing tags onto vehicles or roadways or side highway structures.
A variation of this design is to use an RF circuit such as in an RFID to serve as an energy source. One design could be for the RFID to operate with directional antennas at a relatively high frequency such as 2.4 GHz. This can be primarily used to charge a capacitor to provide the energy for boosting the signal from the SAW sensor using circuitry such as a circulator discussed below. The SAW sensor can operate at a lower frequency, such as 400 MHz, permitting it to not interfere with the energy transfer to the RF circuit and also permit the signal to travel better to the receiver since it will be difficult to align the antenna at all times with the interrogator. Also, by monitoring the reception of the RF signal, the angular position of the tire can be determined and the SAW circuit designed so that it only transmits when the antennas are aligned or when the vehicle is stationary. Many other opportunities now present themselves with the RF circuit operating at a different frequency from the SAW circuit which will now be obvious to one skilled in the art.
An alternate method to the electronic RFID tag is to simply use a radar or lidar reflector and measure the time-of-flight to the reflector and back. The reflector can even be made of a series of reflecting surfaces displaced from each other to achieve some simple coding. It should be understood that RFID antennas can be similarly configured. An improvement would be to polarize the radiation and use a reflector that rotates the polarization angle allowing the reflector to be more easily found among other reflecting objects.
Another field in which SAW technology can be applied is for “ultrasound-on-a-surface” type of devices. U.S. Pat. No. 5,629,681, assigned to the current assignee herein and incorporated by reference herein, describes many uses of ultrasound in a tube. Many of the applications are also candidates for ultrasound-on-a-surface devices. In this case, a micro-machined SAW device will in general be replaced by a much larger structure.
Based on the frequency and power available, and on FCC limitations, SAW or RFID or similar devices can be designed to permit transmission distances of many feet especially if minimal power is available. Since SAW and RFID devices can measure both temperature and humidity, they are also capable of monitoring road conditions in front of and around a vehicle. Thus, a properly equipped vehicle can determine the road conditions prior to entering a particular road section if such SAW devices are embedded in the road surface or on mounting structures close to the road surface as shown at60in
If a SAW device63is placed in a roadway, as illustrated in
The SAW device63does not have to be in the center of the road. Alternate locations for positioning of the SAW device63are on overpasses above the road and on poles such as64and65on the roadside. For such cases, a source of power may be required. Such a system has an advantage over a competing system using radar and reflectors in that it is easier to measure the relative time between the two received pulses than it is to measure time-of-flight of a radar signal to a reflector and back. Such a system operates in all weather conditions and is known as a precise location system. Eventually, such a SAW device63can be placed every tenth of a mile along the roadway or at some other appropriate spacing. For the radar or laser radar reflection system, the reflectors can be active devices that provide environmental information in addition to location information to the interrogating vehicle.
If a vehicle is being guided by a DGPS and an accurate map system such as disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 6,405,132 is used, a problem arises when the GPS receiver system looses satellite lock as would happen when the vehicle enters a tunnel, for example. If a precise location system as described above is placed at the exit of the tunnel, then the vehicle will know exactly where it is and can re-establish satellite lock in as little as one second rather than typically 15 seconds as might otherwise be required. Other methods making use of the cell phone system can be used to establish an approximate location of the vehicle suitable for rapid acquisition of satellite lock as described in G. M. Djuknic, R. E. Richton “Geolocation and Assisted GPS”, Computer Magazine, February 2001, IEEE Computer Society, which is incorporated by reference herein in its entirety. An alternate location system is described in U.S. Pat. No. 6,480,788.
More particularly, geolocation technologies that rely exclusively on wireless networks such as time of arrival, time difference of arrival, angle of arrival, timing advance, and multipath fingerprinting, as is known to those skilled in the art, offer a shorter time-to-first-fix (TTFF) than GPS. They also offer quick deployment and continuous tracking capability for navigation applications, without the added complexity and cost of upgrading or replacing any existing GPS receiver in vehicles. Compared to either mobile-station-based, stand-alone GPS or network-based geolocation, assisted-GPS (AGPS) technology offers superior accuracy, availability and coverage at a reasonable cost. AGPS for use with vehicles can comprise a communications unit with a minimal capability GPS receiver arranged in the vehicle, an AGPS server with a reference GPS receiver that can simultaneously “see” the same satellites as the communications unit and a wireless network infrastructure consisting at least of base stations and a mobile switching center. The network can accurately predict the GPS signal the communication unit will receive and convey that information to the mobile unit such as a vehicle, greatly reducing search space size and shortening the TTFF from minutes to a second or less. In addition, an AGPS receiver in the communication unit can detect and demodulate weaker signals than those that conventional GPS receivers require. Because the network performs the location calculations, the communication unit only needs to contain a scaled-down GPS receiver. It is accurate within about 15 meters when they are outdoors, an order of magnitude more sensitive than conventional GPS. Of course with the additional of differential corrections and carrier phase corrections, the location accuracy can be improved to centimeters.
Since an AGPS server can obtain the vehicle's position from the mobile switching center, at least to the level of cell and sector, and at the same time monitor signals from GPS satellites seen by mobile stations, it can predict the signals received by the vehicle for any given time. Specifically, the server can predict the Doppler shift due to satellite motion of GPS signals received by the vehicle, as well as other signal parameters that are a function of the vehicle's location. In a typical sector, uncertainty in a satellite signal's predicted time of arrival at the vehicle is about ±5 μs, which corresponds to ±5 chips of the GPS coarse acquisition (C/A) code. Therefore, an AGPS server can predict the phase of the pseudorandom noise (PRN) sequence that the receiver should use to despread the C/A signal from a particular satellite (each GPS satellite transmits a unique PRN sequence used for range measurements) and communicate that prediction to the vehicle. The search space for the actual Doppler shift and PRN phase is thus greatly reduced, and the AGPS receiver can accomplish the task in a fraction of the time required by conventional GPS receivers. Further, the AGPS server maintains a connection with the vehicle receiver over the wireless link, so the requirement of asking the communication unit to make specific measurements, collect the results and communicate them back is easily met. After despreading and some additional signal processing, an AGPS receiver returns back “pseudoranges” (that is, ranges measured without taking into account the discrepancy between satellite and receiver clocks) to the AGPS server, which then calculates the vehicle's location. The vehicle can even complete the location fix itself without returning any data to the server. Further discussion of cellular location-based systems can be found in Caffery, J. J. Wireless Location in CDMA Cellular Radio Systems, Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1999, ISBN: 0792377036.
Sensitivity assistance, also known as modulation wipe-off, provides another enhancement to detection of GPS signals in the vehicle's receiver. The sensitivity-assistance message contains predicted data bits of the GPS navigation message, which are expected to modulate the GPS signal of specific satellites at specified times. The mobile station receiver can therefore remove bit modulation in the received GPS signal prior to coherent integration. By extending coherent integration beyond the 20-ms GPS data-bit period (to a second or more when the receiver is stationary and to 400 ms when it is fast-moving) this approach improves receiver sensitivity. Sensitivity assistance provides an additional 3-to-4-dB improvement in receiver sensitivity. Because some of the gain provided by the basic assistance (code phases and Doppler shift values) is lost when integrating the GPS receiver chain into a mobile system, this can prove crucial to making a practical receiver.
Achieving optimal performance of sensitivity assistance in TIA/EIA-95 CDMA systems is relatively straightforward because base stations and mobiles synchronize with GPS time. Given that global system for mobile communication (GSM), time division multiple access (TDMA), or advanced mobile phone service (AMPS) systems do not maintain such stringent synchronization, implementation of sensitivity assistance and AGPS technology in general will require novel approaches to satisfy the timing requirement. The standardized solution for GSM and TDMA adds time calibration receivers in the field (location measurement units) that can monitor both the wireless-system timing and GPS signals used as a timing reference.
Many factors affect the accuracy of geolocation technologies, especially terrain variations such as hilly versus flat and environmental differences such as urban versus suburban versus rural. Other factors, like cell size and interference, have smaller but noticeable effects. Hybrid approaches that use multiple geolocation technologies appear to be the most robust solution to problems of accuracy and coverage.
AGPS provides a natural fit for hybrid solutions since it uses the wireless network to supply assistance data to GPS receivers in vehicles. This feature makes it easy to augment the assistance-data message with low-accuracy distances from receiver to base stations measured by the network equipment. Such hybrid solutions benefit from the high density of base stations in dense urban environments, which are hostile to GPS signals. Conversely, rural environments, where base stations are too scarce for network-based solutions to achieve high accuracy, provide ideal operating conditions for AGPS because GPS works well there.
From the above discussion, AGPS can be a significant part of the location determining system on a vehicle and can be used to augment other more accurate systems such as DGPS and a precise positioning system based on road markers or signature matching as discussed above and in patents assigned to Intelligent Technologies International.
SAW transponders can also be placed in the license plates67 (
A general SAW temperature and pressure gage which can be wireless and powerless is shown generally at70located in the sidewall73of a fluid container74in
A SAW load sensor can also be used to measure load in the vehicle suspension system powerless and wirelessly as shown in
Since a portion of the dynamic load is also carried by the shock absorber, the SAW strain gages77and78will only measure the steady or average load on the vehicle. However, additional SAW strain gages79can be placed on a piston rod81of the shock absorber to obtain the dynamic load. These load measurements can then be used for active or passive vehicle damping or other stability control purposes. Knowing the dynamic load on the vehicle coupled with measuring the response of the vehicle or of the load of an occupant on a seat also permits a determination of the vehicle's inertial properties and, in the case of the seat weight sensor, of the mass of an occupant and the state of the seat belt (is it buckled and what load is it adding to the seat load sensors).
In one implementation, SAW temperature and other sensors can be made from PVDF film and incorporated within the ultrasonic transducer assembly. For the 40 kHz ultrasonic transducer case, for example, the SAW temperature sensor would return the several pulses sent to drive the ultrasonic transducer to the control circuitry using the same wires used to transmit the pulses to the transducer after a delay that is proportional to the temperature within the transducer housing. Thus, a very economical device can add this temperature sensing function using much of the same hardware that is already present for the occupant sensing system. Since the frequency is low, PVDF could be fabricated into a very low cost temperature sensor for this purpose. Other piezoelectric materials can of course also be used.
Note, the use of PVDF as a piezoelectric material for wired and wireless SAW transducers or sensors is an important disclosure of at least one of the inventions disclosed herein. Such PVDF SAW devices can be used as chemical, biological, temperature, pressure and other SAW sensors as well as for switches. Such devices are very inexpensive to manufacture and are suitable for many vehicle-mounted devices as well as for other non-vehicle-mounted sensors. Disadvantages of PVDF stem from the lower piezoelectric constant (compared with lithium niobate) and the low acoustic wave velocity thus limiting the operating frequency. The key advantage is very low cost. When coupled with plastic electronics (plastic chips), it now becomes very economical to place sensors throughout the vehicle for monitoring a wide range of parameters such as temperature, pressure, chemical concentration etc. In particular implementations, an electronic nose based on SAW or RFID technology and neural networks can be implemented in either a wired or wireless manner for the monitoring of cargo containers or other vehicle interiors (or building interiors) for anti-terrorist or security purposes. See, for example, Reznik, A. M. “Associative Memories for Chemical Sensing”, IEEE 2002 ICONIP, p. 2630-2634, vol. 5. In this manner, other sensors can be combined with the temperature sensors85, or used separately, to measure carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, alcohol, biological agents, radiation, humidity or other desired chemicals or agents as discussed above. Note, although the examples generally used herein are from the automotive industry, many of the devices disclosed herein can be advantageously used with other vehicles including trucks, boats, airplanes and shipping containers.
The SAW temperature sensors85provide the temperature at their mounting location to a processor unit83via an interrogator with the processor unit83including appropriate control algorithms for controlling the heating and air conditioning system based on the detected temperatures. The processor unit83can control, e.g., which vents in the vehicle are open and closed, the flow rate through vents and the temperature of air passing through the vents. In general, the processor unit83can control whatever adjustable components are present or form part of the heating and air conditioning system.
There are many applications for which knowledge of the pitch and/or roll orientation of a vehicle or other object is desired. An accurate tilt sensor can be constructed using SAW devices. Such a sensor is illustrated in
In particular, an alternate preferred configuration is illustrated in
Either of the SAW accelerometers described above can be utilized for crash sensors as shown in
The SAW accelerometer for this particular crash sensor design is housed in a container96which is assembled into a housing97and covered with a cover98. This particular implementation shows a connector99indicating that this sensor would require power and the response would be provided through wires. Alternately, as discussed for other devices above, the connector99can be eliminated and the information and power to operate the device transmitted wirelessly. Also, power can be supplied thorough a connector and stored in a capacitor while the information is transmitted wirelessly thus protecting the system from a wire failure during a crash when the sensor is mounted in the crush zone. Such sensors can be used as frontal, side or rear impact sensors. They can be used in the crush zone, in the passenger compartment or any other appropriate vehicle location. If two such sensors are separated and have appropriate sensitive axes, then the angular acceleration of the vehicle can also be determined. Thus, for example, forward-facing accelerometers mounted in the vehicle side doors can be used to measure the yaw acceleration of the vehicle. Alternately, two vertical sensitive axis accelerometers in the side doors can be used to measure the roll acceleration of vehicle, which would be useful for rollover sensing.
U.S. Pat. No. 6,615,656, assigned to the current assignee of this invention, and the description below, provides multiple apparatus for determining the amount of liquid in a tank. Using the SAW pressure devices of this invention, multiple pressure sensors can be placed at appropriate locations within a fuel tank to measure the fluid pressure and thereby determine the quantity of fuel remaining in the tank. This can be done both statically and dynamically. This is illustrated in
SAW sensors also have applicability to various other sectors of the vehicle, including the powertrain, chassis, and occupant comfort and convenience. For example, SAW and RFID sensors have applicability to sensors for the powertrain area including oxygen sensors, gear-tooth Hall effect sensors, variable reluctance sensors, digital speed and position sensors, oil condition sensors, rotary position sensors, low pressure sensors, manifold absolute pressure/manifold air temperature (MAP/MAT) sensors, medium pressure sensors, turbo pressure sensors, knock sensors, coolant/fluid temperature sensors, and transmission temperature sensors.
SAW sensors for chassis applications include gear-tooth Hall effect sensors, variable reluctance sensors, digital speed and position sensors, rotary position sensors, non-contact steering position sensors, and digital ABS (anti-lock braking system) sensors. In one implementation, a Hall Effect tire pressure monitor comprises a magnet that rotates with a vehicle wheel and is sensed by a Hall Effect device which is attached to a SAW or RFID device that is wirelessly interrogated. This arrangement eliminates the need to run a wire into each wheel well.
SAW sensors for the occupant comfort and convenience field include low tire pressure sensors, HVAC temperature and humidity sensors, air temperature sensors, and oil condition sensors.
SAW sensors also have applicability such areas as controlling evaporative emissions, transmission shifting, mass air flow meters, oxygen, NOx and hydrocarbon sensors. SAW based sensors are particularly useful in high temperature environments where many other technologies fail.
SAW sensors can facilitate compliance with U.S. regulations concerning evaporative system monitoring in vehicles, through a SAW fuel vapor pressure and temperature sensors that measure fuel vapor pressure within the fuel tank as well as temperature. If vapors leak into the atmosphere, the pressure within the tank drops. The sensor notifies the system of a fuel vapor leak, resulting in a warning signal to the driver and/or notification to a repair facility, vehicle manufacturer and/or compliance monitoring facility. This application is particularly important since the condition within the fuel tank can be ascertained wirelessly reducing the chance of a fuel fire in an accident. The same interrogator that monitors the tire pressure SAW sensors can also monitor the fuel vapor pressure and temperature sensors resulting in significant economies.
A SAW humidity sensor can be used for measuring the relative humidity and the resulting information can be input to the engine management system or the heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) system for more efficient operation. The relative humidity of the air entering an automotive engine impacts the engine's combustion efficiency; i.e., the ability of the spark plugs to ignite the fuel/air mixture in the combustion chamber at the proper time. A SAW humidity sensor in this case can measure the humidity level of the incoming engine air, helping to calculate a more precise fuel/air ratio for improved fuel economy and reduced emissions.
Dew point conditions are reached when the air is fully saturated with water. When the cabin dew point temperature matches the windshield glass temperature, water from the air condenses quickly, creating frost or fog. A SAW humidity sensor with a temperature-sensing element and a window glass-temperature-sensing element can prevent the formation of visible fog formation by automatically controlling the HVAC system.
In general, sensors105-111provide a measurement of the state of the vehicle, such as its velocity, acceleration, angular orientation or temperature, or a state of the location at which the sensor is mounted. Thus, measurements related to the state of the sensor would include measurements of the acceleration of the sensor, measurements of the temperature of the mounting location as well as changes in the state of the sensor and rates of changes of the state of the sensor. As such, any described use or function of the sensors105-111above is merely exemplary and is not intended to limit the form of the sensor or its function. Thus, these sensors may or may not be SAW or RFID sensors and may be powered or unpowered and may transmit their information through a wire harness, a safety or other bus or wirelessly.
Each of the sensors105-111may be single axis, double axis or triaxial accelerometers and/or gyroscopes typically of the MEMS type. One or more can be IMUs. These sensors105-111can either be wired to the central control module or processor directly wherein they would receive power and transmit information, or they could be connected onto the vehicle bus or, in some cases, using RFID, SAW or similar technology, the sensors can be wireless and would receive their power through RF from one or more interrogators located in the vehicle. In this case, the interrogators can be connected either to the vehicle bus or directly to control module. Alternately, an inductive or capacitive power and/or information transfer system can be used.
One particular implementation will now be described. In this case, each of the sensors105-111is a single or dual axis accelerometer. They are made using silicon micromachined technology such as described in U.S. Pat. No. 5,121,180 and U.S. Pat. No. 5,894,090. These are only representative patents of these devices and there exist more than 100 other relevant U.S. patents describing this technology. Commercially available MEMS gyroscopes such as from Systron Doner have accuracies of approximately one degree per second. In contrast, optical gyroscopes typically have accuracies of approximately one degree per hour. Unfortunately, the optical gyroscopes are believed to be expensive for automotive applications. However new developments by the current assignee are reducing this cost and such gyroscopes are likely to become cost effective in a few years. On the other hand, typical MEMS gyroscopes are not sufficiently accurate for many control applications unless corrected using location technology such as precise positioning or GPS-based systems as described elsewhere herein.
The angular rate function can be obtained by placing accelerometers at two separated, non-co-located points in a vehicle and using the differential acceleration to obtain an indication of angular motion and angular acceleration. From the variety of accelerometers shown in
Instead of using two accelerometers at separate locations on the vehicle, a single conformal MEMS-IDT gyroscope may be used. Such a conformal MEMS-IDT gyroscope is described in a paper by V. K. Varadan, “Conformal MEMS-IDT Gyroscopes and Their Comparison With Fiber Optic Gyro”, Proceedings of SPIE Vol. 3990 (2000). The MEMS-IDT gyroscope is based on the principle of surface acoustic wave (SAW) standing waves on a piezoelectric substrate. A surface acoustic wave resonator is used to create standing waves inside a cavity and the particles at the anti-nodes of the standing waves experience large amplitude of vibrations, which serves as the reference vibrating motion for the gyroscope. Arrays of metallic dots are positioned at the anti-node locations so that the effect of Coriolis force due to rotation will acoustically amplify the magnitude of the waves. Unlike other MEMS gyroscopes, the MEMS-IDT gyroscope has a planar configuration with no suspended resonating mechanical structures. Other SAW-based gyroscopes are also now under development.
The system of
As mentioned above, the combination of the outputs from these accelerometer sensors and the output of strain gage weight sensors in a vehicle seat, or in or on a support structure of the seat, can be used to make an accurate assessment of the occupancy of the seat and differentiate between animate and inanimate occupants as well as determining where in the seat the occupants are sitting. This can be done by observing the acceleration signals from the sensors of
For this embodiment, a sensor, not shown, that can be one or more strain gage weight sensors, is mounted on the seat or in connection with the seat or its support structure. Suitable mounting locations and forms of weight sensors are discussed in the current assignee's U.S. Pat. No. 6,242,701 and contemplated for use in the inventions disclosed herein as well. The mass or weight of the occupying item of the seat can thus be measured based on the dynamic measurement of the strain gages with optional consideration of the measurements of accelerometers on the vehicle, which are represented by any of sensors105-111.
A SAW Pressure Sensor can also be used with bladder weight sensors permitting that device to be interrogated wirelessly and without the need to supply power. Similarly, a SAW device can be used as a general switch in a vehicle and in particular as a seatbelt buckle switch indicative of seatbelt use. SAW devices can also be used to measure seatbelt tension or the acceleration of the seatbelt adjacent to the chest or other part of the occupant and used to control the occupant's acceleration during a crash. Such systems can be boosted as disclosed herein or not as required by the application. These inventions are disclosed in patents and patent applications of the current assignee.
The operating frequency of SAW devices has hereto for been limited to less that about 500 MHz due to problems in lithography resolution, which of course is constantly improving and currently SAW devices based on lithium niobate are available that operate at 2.4 GHz. This lithography problem is related to the speed of sound in the SAW material. Diamond has the highest speed of sound and thus would be an ideal SAW material. However, diamond is not piezoelectric. This problem can be solved partially by using a combination or laminate of diamond and a piezoelectric material. Recent advances in the manufacture of diamond films that can be combined with a piezoelectric material such as lithium niobate promise to permit higher frequencies to be used since the spacing between the interdigital transducer (IDT) fingers can be increased for a given frequency. A particularly attractive frequency is 2.4 GHz or Wi-Fi as the potential exists for the use of more sophisticated antennas such as the Yagi antenna or the Motia smart antenna that have more gain and directionality. In a different development, SAW devices have been demonstrated that operate in the tens of GHz range using a novel stacking method to achieve the close spacing of the IDTs.
In a related invention, the driver can be provided with a keyless entry device, other RFID tag, smart card or cell phone with an RF transponder that can be powerless in the form of an RFID or similar device, which can also be boosted as described herein. The interrogator determines the proximity of the driver to the vehicle door or other similar object such as a building or house door or vehicle trunk. As shown in
As shown in
A SAW device can also be used as a wireless switch as shown in
An alternate approach is to place a switch across the IDT127as shown in
Most SAW-based accelerometers work on the principle of straining the SAW surface and thereby changing either the time delay or natural frequency of the system. An alternate novel accelerometer is illustrated
It is important to note that all of these devices have a high dynamic range compared with most competitive technologies. In some cases, this dynamic range can exceed 100,000 and up to 1,000,000 has been reported. This is the direct result of the ease with which frequency and phase can be accurately measured.
A gyroscope, which is suitable for automotive applications, is illustrated in
Note that any of the disclosed applications can be interrogated by the central interrogator of this invention and can either be powered or operated powerlessly as described in general above. Block diagrams of three interrogators suitable for use in this invention are illustrated in
As discussed, theoretically a SAW can be used for any sensing function provided the surface across which the acoustic wave travels can be modified in terms of its length, mass, elastic properties or any property that affects the travel distance, speed, amplitude or damping of the surface wave. Thus, gases and vapors can be sensed through the placement of a layer on the SAW that absorbs the gas or vapor, for example (a chemical sensor or electronic nose). Similarly, a radiation sensor can result through the placement of a radiation sensitive coating on the surface of the SAW.
Normally, a SAW device is interrogated with a constant amplitude and frequency RF pulse. This need not be the case and a modulated pulse can also be used. If for example a pseudorandom or code modulation is used, then a SAW interrogator can distinguish its communication from that of another vehicle that may be in the vicinity. This doesn't totally solve the problem of interrogating a tire that is on an adjacent vehicle but it does solve the problem of the interrogator being confused by the transmission from another interrogator. This confusion can also be partially solved if the interrogator only listens for a return signal based on when it expects that signal to be present based on when it sent the signal. That expectation can be based on the physical location of the tire relative to the interrogator which is unlikely to come from a tire on an adjacent vehicle which only momentarily could be at an appropriate distance from the interrogator. The interrogator would of course need to have correlation software in order to be able to differentiate the relevant signals. The correlation technique also permits the interrogator to separate the desired signals from noise thereby improving the sensitivity of the correlator. An alternate approach as discussed elsewhere herein is to combine a SAW sensor with an RFID switch where the switch is programmed to open or close based on the receipt of the proper identification code.
As discussed elsewhere herein, the particular tire that is sending a signal can be determined if multiple antennas, such as three, each receive the signal. For a 500 MHz signal, for example, the wave length is about 60 cm. If the distance from a tire transmitter to each of three antennas is on the order of one meter, then the relative distance from each antenna to the transmitter can be determined to within a few centimeters and thus the location of the transmitter can be found by triangulation. If that location is not a possible location for a tire transmitter, then the data can be ignored thus solving the problem of a transmitter from an adjacent vehicle being read by the wrong vehicle interrogator. This will be discussed in more detail below with regard to solving the problem of a truck having 18 tires that all need to be monitored. Note also, each antenna can have associated with it some simple circuitry that permits it to receive a signal, amplify it, change its frequency and retransmit it either through a wire of through the air to the interrogator thus eliminating the need for long and expensive coax cables.
U.S. Pat. No. 6,622,567 describes a peak strain RFID technology based device with the novelty being the use of a mechanical device that records the peak strain experienced by the device. Like the system of the invention herein, the system does not require a battery and receives its power from the RFID circuit. The invention described herein includes the use of RFID based sensors either in the peak strain mode or in the preferred continuous strain mode. This invention is not limited to measuring strain as SAW and RFID based sensors can be used for measuring many other parameters including chemical vapor concentration, temperature, acceleration, angular velocity etc.
A key aspect of at least one of the inventions disclosed herein is the use of an interrogator to wirelessly interrogate multiple sensing devices thereby reducing the cost of the system since such sensors are in general inexpensive compared to the interrogator. The sensing devices are preferably based of SAW and/or RFID technologies although other technologies are applicable.
1.3.1 Antenna Considerations
Antennas are a very important aspect to SAW and RFID wireless devices such as can be used in tire monitors, seat monitors, weight sensors, child seat monitors, fluid level sensors and similar devices or sensors which monitor, detect, measure, determine or derive physical properties or characteristics of a component in or on the vehicle or of an area near the vehicle, as disclosed in the current assignee's patents and pending patent applications. In many cases, the location of a SAW or RFID device needs to be determined such as when a device is used to locate the position of a movable item in or on a vehicle such as a seat. In other cases, the particular device from a plurality of similar devices, such as a tire pressure and/or temperature monitor that is reporting, needs to be identified. Thus, a combination of antennas can be used and the time or arrival, angle of arrival, multipath signature or similar method used to identify the reporting device. One preferred method is derived from the theory of smart antennas whereby the signals from multiple antennas are combined to improve the signal-to-noise ratio of the incoming or outgoing signal in the presence of multipath effects, for example.
Additionally, since the signal level from a SAW or RFID device is frequently low, various techniques can be used to improve the signal-to-noise ratio as described below Finally, at the frequencies frequently used such as 433 MHz, the antennas can become large and methods are needed to reduce their size. These and other antenna considerations that can be used to improve the operation of SAW, RFID and similar wireless devices are described below.
22.214.171.124 Tire Information Determination
One method of maintaining a single central antenna assembly while interrogating all four tires on a conventional automobile, is illustrated in
A vehicle body is illustrated as620having four tires621and a centrally mounted four element, switchable directional antenna array622. The four beams are shown schematically as623with an inactivated beam as624and the activated beam as625. The road surface626supports the vehicle. An electronic control circuit, not shown, which may reside inside the antenna array housing622or elsewhere, alternately switches each of the four antennas of the array622which then sequentially, or in some other pattern, send RF signals to each of the four tires621and wait for the response from the RFID, SAW or similar tire pressure, temperature, ID, acceleration and/or other property monitor arranged in connection with or associated with the tire621. This represents a time domain multiple access system.
The interrogator makes sequential interrogation of wheels as follows:
Stage 1. Interrogator radiates 8 RF pulses via the first RF port directed to the 1st wheel.
- Pulse duration is about 0.8 μs.
- Pulse repetition period is about 40 μs.
- Pulse amplitude is about 8 V (peak to peak)
- Carrier frequency is about 426.00 MHz.
- (Of course, between adjacent pulses receiver opens its input and receives four-pulses echoes from transponder located in the first wheel).
Then, during a time of about 8 ms internal micro controller processes and stores received data.
Total duration of this stage is 32 μs+8 ms=8.032 ms.
Stage 2, 3, 4. Interrogator repeats operations as on stage 1 for 2nd, 3rdand 4thwheel sequentially via appropriate RF ports.Stage 5. Interrogator stops radiating RF pulses and transfers data stored during stages 1-4 to the external PC for final processing and displaying. Then it returns to stage 1. The time interval for data transfer equals about 35 ms.
Some notes relative to FCC Regulations:
The total duration of interrogation cycle of four wheels is
8.032 ms*4+35 ms=67.12 ms.
During this time, interrogator radiates 8*4=32 pulses, each of 0.8 μs duration.
Thus, average period of pulse repetition is
67.12 ms/32=2.09 ms=2090 μs
- Assuming that duration of the interrogation pulse is 0.8 μs as mentioned, an average repetition rate is obtained
0.8 μs/2090 μs=0.38*10−3
Finally, the radiated pulse power is
Pp=(4 V)2/(2*50 Ohm)=0.16 W
and the average radiated power is
Pave=0.16*0.38*10−3=0.42*10−3W, or 0.42 mW
In another application, the antennas of the array622transmit the RF signals simultaneously and space the returns through the use of a delay line in the circuitry from each antenna so that each return is spaced in time in a known manner without requiring that the antennas be switched. Another method is to offset the antenna array, as illustrated in
In another application, not shown, two wide angle antennas can be used such that each receives any four signals but each antenna receives each signal at a slightly different time and different amplitude permitting each signal to be separated by looking at the return from both antennas since, each signal will be received differently based on its angle of arrival.
Additionally, each SAW or RFID device can be designed to operate on a slightly different frequency and the antennas of the array622can be designed to send a chirp signal and the returned signals will then be separated in frequency, permitting the four signals to be separated. Alternately, the four antennas of the array622can each transmit an identification signal to permit separation. This identification can be a numerical number or the length of the SAW substrate, for example, can be random so that each property monitor has a slightly different delay built in which permits signal separation. The identification number can be easily achieved in RFID systems and, with some difficulty and added expense, in SAW systems. Other methods of separating the signals from each of the tires621will now be apparent to those skilled in the art. One preferred method in particular will be discussed below and makes use of an RFID switch.
There are two parameters of SAW system, which has led to the choice of a four echo pulse system:
- ITU frequency rules require that the radiated spectrum width be reduced to: Δφ≦1.75 MHz (in ISM band, F=433.92 MHz);
- The range of temperature measurement should be from −40 F up to +260 F.
Therefore, burst (request) pulse duration should be not less than 0.6 microseconds (see
This burst pulse travels to a SAW sensor and then it is returned by the SAW to the interrogator. The sensor's antenna, interdigital transducer (IDT), reflector and the interrogator are subsystems with a restricted frequency pass band. Therefore, an efficient pass band of all the subsystems H(f)Σ will be defined as product of the partial frequency characteristic of all components:
H(f)Σ=H(f)1*H(f)2* . . . H(f)i
On the other hand, the frequency H(φ)Σ and a time I(τ)Σ response of any system are interlinked to each other by Fourier's transform. Therefore, the shape and duration (τecho puls) an echo signal on input to the quadrature demodulator will differ from an interrogation pulse (see
In other words, duration an echo signal on input to the quadrature demodulator is defined as mathematical convolution of a burst signal τbur, and the total impulse response of the system I(t)Σ.
The task is to determine maximum pulse duration on input to the quadrature demodulator τechounder a burst pulse duration τburof 0.6 microseconds. It is necessary to consider in time all echo signals. In addition, it is necessary to take into account the following:
each subsequent echo signal should not begin earlier than the completion of the previous echo pulse. Otherwise, the signals will interfere with each other, and measurement will not be correct;
for normal operation of available microcircuits, it is necessary that the signal has a flat apex with a duration not less than 0.25 microseconds (τmeg=t3−t2, see
the total sensor's pass band (considering double transit IDT and it's antenna as a reflector) constitutes 10 MHz;
the total pass band of the interrogator constitutes no more than 4 MHz.
Conducting the corresponding calculations yields the determination that duration of impulse front (t2−t1=t4−t3, see
Hence, the arrival time of each following echo pulse should be not earlier than 1.0 microsecond (see
In Appendix 1 of the '139 application, it is shown that for correct temperature measuring in the required band it is necessary to meet the following conditions:
(T2−T1)=1/(72*10−6 1/° K*(125° C.−(−40° C.))*434.92*106)=194 ns
This condition is outrageous. If to execute ITU frequency rules, the band of correct temperature measuring will be reduced five times:
(125° C.−(−40° C.)*194 ns)/1000 ns=32° C.=58° F.
This is the main reason that it is necessary to add the fourth echo pulse in a sensor (see
The duration of the interrogation pulse and the time positions of the four pulses are calculated as:
T4=T3+τecho+0.08 μs=7.08 μs
The sensor's design with four pulses is exhibited in
The reason that such a design was selected is that this design provides three important conditions:
1. It has the minimum RF signal propagation loss. Both SAW waves use for measuring (which are propagated to the left and to the right from IDT).
2. All parasitic echo signals (signals of multiple transits) are eliminated after the fourth pulse. For example, the pulse is excited by the IDT, then it is reflected from a reflector No1 and returns to the IDT. The pulse for the second time is re-emitted and it passes the second time on the same trajectory. The total time delay will be 8.0 microseconds in this case.
3. It has the minimum length.
The IDT633, reflectors632and631are rigidly fastened to a base package. Reflectors635and636are disposed on a portion of the substrate that moves under the action of changes in pressure. Therefore, it is important that magnitudes of phase shift of pulses No2 and No4 were equal for a particular pressure.
For this purpose, the point of application of the force (caused by pressure) has been arranged between reflector635and the IDT633, as it is exhibited in
The phase shifts of all four echo pulses vary under temperature changes (proportionally to each time delay). All necessary computing of the temperature and pressure can be executed without difficulties in this case only.
This is taken into account in a math model, which is presented below.
Although the discussion herein concerns the determination of tire information, the same system can be used to determine the location of seats, the location of child seats when equipped with sensors, information about the presence of object or chemicals in vehicular compartments and the like.
126.96.36.199 Smart Antennas
Some of the shortcomings in today's wireless products can be overcome by using smart antenna technology. A smart antenna is a multi-element antenna that significantly improves reception by intelligently combining the signals received at each antenna element and adjusting the antenna characteristics to optimize performance as the transmitter or receiver moves and the environment changes.
Smart antennas can suppress interfering signals, combat signal fading and increase signal range thereby increasing the performance and capacity of wireless systems.
A method of separating signals from multiple tires, for example, is to use a smart antenna such as that manufactured by Motia. This particular Motia device is designed to operate at 433 MHz and to mitigate multipath signals at that frequency. The signals returning to the antennas from tires, for example, contain some multipath effects that, especially if the antennas are offset somewhat from the vehicle center, are different for each wheel. Since the adaptive formula will differ for each wheel, the signals can be separated (see “enhancing 802.11 WLANs through Smart Antennas”, January 2004 available at motia.com). The following is taken from that paper.
“Antenna arrays can provide gain, combat multipath fading, and suppress interfering signals, thereby increasing both the performance and capacity of wireless systems. Smart antennas have been implemented in a wide variety of wireless systems, where they have been demonstrated to provide a large performance improvement. However, the various types of spatial processing techniques have different advantages and disadvantages in each type of system.”
“This strategy permits the seamless integration of smart antenna technology with today's legacy WLAN chipset architecture. Since the 802.11 system uses time division duplexing (the same frequency is used for transmit and receive), smart antennas can be used for both transmit and receive, providing a gain on both uplink and downlink, using smart antennas on either the client or access point alone. Results show a 13 dB gain with a four element smart antenna over a single antenna system with the smart antenna on one side only, and an 18 dB gain with the smart antenna on both the client and access point. Thus, this “plug-and-play” adaptive array technology can provide greater range, average data rate increases per user, and better overall coverage.
“In the multibeam or phased array antenna, a beamformer forms several narrow beams, and a beam selector chooses the beam for reception that has the largest signal power. In the adaptive array, the signal is received by several antenna elements, each with similar antenna patterns, and the received signals are weighted and combined to form the output signal. The multibeam antenna is simpler to implement as the beamformer is fixed, with the beam selection only needed every few seconds for user movement, while the adaptive array must calculate the complex beamforming weights at least an order of magnitude faster than the fading rate, which can be several Hertz for pedestrian users.”
“Finally, there is pattern diversity, the use of antenna elements with different patterns. The combination of these types of diversity permits the use of a large number of antennas even in a small form factor, such as a PCMCIA card or handset, with near ideal performance.”
Through its adaptive beamforming technology, Motia has developed cost-effective smart antenna appliqués that vastly improve wireless performance in a wide variety of wireless applications including Wi-Fi that can be incorporated into wireless systems without major modifications to existing products. Although the Motia chipset has been applied to several communication applications, it has yet to be applied to the monitoring applications as disclosed in the current assignee's patents and pending patent applications, and in particular vehicular monitoring applications such as tire monitoring.
The smart antenna works by determining a set of factors or weights that are used to operate on the magnitude and/or phase of the signals from each antenna before the signals are combined. However, since the geometry of a vehicle tire relative to the centralized antenna array does not change much as the tire rotates, but is different for each wheel, the weights themselves contain the information as to which tire signal is being received. In fact, the weights can be chosen to optimize signal transmission from a particular tire thus providing a method of selectively interrogating each tire at the maximum antenna gain.
188.8.131.52 Distributed Load Monopole
Recent antenna developments in the physics department at the University of Rhode Island have resulted in a new antenna technology. The antennas developed called DLM's (Distributed loaded monopole) are small efficient, wide bandwidth antennas. The simple design exhibits 50-ohm impedance and is easy to implement. They require only a direct feed from a coax cable and require no elaborate matching networks.
The prime advantage to this technology is a substantial reduction of the size of an antenna. Typically, the DLM antenna is about ⅓ the size of a normal dipole with only minor loss in efficiency. This is especially important for vehicle applications where space is always at a premium. Such antennas can be used for a variety of vehicle radar and communication applications as well for the monitoring of RFID, SAW and similar devices on a vehicle and especially for tire pressure, temperature, and/or acceleration monitoring as well as other monitoring purposes. Such applications have not previously been disclosed.
Although the DLM is being applied to several communication applications, it has yet to be applied to the monitoring applications as disclosed in the current assignee's patents and pending patent applications. The antenna gain that results and the ability to pack several antennas into a small package are attractive features of this technology.
184.108.40.206 Plasma Antenna
The following disclosure was taken from “Markland Technologies—Gas Plasma”: (www.marklandtech.com)
“Plasma antenna technology employs ionized gas enclosed in a tube (or other enclosure) as the conducting element of an antenna. This is a fundamental change from traditional antenna design that generally employs solid metal wires as the conducting element. Ionized gas is an efficient conducting element with a number of important advantages. Since the gas is ionized only for the time of transmission or reception, “ringing” and associated effects of solid wire antenna design are eliminated. The design allows for extremely short pulses, important to many forms of digital communication and radars. The design further provides the opportunity to construct an antenna that can be compact and dynamically reconfigured for frequency, direction, bandwidth, gain and beamwidth. Plasma antenna technology will enable antennas to be designed that are efficient, low in weight and smaller in size than traditional solid wire antennas.”
“When gas is electrically charged, or ionized to a plasma state it becomes conductive, allowing radio frequency (RF) signals to be transmitted or received. We employ ionized gas enclosed in a tube as the conducting element of an antenna. When the gas is not ionized, the antenna element ceases to exist. This is a fundamental change from traditional antenna design that generally employs solid metal wires as the conducting element. We believe our plasma antenna offers numerous advantages including stealth for military applications and higher digital performance in commercial applications. We also believe our technology can compete in many metal antenna applications.”
“Initial studies have concluded that a plasma antenna's performance is equal to a copper wire antenna in every respect. Plasma antennas can be used for any transmission and/or modulation technique: continuous wave (CW), phase modulation, impulse, AM, FM, chirp, spread spectrum or other digital techniques. And the plasma antenna can be used over a large frequency range up to 20 GHz and employ a wide variety of gases (for example neon, argon, helium, krypton, mercury vapor and xenon). The same is true as to its value as a receive antenna.”
“Plasma antenna technology has the following additional attributes:
- No antenna ringing provides an improved signal to noise ratio and reduces multipath signal distortion.
- Reduced radar cross section provides stealth due to the non-metallic elements.
- Changes in the ion density can result in instantaneous changes in bandwidth over wide dynamic ranges.
- After the gas is ionized, the plasma antenna has virtually no noise floor.
- While in operation, a plasma antenna with a low ionization level can be decoupled from an adjacent high-frequency transmitter.
- A circular scan can be performed electronically with no moving parts at a higher speed than traditional mechanical antenna structures.
- It has been mathematically illustrated that by selecting the gases and changing ion density that the electrical aperture (or apparent footprint) of a plasma antenna can be made to perform on par with a metal counterpart having a larger physical size.
- Our plasma antenna can transmit and receive from the same aperture provided the frequencies are widely separated.
- Plasma resonance, impedance and electron charge density are all dynamically reconfigurable. Ionized gas antenna elements can be constructed and configured into an array that is dynamically reconfigurable for frequency, beamwidth, power, gain, polarization and directionality—on the fly.
- A single dynamic antenna structure can use time multiplexing so that many RF subsystems can share one antenna resource reducing the number and size of antenna structures.”
Several of the characteristics discussed above are of particular usefulness for several of the inventions herein including the absence of ringing, the ability to turn the antenna off after transmission and then immediately back on for reception, the ability to send very short pulses, the ability to alter the directionality of the antenna and to sweep thereby allowing one antenna to service multiple devices such as tires and to know which tire is responding. Additional advantages include, smaller size, the ability to work with chirp, spread spectrum and other digital technologies, improved signal to noise ratio, wide dynamic range, circular scanning without moving parts, and antenna sharing over differing frequencies, among others.
Some of the applications disclosed herein can use ultra wideband transceivers. UWB transceivers radiate most of the energy with its frequency centered on the physical length of the antenna. With the UWB connected to a plasma antenna, the center frequency of the UWB transceiver could be hopped or swept simultaneously.
A plasma antenna can solve the problem of multiple antennas by changing its electrical characteristic to match the function required—Time domain multiplexed. It can be used for high-gain antennas such as phase array, parabolic focus steering, log periodic, yogi, patch quadrafiler, etc. One antenna can be used for GPS, ad-hoc (such as car-to-car) communication, collision avoidance, back up sensing, cruse control, radar, toll identification and data communications.
Although the plasma antennas are being applied to several communication applications, they have yet to be applied to the monitoring applications as disclosed herein. The many advantages that result and the ability to pack several antenna functions into a small package are attractive features of this technology. Patents and applications that discuss plasma antennas include: U.S. Pat. No. 6,710,746, US20030160742 and US20040130497.
220.127.116.11 Dielectric Antenna
A great deal of work is underway to make antennas from dielectric materials. In one case, the electric field that impinges on the dielectric is used to modulate a transverse electric light beam. In another case, the reduction of the speed of electro magnetic waves due to the dielectric constant is used to reduce the size of the antenna. It can be expected that developments in this area will affect the antennas used in cell phones as well as in RFID and SAW-based communication devices in the future. Thus, dielectric antennas can be advantageously used with some of the inventions disclosed herein.
18.104.22.168 Nanotube Antenna
Antennas made from carbon nanotubes are beginning to show promise of increasing the sensitivity of antennas and thus increasing the range for communication devices based on RFID, SAW or similar devices where the signal strength frequently limits the range of such devices. The use of these antennas is therefore contemplated herein for use in tire monitors and the other applications disclosed herein.
Combinations of the above antenna designs in many cases can benefit from the advantages of each type to add further improvements to the field. Thus the inventions herein are not limited to any one of the above concepts nor is it limited to their use alone. Where feasible, all combinations are contemplated herein.
A general system for obtaining information about a vehicle or a component thereof or therein is illustrated in
A control system628is coupled to the antenna array622and controls the antennas in the array622to be operative as necessary to enable reception of return signals from the sensors627. There are several ways for the control system628to control the array622, including to cause the antennas to be alternately switched on in order to sequentially transmit the RF signals therefrom and receive the return signals from the sensors627and to cause the antennas to transmit the RF signals simultaneously and space the return signals from the sensors627via a delay line in circuitry from each antennas such that each return signal is spaced in time in a known manner without requiring switching of the antennas. The control system can also be used to control a smart antenna array.
The control system628also processes the return signals to provide information about the vehicle or the component. The processing of the return signals can be any known processing including the use of pattern recognition techniques, neural networks, fuzzy systems and the like.
The antenna array622and control system628can be housed in a common antenna array housing630.
Once the information about the vehicle or the component is known, it is directed to a display/telematics/adjustment unit629where the information can be displayed on a display629to the driver, sent to a remote location for analysis via a telematics unit629and/or used to control or adjust a component on, in or near the vehicle. Although several of the figures illustrate applications of these technologies to tire monitoring, it is intended that the principles and devices disclosed can be applied to the monitoring of a wide variety of components on and off a vehicle.
The tire monitoring systems of some of the inventions herein comprises at least three separate systems corresponding to three stages of product evolution. Generation 1 is a tire valve cap that provides information as to the pressure within the tire as described below. Generation 2 requires the replacement of the tire valve stem, or the addition of a new stem-like device, with a new valve stem that also measures temperature and pressure within the tire or it may be a device that attaches to the vehicle wheel rim. Generation 3 is a product that is attached to the inside of the tire adjacent the tread and provides a measure of the diameter of the footprint between the tire and the road, the tire pressure and temperature, indications of tire wear and, in some cases, the coefficient of friction between the tire and the road.
As discussed above, SAW technology permits the measurement of many physical and chemical parameters without the requirement of local power or energy. Rather, the energy to run devices can be obtained from radio frequency electromagnetic waves. These waves excite an antenna that is coupled to the SAW device. Through various devices, the properties of the acoustic waves on the surface of the SAW device are modified as a function of the variable to be measured. The SAW device belongs to the field of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) and can be produced in high-volume at low cost.
For the Generation 1 system, a valve cap contains a SAW material at the end of the valve cap, which may be polymer covered. This device senses the absolute pressure in the valve cap. Upon attaching the valve cap to the valve stem, a depressing member gradually depresses the valve permitting the air pressure inside the tire to communicate with a small volume inside the valve cap. As the valve cap is screwed onto the valve stem, a seal prevents the escape of air to the atmosphere. The SAW device is electrically connected to the valve cap, which is also electrically connected to the valve stem that can act as an antenna for transmitting and receiving radio frequency waves. An interrogator located in the vicinity of the tire periodically transmits radio waves that power the SAW device, the actual distance between the interrogator and the device depending on the relative orientation of the antennas and other factors. The SAW device measures the absolute pressure in the valve cap that is equal to the pressure in the tire.
The Generation 2 system permits the measurement of both the tire pressure and tire temperature. In this case, the tire valve stem can be removed and replaced with a new tire valve stem that contains a SAW device attached at the bottom of the valve stem. This device preferably contains two SAW devices, one for measuring temperature and the second for measuring pressure through a novel technology discussed below. This second generation device therefore permits the measurement of both the pressure and the temperature inside the tire. Alternately, this device can be mounted inside the tire, attached to the rim or attached to another suitable location. An external pressure sensor is mounted in the interrogator to measure the pressure of the atmosphere to compensate for altitude and/or barometric changes.
The Generation 3 device can contain a pressure and temperature sensor, as in the case of the Generation 2 device, but additionally contains one or more accelerometers which measure at least one component of the acceleration of the vehicle tire tread adjacent the device. This acceleration varies in a known manner as the device travels in an approximate circle attached to the wheel. This device is capable of determining when the tread adjacent the device is in contact with road surface. In some cases, it is also able to measure the coefficient of friction between the tire and the road surface. In this manner, it is capable of measuring the length of time that this tread portion is in contact with the road and thereby can provide a measure of the diameter or circumferential length of the tire footprint on the road. A technical discussion of the operating principle of a tire inflation and load detector based on flat area detection follows:
When tires are inflated and not in contact with the ground, the internal pressure is balanced by the circumferential tension in the fibers of the shell. Static equilibrium demands that tension is equal to the radius of curvature multiplied by the difference between the internal and the external gas pressure. Tires support the weight of the automobile by changing the curvature of the part of the shell that touches the ground. The relation mentioned above is still valid. In the part of the shell that gets flattened, the radius of curvature increases while the tension in the tire structure stays the same. Therefore, the difference between the external and internal pressures becomes small to compensate for the growth of the radius. If the shell were perfectly flexible, the tire contact with the ground would develop into a flat spot with an area equal to the load divided by the pressure.
A tire operating at correct values of load and pressure has a precise signature in terms of variation of the radius of curvature in the loaded zone. More flattening indicates under-inflation or over-loading, while less flattening indicates over-inflation or under-loading. Note that tire loading has essentially no effect on internal pressure.
From the above, one can conclude that monitoring the curvature of the tire as it rotates can provide a good indication of its operational state. A sensor mounted inside the tire at its largest diameter can accomplish this measurement. Preferably, the sensor would measure mechanical strain. However, a sensor measuring acceleration in any one axis, preferably the radial axis, could also serve the purpose.
In the case of the strain measurement, the sensor would indicate a constant strain as it spans the arc over which the tire is not in contact with the ground and a pattern of increased stretch during the time when the sensor spans an arc in close proximity with the ground. A simple ratio of the times of duration of these two states would provide a good indication of inflation, but more complex algorithms could be employed where the values and the shape of the period of increased strain are utilized.
As an indicator of tire health, the measurement of strain on the largest inside diameter of the tire is believed to be superior to the measurement of stress, such as inflation pressure, because, the tire could be deforming, as it ages or otherwise progresses toward failure, without any changes in inflation pressure. Radial strain could also be measured on the inside of the tire sidewall thus indicating the degree of flexure that the tire undergoes.
The accelerometer approach has the advantage of giving a signature from which a harmonic analysis of once-per-revolution disturbances could indicate developing problems such as hernias, flat spots, loss of part of the tread, sticking of foreign bodies to the tread, etc.
As a bonus, both of the above-mentioned sensors (strain and acceleration) give clear once-per-revolution signals for each tire that could be used as input for speedometers, odometers, differential slip indicators, tire wear indicators, etc.
Tires can fail for a variety of reasons including low pressure, high temperature, delamination of the tread, excessive flexing of the sidewall, and wear (see, e.g., Summary Root Cause Analysis Bridgestone/Firestone, Inc.” Printed March, 2001). Most tire failures can be predicted based on tire pressure alone and the TREAD Act thus addresses the monitoring of tire pressure. However, some failures, such as the Firestone tire failures, can result from substandard materials especially those that are in contact with a steel-reinforcing belt. If the rubber adjacent the steel belt begins to move relative to the belt, then heat will be generated and the temperature of the tire will rise until the tire fails catastrophically. This can happen even in properly inflated tires.
Finally, tires can fail due to excessive vehicle loading and excessive sidewall flexing even if the tire is properly inflated. This can happen if the vehicle is overloaded or if the wrong size tire has been mounted on the vehicle. In most cases, the tire temperature will rise as a result of this additional flexing, however, this is not always the case, and it may even occur too late. Therefore, the device which measures the diameter of the tire footprint on the road is a superior method of measuring excessive loading of the tire.
Generation 1 devices monitor pressure only while Generation 2 devices also monitor the temperature and therefore will provide a warning of imminent tire failure more often than if pressure alone is monitored. Generation 3 devices will provide an indication that the vehicle is overloaded before either a pressure or temperature monitoring system can respond. The Generation 3 system can also be augmented to measure the vibration signature of the tire and thereby detect when a tire has worn to the point that the steel belt is contacting the road. In this manner, the Generation 3 system also provides an indication of a worn out tire and, as will be discussed below, an indication of the road coefficient of friction.
Each of these devices communicates to an interrogator with pressure, temperature, and acceleration as appropriate. In none of these generational devices is a battery mounted within the vehicle tire required, although in some cases an energy generator can be used. In some cases, the SAW or RFID devices will optionally provide an identification number corresponding to the device to permit the interrogator to separate one tire from another.
Key advantages of the tire monitoring system disclosed herein over most of the currently known prior art are:
- very small size and weight eliminating the need for wheel counterbalance,
- cost competitive for tire monitoring alone and cost advantage for combined systems,
- high update rate,
- automatic wheel identification,
- no batteries required—powerless, and
- no wires required—wireless.
The monitoring of temperature and or pressure of a tire can take place infrequently. It can be adequate to check the pressure and temperature of vehicle tires once every ten seconds to once per minute. To utilize the centralized interrogator of this invention, the tire monitoring system would preferably use SAW technology and the device could be located in the valve stem, wheel, tire side wall, tire tread, or other appropriate location with access to the internal tire pressure of the tires. A preferred system is based on a SAW technology discussed above.
At periodic intervals, such as once every minute, the interrogator sends a radio frequency signal at a frequency such as 905 MHz to which the tire monitor sensors have been sensitized. When receiving this signal, the tire monitor sensors (of which there are five in a typical configuration) respond with a signal providing an optional identification number, temperature, pressure and acceleration data where appropriate. In one implementation, the interrogator would use multiple, typically two or four, antennas which are spaced apart. By comparing the time of the returned signals from the tires to the antennas, or by using smart antenna techniques, the location of each of the senders (the tires) can be approximately determined as discussed in more detail above. That is, the antennas can be so located that each tire is a different distance from each antenna and by comparing the return time of the signals sensed by the antennas, the location of each tire can be determined and associated with the returned information. If at least three antennas are used, then returns from adjacent vehicles can be eliminated. Alternately, a smart antenna array such as manufactured by Motia can be used.
An illustration of this principle applied to an18wheeler truck vehicle is shown generally at610in
Other methods can also be used to permit tire differentiation including CDMA and FDMA, for example, as discussed elsewhere herein. If, for example, each device is tuned to a slightly different frequency or code and this information is taught to the interrogator, then the receiving antenna system can be simplified.
An identification number can accompany each transmission from each tire sensor and can also be used to validate that the transmitting sensor is in fact located on the subject vehicle. In traffic situations, it is possible to obtain a signal from the tire of an adjacent vehicle. This would immediately show up as a return from more than five vehicle tires and the system would recognize that a fault had occurred. The sixth return can be easily eliminated, however, since it could contain an identification number that is different from those that have heretofore been returned frequently to the vehicle system or based on a comparison of the signals sensed by the different antennas. Thus, when the vehicle tire is changed or tires are rotated, the system will validate a particular return signal as originating from the tire-monitoring sensor located on the subject vehicle.
This same concept is also applicable for other vehicle-mounted sensors. This permits a plug and play scenario whereby sensors can be added to, changed, or removed from a vehicle and the interrogation system will automatically adjust. The system will know the type of sensor based on the identification number, frequency, delay and/or its location on the vehicle. For example, a tire monitor could have an ID in a different range of identification numbers from a switch or weight-monitoring device. This also permits new kinds of sensors to be retroactively installed on a vehicle. If a totally new type of the sensor is mounted to the vehicle, the system software would have to be updated to recognize and know what to do with the information from the new sensor type. By this method, the configuration and quantity of sensing systems on a vehicle can be easily changed and the system interrogating these sensors need only be updated with software upgrades which could occur automatically, such as over the Internet and by any telematics communication channel including cellular and satellite.
Preferred tire-monitoring sensors for use with this invention use the surface acoustic wave (SAW) technology. A radio frequency interrogating signal can be sent to all of the tire gages simultaneously and the received signal at each tire gage is sensed using an antenna. The antenna is connected to the IDT transducer that converts the electrical wave to an acoustic wave that travels on the surface of a material such as lithium niobate, or other piezoelectric material such as zinc oxide, Langasite™ or the polymer polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF). During its travel on the surface of the piezoelectric material, either the time delay, resonant frequency, amplitude or phase of the signal (or even possibly combinations thereof) is modified based on the temperature and/or pressure in the tire. This modified wave is sensed by one or more IDT transducers and converted back to a radio frequency wave that is used to excite an antenna for re-broadcasting the wave back to interrogator. The interrogator receives the wave at a time delay after the original transmission that is determined by the geometry of the SAW transducer and decodes this signal to determine the temperature and/or pressure in the subject tire. By using slightly different geometries for each of the tire monitors, slightly different delays can be achieved and randomized so that the probability of two sensors having the same delay is small. The interrogator transfers the decoded information to a central processor that determines whether the temperature and/or pressure of each of the tires exceed specifications. If so, a warning light can be displayed informing the vehicle driver of the condition. Other notification devices such as a sound generator, alarm and the like could also be used. In some cases, this random delay is all that is required to separate the five tire signals and to identify which tires are on the vehicle and thus ignore responses from adjacent vehicles.
With an accelerometer mounted in the tire, as is the case for the Generation 3 system, information is present to diagnose other tire problems. For example, when the steel belt wears through the rubber tread, it will make a distinctive noise and create a distinctive vibration when it contacts the pavement. This can be sensed by a SAW or other technology accelerometer. The interpretation of various such signals can be done using neural network technology. Similar systems are described more detail in U.S. Pat. No. 5,829,782. As the tread begins to separate from the tire as in the Bridgestone cases, a distinctive vibration is created which can also be sensed by a tire-mounted accelerometer.
As the tire rotates, stresses are created in the rubber tread surface between the center of the footprint and the edges. If the coefficient of friction on the pavement is low, these stresses can cause the shape of the footprint to change. The Generation 3 system, which measures the circumferential length of the footprint, can therefore also be used to measure the friction coefficient between the tire and the pavement.
Piezoelectric generators are another field in which SAW technology can be applied and some of the inventions herein can comprise several embodiments of SAW or other piezoelectric or other generators, as discussed extensively elsewhere herein.
An alternate approach for some applications, such as tire monitoring, where it is difficult to interrogate the SAW device as the wheel, and thus the antenna is rotating; the transmitting power can be significantly increased if there is a source of energy inside the tire. Many systems now use a battery but this leads to problems related to disposal, having to periodically replace the battery and temperature effects. In some cases, the manufacturers recommend that the battery be replaced as often as every 6 to 12 months. Batteries also sometimes fail to function properly at cold temperatures and have their life reduced when operated at high temperatures. For these reasons, there is a belief that a tire monitoring system should obtain its power from some source external of the tire. Similar problems can be expected for other applications.
One novel solution to this problem is to use the flexing of the tire itself to generate electricity. If a thin film of PVDF is attached to the tire inside and adjacent to the tread, then as the tire rotates the film will flex and generate electricity. This energy can then be stored on one or more capacitors and used to power the tire monitoring circuitry. Also, since the amount of energy that is generated depends of the flexure of the tire, this generator can also be used to monitor the health of the tire in a similar manner as the Generation 3 accelerometer system described above. Mention is made of using a bi-morph to generate energy in a rotating tire in U.S. Pat. No. 5,987,980 without describing how it is implemented other than to say that it is mounted to the sensor housing and uses vibration. In particular, there is no mention of attaching the bi-morph to the tread of the tire as disclosed herein.
As mentioned above, the transmissions from different SAW devices can be time-multiplexed by varying the delay time from device to device, frequency-multiplexed by varying the natural frequencies of the SAW devices, code-multiplexed by varying the identification code of the SAW devices or space-multiplexed by using multiple antennas. Additionally, a code operated RFID switch can be used to permit the devices to transmit one at a time as discussed below.
Considering the time-multiplexing case, varying the length of the SAW device and thus the delay before retransmission can separate different classes of devices. All seat sensors can have one delay which would be different from tire monitors or light switches etc. Such devices can also be separated by receiving antenna location.
Referring now to
The valve cap149includes a substantially cylindrical body148and is attached to the valve stem141by means of threads arranged on an inner cylindrical surface of body148which are mated with the threads on the outer surface of the sleeve142. The valve cap149comprises a valve pin depressor153arranged in connection with the body148and a SAW pressure sensor 150. The valve pin depressor153engages the valve pin145upon attachment of the valve cap149to the valve stem141and depresses it against its biasing spring, not shown, thereby opening the passage between the valve seat143and the valve pin145allowing air to pass from the interior of tire140into a reservoir or chamber151in the body148. Chamber151contains the SAW pressure sensor 150 as described in more detail below.
Pressure sensor 150 can be an absolute pressure-measuring device. If so, it can function based on the principle that the increase in air pressure and thus air density in the chamber151increases the mass loading on a SAW device changing the velocity of surface acoustic wave on the piezoelectric material. The pressure sensor 150 is therefore positioned in an exposed position in the chamber151. This effect is small and generally requires that a very thin membrane is placed over the SAW that absorbs oxygen or in some manner increases the loading onto the surface of the SAW as the pressure increases.
A second embodiment of a valve cap10′ in accordance with the invention is shown in
Strain sensor 154 is thus a differential pressure-measuring device. It functions based on the principle that changes in the flexure of the membrane152can be correlated to changes in pressure in the chamber151and thus, if an initial pressure and flexure are known, the change in pressure can be determined from the change in flexure or strain.
Sensors150and154are electrically connected to the metal valve cap149that is electrically connected to the valve stem141. The valve stem141is electrically isolated from the tire rim and can thus serve as an antenna for transmitting radio frequency electromagnetic signals from the sensors150and154to a vehicle mounted interrogator, not shown, to be described in detail below. As shown in
The speed of the surface acoustic wave on the piezoelectric substrate changes with temperature in a predictable manner as well as with pressure. For the valve cap implementations, a separate SAW device can be attached to the outside of the valve cap and protected with a cover where it is subjected to the same temperature as the SAW sensors150or154but is not subject to pressure or strain. This requires that each valve cap comprise two SAW devices, one for pressure sensing and another for temperature sensing. Since the valve cap is exposed to ambient temperature, a preferred approach is to have a single device on the vehicle which measures ambient temperature outside of the vehicle passenger compartment. Many vehicles already have such a temperature sensor. For those installations where access to this temperature data is not convenient, a separate SAW temperature sensor can be mounted associated with the interrogator antenna, as illustrated below, or some other convenient place.
Although the valve cap149is provided with the pressure seal155, there is a danger that the valve cap149will not be properly assembled onto the valve stem141and a small quantity of the air will leak over time.
The valve stem assembly is shown generally at160and comprises a brass valve stem144which contains a tire valve assembly142. The valve stem144is covered with a coating161of a resilient material such as rubber, which has been partially removed in the drawing. A metal conductive ring162is electrically attached to the valve stem144. A rubber extension163is also attached to the lower end of the valve stem144and contains a SAW pressure and temperature sensor 164. The SAW pressure and temperature sensor 164 can be of at least two designs wherein the SAW sensor is used as an absolute pressure sensor as shown in
The operation of SAW sensors167and168is discussed elsewhere more fully but briefly, since SAW sensor 167 is affected by the pressure in the tire, the wave which travels along the substrate is affected by this pressure and the time delay between the transmission and reception of a wave can be correlated to the pressure. Similarly, since SAW sensor 168 is affected by the temperature in the tire, the wave which travels along the substrate is affected by this temperature and the time delay between the transmission and reception of a wave can be correlated to the temperature. Similarly, the natural frequency of the SAW device will change due to the change in the SAW dimensions and that natural frequency can be determined if the interrogator transmits a chirp.
The operation of SAW sensors168and169is discussed elsewhere more fully but briefly, since SAW sensor 168 is affected by the temperature in the tire, the wave which travels along the substrate is affected by this temperature and the time delay between the transmission and reception of a wave can be correlated to the temperature. Similarly, since SAW sensor 169 is affected by the pressure in the tire, the wave which travels along the substrate is affected by this pressure and the time delay between the transmission and reception of a wave can be correlated to the pressure.
In both of the embodiments shown in
The SAW devices167, 168and169are electrically attached to the valve stem144which again serves as an antenna to transmit radio frequency information to an interrogator. This electrical connection can be made by a wired connection; however, the impedance between the SAW devices and the antenna may not be properly matched. An alternate approach as described in Varadan, V. K. et al., “Fabrication, characterization and testing of wireless MEMS-IDT based micro accelerometers”, Sensors and Actuators A 90 (2001) p. 7-19, 2001 Elsevier Netherlands, is to inductively couple the SAW devices to the brass tube.
Although an implementation into the valve stem and valve cap examples have been illustrated above, an alternate approach is to mount the SAW temperature and pressure monitoring devices elsewhere within the tire. Similarly, although the tire stem in both cases above can serve as the antenna, in many implementations, it is preferable to have a separately designed antenna mounted within or outside of the vehicle tire. For example, such an antenna can project into the tire from the valve stem or can be separately attached to the tire or tire rim either inside or outside of the tire. In some cases, it can be mounted on the interior of the tire on the sidewall.
A more advanced embodiment of a tire monitor in accordance with the invention is illustrated generally at40in
Superimposed on the acceleration signals will be vibrations introduced into tire from road interactions and due to tread separation and other defects. Additionally, the presence of the nail or other object attached to the tire will, in general, excite vibrations that can be sensed by the accelerometers. When the tread is worn to the extent that the wire belts176begin impacting the road, additional vibrations will be induced.
Through monitoring the acceleration signals from the tangential or radial accelerometers within the tire monitor assembly175, delamination, a worn tire condition, imbedded nails, other debris attached to the tire tread, hernias, can all be sensed. Additionally, as previously discussed, the length of time that the tire tread is in contact with the road opposite tire monitor175can be measured and, through a comparison with the total revolution time, the length of the tire footprint on the road can be determined. This permits the load on the tire to be measured, thus providing an indication of excessive tire loading. As discussed above, a tire can fail due to over-loading even when the tire interior temperature and pressure are within acceptable limits. Other tire monitors cannot sense such conditions.
In the discussion above, the use of the tire valve stem as an antenna has been discussed. An antenna can also be placed within the tire when the tire sidewalls are not reinforced with steel. In some cases and for some frequencies, it is sometimes possible to use the tire steel bead or steel belts as an antenna, which in some cases can be coupled to inductively. Alternately, the antenna can be designed integral with the tire beads or belts and optimized and made part of the tire during manufacture.
Although the discussion above has centered on the use of SAW devices, the configurations of
There are many other ways in which the pressure can be measured based on either the time between reflections or on the frequency or phase change of the SAW device as is well known to those skilled in the art.
Another method where the speed of sound on a piezoelectric material can be changed by pressure was first reported in Varadan et al., “Local/Global SAW Sensors for Turbulence” referenced above. This phenomenon has not been applied to solving pressure sensing problems within an automobile until now. The instant invention is believed to be the first application of this principle to measuring tire pressure, oil pressure, coolant pressure, pressure in a gas tank, etc. Experiments to date, however, have been unsuccessful.
In some cases, a flexible membrane is placed loosely over the SAW device to prevent contaminants from affecting the SAW surface. The flexible membrane permits the pressure to be transferred to the SAW device without subjecting the surface to contaminants Such a flexible membrane can be used in most if not all of the embodiments described herein.
A SAW temperature sensor 195 is illustrated in
An alternate approach as illustrated in
When some other property such as pressure is being measured by the device198as shown in
An accelerometer that can be used for either radial or tangential acceleration in the tire monitor assembly of
Although piezoelectric SAW devices normally use rigid material such as quartz or lithium niobate, it is also possible to utilize PVDF provided the frequency is low. A piece of PVDF film can also be used as a sensor of tire flexure by itself. Such a sensor is illustrated in
There is a general problem with tire pressure monitors as well as systems that attempt to interrogate passive SAW or electronic RFID type devices in that the FCC severely limits the frequencies and radiating power that can be used. Once it becomes evident that these systems will eventually save many lives, the FCC can be expected to modify their position. In the meantime, various schemes can be used to help alleviate this problem. The lower frequencies that have been opened for automotive radar permit higher power to be used and they could be candidates for the devices discussed above. It is also possible, in some cases, to transmit power on multiple frequencies and combine the received power to boost the available energy. Energy can of course be stored and periodically used to drive circuits and work is ongoing to reduce the voltage required to operate semiconductors. The devices of this invention will make use of some or all of these developments as they take place.
If the vehicle has been at rest for a significant time period, power will leak from the storage capacitors and will not be available for transmission. However, a few tire rotations are sufficient to provide the necessary energy.
The monitor210has an elongate body attached through the wheel rim213typically on the inside of the tire so that the under-vehicle mounted antenna(s) have a line of sight view of antenna214. Monitor210is connected to an inductive wire212, which matches the output of the device with the antenna214, which is part of the device assembly. Insulating material211surrounds the body which provides an air tight seal and prevents electrical contact with the wheel rim213.
An alternate method to that explained with reference to
1.4.1 Antenna Considerations
As discussed above in section 1.3.1, antennas are a very important part of SAW and RFID wireless devices such as tire monitors. The discussion of that section applies particularly to tire monitors but need not be repeated here.
1.4.2 Boosting Signals
In use, the antenna16receives a signal when a measurement from the SAW device221is wanted and a signal from the antenna16is switched into Port A where it is amplified and output to Port B. The amplified signal from Port B is directed to the SAW device221for the SAW to provide a delayed signal indicative of the property or characteristic measured or detected by the SAW device221. The delayed signal is directed to Port B of the circulator222which boosts the delayed signal and outputs the boosted, delayed signal to Port A from where it is directed to the antenna16for transmission to a receiving and processing module224.
The receiving and processing module224transmits the initial signal to the antenna16when a measurement or detection by the SAW device221is desired and then receives the delayed, boosted signal from the antenna223containing information about the measurement or detection performed by the SAW device221.
The circuit which amplifies the signal from the antenna223and the delayed signal from the SAW device221is shown in
As shown in
The circuit is powered by a battery, of either a conventional type or an atomic battery (as discussed below), or, when used in connection with a tire of the vehicle, a capacitor, super capacitor or ultracapacitor (super cap) and charged by, for example, rotation of the tire or movement of one or more masses as described in more detail elsewhere herein. Thus, when the vehicle is moving, the circuit is in an active mode and a capacitor in the circuit is charged. On the other hand, when the vehicle is stopped, the circuit is in a passive mode and the capacitor is discharged. In either case, the pressure measurement in the tire can be transmitted to the interrogator.
Instead of a SAW device221, Port B can be connected to an RFID (radio frequency identification) tag or another electrical component which provides a response based on an input signal and/or generates a signal in response to a detected or measured property or characteristic.
Also, the circuit can be arranged on other movable structures, other than a vehicle tire, whereby the movement of the structure causes charging of the capacitor and when the structure is not moving, the capacitor discharges and provides energy. Other movable structures include other parts of a vehicle including trailers and containers, boats, airplanes etc., a person, animal, wind or wave-operated device, tree or any structure, living or not, that can move and thereby permit a properly designed energy generator to generate electrical energy. Naturally other sources of environmental energy can be used consistent with the invention such as wind, solar, tidal, thermal, acoustic etc.
As shown in
An RF MEMS or equivalent switch, not shown, can be added to switch the circulator into and out of the circuit slightly increasing the efficiency of the system when power is not present. Heretofore, RF MEMS switches have not been used in the tire, RFID or SAW sensor environment such as for TPM power and antenna switching. One example of an RF MEMS switch is manufactured by Teravicta Technologies Inc. The company's initial product, the TT612, is a 0 to 6 GHz RF MEMS single-pole, double-throw (SPDT) switch. It has a loss of 0.14-dB at 2-GHz, good linearity and a power handling capability of three watts continuous, all enclosed within a surface mount package.
At least one invention herein is also particularly useful in light of the foreseeable implementation of smart highways. Smart highways will result in vehicles traveling down highways under partial or complete control of an automatic system, i.e., not being controlled by the driver. The on-board diagnostic system will thus be able to determine failure of a component prior to or upon failure thereof and inform the vehicle's guidance system to cause the vehicle to move out of the stream of traffic, i.e., onto a shoulder of the highway, in a safe and orderly manner. Moreover, the diagnostic system may be controlled or programmed to prevent the movement of the disabled vehicle back into the stream of traffic until the repair of the component is satisfactorily completed.
In a method in accordance with this embodiment, the operation of the component would be monitored and if abnormal operation of the component is detected, e.g., by any of the methods and apparatus disclosed herein (although other component failure systems may of course be used in this implementation), the guidance system of the vehicle which controls the movement of the vehicle would be notified, e.g., via a signal from the diagnostic module to the guidance system, and the guidance system would be programmed to move the vehicle out of the stream of traffic, or off of the restricted roadway, possibly to a service station or dealer, upon reception of the particular signal from the diagnostic module.
The automatic guidance systems for vehicles traveling on highways may be any existing system or system being developed, such as one based on satellite positioning techniques or ground-based positioning techniques. It can also be based on vision systems such as those used to provide lane departure warning. Since the guidance system may be programmed to ascertain the vehicle's position on the highway, it can determine the vehicle's current position, the nearest location out of the stream of traffic, or off of the restricted roadway, such as an appropriate shoulder or exit to which the vehicle may be moved, and the path of movement of the vehicle from the current position to the location out of the stream of traffic, or off of the restricted roadway. The vehicle may thus be moved along this path under the control of the automatic guidance system. In the alternative, the path may be displayed to a driver (on a heads-up or other display for example) and the driver can follow the path, i.e., manually control the vehicle. The diagnostic module and/or guidance system may be designed to prevent re-entry of the vehicle into the stream of traffic, or off of the restricted roadway, until the abnormal operation of the component is satisfactorily addressed.
2.1 Transmission of Vehicle and Occupant Information
Described herein is a system for determining the status of occupants in a vehicle, and/or of the vehicle, and in the event of an accident or at any other appropriate time, transmitting the status of the occupants and/or the vehicle, and optionally additional information, via a communications channel or link to a remote monitoring facility. In addition to the status of the occupant, it is also important to be able to analyze the operating conditions of the vehicle and detect when a component of the vehicle is about to fail. By notifying the driver, a dealer or other repair facility and/or the vehicle manufacturer of the impending failure of the component, appropriate corrective action can be taken to avoid such failure.
As noted above, at least one invention herein relates generally to telematics and the transmission of information from a vehicle to one or more remote sites which can react to the position or status of the vehicle or occupant(s) therein. For telematics inventions disclosed herein, a vehicle may be an automobile, a truck, a truck trailer, an airplane, a boat or a ship, a train car, and the like.
Initially, sensing of the occupancy of the vehicle and the optional transmission of this information, which may include images, to remote locations will be discussed. This entails obtaining information from various sensors about the occupant(s) in the passenger compartment of the vehicle, e.g., the number of occupants, their type and their motion, if any. Thereafter, general vehicle diagnostic methods will be discussed with the diagnosis being transmittable via a communications device to the remote locations. Finally, a discussion of various sensors for use on the vehicle to sense different operating parameters and conditions of the vehicle is provided. All of the sensors discussed herein can be coupled to a communications device enabling transmission of data, signals and/or images to the remote locations, and reception of the same from the remote locations.
For a general object, transducers344, 345, 347, 348can also be used to determine the type of object, determine the location of the object and/or determine another property or characteristic of the object. A property of the object could be the presence and/or orientation of a child seat, the velocity of an adult and the like. For example, the transducers344, 345, 347, 348can be designed to enable a determination that an object is present on the seat, that the object is a child seat and that the child seat is rear-facing.
The transducers344and345are attached to the vehicle buried in the A-pillar trim, where their presence can be disguised, and are connected to processor340that may also be hidden in the trim as shown (this being a non-limiting position for the processor340). Other mounting locations can also be used. For example, transducers344, 345can be mounted inside the seat (along with or in place of transducers347and348), in the ceiling of the vehicle, in the B-pillar, in the C-pillar and in the doors. Indeed, the vehicle interior monitoring system in accordance with the invention may comprise a plurality of monitoring units, each arranged to monitor a particular seating location. In this case, for the rear seating locations, transducers might be mounted in the B-pillar or C-pillar or in the rear of the front seat or in the rear side doors. Possible mounting locations for transducers, transmitters, receivers and other occupant sensing devices are disclosed in the above-referenced patents and patent applications and all of these mounting locations are contemplated for use with the transducers described herein.
The cellular phone or other communications system396outputs to an antenna397. The transducers344, 345, 347and348in conjunction with the pattern recognition hardware and software, which is implemented in processor340and is packaged on a printed circuit board or flex circuit along with the transducers344and345, determine the presence of an occupant within a few seconds after the vehicle is started, or within a few seconds after the door is closed. Similar systems located to monitor the remaining seats in the vehicle also determine the presence of occupants at the other seating locations and this result is stored in the computer memory which is part of each monitoring system processor340.
Periodically and in particular in the event of or in anticipation of an accident, the electronic system associated with the cellular phone or other telematics system396interrogates the various interior monitoring system memories and arrives at a count of the number of occupants in the vehicle, and optionally, even makes a determination as to whether each occupant was wearing a seatbelt and if he or she is moving after the accident. The phone or other communications system then automatically dials or otherwise contacts the EMS operator (such as 911 or through a telematics service such as OnStar®) and the information obtained from the interior monitoring systems is forwarded so that a determination can be made as to the number of ambulances and other equipment to send to the accident site, for example. Such vehicles will also have a system, such as the global positioning system, which permits the vehicle to determine its exact location and to forward this information to the EMS operator, for example.
An alternate preferred communications system is the use of satellite internet or Wi-Fi internet such is expected to be operational on vehicles in a few years. In this manner, the vehicle will always have communications access regardless of its location on the earth. This is based on the premise that Wi-Fi will be in place for all those locations where satellite communication is not available such as in tunnels, urban canyons and the like.
Thus, in basic embodiments of the invention, wave or other energy-receiving transducers are arranged in the vehicle at appropriate locations, trained if necessary depending on the particular embodiment, and function to determine whether a life form is present in the vehicle and if so, how many life forms are present and where they are located etc. To this end, transducers can be arranged to be operative at only a single seating locations or at multiple seating locations with a provision being made to eliminate repetitive count of occupants. A determination can also be made using the transducers as to whether the life forms are humans, or more specifically, adults, children in child seats, etc. As noted above, this is possible using pattern recognition techniques. Moreover, the processor or processors associated with the transducers can be trained to determine the location of the life forms, either periodically or continuously or possibly only immediately before, during and after a crash. The location of the life forms can be as general or as specific as necessary depending on the system requirements, i.e., that a human is situated on the driver's seat in a normal position (general) or a determination can be made that a human is situated on the driver's seat and is leaning forward and/or to the side at a specific angle as well as the position of his or her extremities and head and chest (specifically). The degree of detail is limited by several factors, including, for example, the number, type and position of transducers and training of the pattern recognition algorithm.
In addition to the use of transducers to determine the presence and location of occupants in a vehicle, other sensors could also be used. For example, a heartbeat sensor which determines the number and presence of heartbeats can also be arranged in the vehicle, which would thus also determine the number of occupants as the number of occupants would be equal to the number of heartbeats. Conventional heartbeat sensors can be adapted to differentiate between a heartbeat of an adult, a heartbeat of a child and a heartbeat of an animal. As its name implies, a heartbeat sensor detects a heartbeat, and the magnitude thereof, of a human occupant of the seat, if such a human occupant is present. The output of the heartbeat sensor is input to the processor of the interior monitoring system. One heartbeat sensor for use in the invention may be of the types as disclosed in McEwan (U.S. Pat. No. 5,573,012 and U.S. Pat. No. 5,766,208). The heartbeat sensor can be positioned at any convenient position relative to the seats where occupancy is being monitored. A preferred location is within the vehicle seat back.
An alternative way to determine the number of occupants is to monitor the weight being applied to the seats, i.e., each seating location, by arranging weight sensors at each seating location which might also be able to provide a weight distribution of an object on the seat. Analysis of the weight and/or weight distribution by a predetermined method can provide an indication of occupancy by a human, an adult or child, or an inanimate object.
Another type of sensor which is not believed to have been used in an interior monitoring system heretofore is a micropower impulse radar (MIR) sensor which determines motion of an occupant and thus can determine his or her heartbeat (as evidenced by motion of the chest). Such an MIR sensor can be arranged to detect motion in a particular area in which the occupant's chest would most likely be situated or could be coupled to an arrangement which determines the location of the occupant's chest and then adjusts the operational field of the MIR sensor based on the determined location of the occupant's chest. A motion sensor utilizing a micropower impulse radar (MIR) system is disclosed, for example, in McEwan (U.S. Pat. No. 5,361,070), as well as many other patents by the same inventor. Motion sensing is accomplished by monitoring a particular range from the sensor, as disclosed in that patent. MIR is one form of radar which has applicability to occupant sensing and can be mounted at various locations in the vehicle. It has an advantage over ultrasonic sensors in that data can be acquired at a higher speed and thus the motion of an occupant can be more easily tracked. The ability to obtain returns over the entire occupancy range is somewhat more difficult than with ultrasound resulting in a more expensive system overall. MIR has additional advantages in lack of sensitivity to temperature variation and has a comparable resolution to about 40 kHz ultrasound. Resolution comparable to higher frequency is also possible. Additionally, multiple MIR sensors can be used when high speed tracking of the motion of an occupant during a crash is required since they can be individually pulsed without interfering with each through time division multiplexing.
An alternative way to determine motion of the occupant(s) is to monitor the weight distribution of the occupant whereby changes in weight distribution after an accident would be highly suggestive of movement of the occupant. A system for determining the weight distribution of the occupants could be integrated or otherwise arranged in the right center and left, front and back vehicle seats such as 343 and several patents and publications describe such systems.
More generally, any sensor which determines the presence and health state of an occupant can also be integrated into the vehicle interior monitoring system in accordance with the invention. For example, a sensitive motion sensor can determine whether an occupant is breathing and a chemical sensor can determine the amount of carbon dioxide, or the concentration of carbon dioxide, in the air in the vehicle which can be correlated to the health state of the occupant(s). The motion sensor and chemical sensor can be designed to have a fixed operational field situated where the occupant's mouth is most likely to be located. In this manner, detection of carbon dioxide in the fixed operational field could be used as an indication of the presence of a human occupant in order to enable the determination of the number of occupants in the vehicle. In the alternative, the motion sensor and chemical sensor can be adjustable and adapted to adjust their operational field in conjunction with a determination by an occupant position and location sensor which would determine the location of specific parts of the occupant's body, e.g., his or her chest or mouth. Furthermore, an occupant position and location sensor can be used to determine the location of the occupant's eyes and determine whether the occupant is conscious, i.e., whether his or her eyes are open or closed or moving.
The use of chemical sensors can also be used to detect whether there is blood present in the vehicle, for example, after an accident. Additionally, microphones can detect whether there is noise in the vehicle caused by groaning, yelling, etc., and transmit any such noise through the cellular or other communication connection to a remote listening facility (such as operated by OnStar®).
A processor403is coupled to the presence determining system400, the health state determining system401and the location determining system402. A communications system or unit404is coupled to the processor403. The processor403and/or communications unit404can also be coupled to microphones405that can be distributed throughout the vehicle and include voice-processing circuitry to enable the occupant(s) to effect vocal control of the processor403, communications unit404or any coupled component or oral communications via the communications unit404. The processor403is also coupled to another vehicular system, component or subsystem406and can issue control commands to effect adjustment of the operating conditions of the system, component or subsystem. Such a system, component or subsystem can be the heating or air-conditioning system, the entertainment system, an occupant restraint device such as an airbag, a glare prevention system, etc. Also, a positioning system407could be coupled to the processor403and provides an indication of the absolute position of the vehicle, preferably using satellite-based positioning technology (e.g., a GPS receiver).
In normal use (other than after a crash), the presence determining system400determines whether any human occupants are present, i.e., adults or children, and the location determining system402determines the occupant's location. The processor403receives signals representative of the presence of occupants and their location and determines whether the vehicular system, component or subsystem406can be modified to optimize its operation for the specific arrangement of occupants. For example, if the processor403determines that only the front seats in the vehicle are occupied, it could control the heating system to provide heat only through vents situated to provide heat for the front-seated occupants.
Another possible vehicular system, component or subsystem is a navigational aid, i.e., a route display or map. In this case, the position of the vehicle as determined by the positioning system407is conveyed through processor403to the communications unit404to a remote facility and a map is transmitted from this facility to the vehicle to be displayed on the route display. If directions are needed, a request for the same could be entered into an input unit408associated with the processor403and transmitted to the facility. Data for the display map and/or vocal instructions could be transmitted from this facility to the vehicle.
Moreover, using this embodiment, it is possible to remotely monitor the health state of the occupants in the vehicle and most importantly, the driver. The health state determining system401may be used to detect whether the driver's breathing is erratic or indicative of a state in which the driver is dozing off. The health state determining system401could also include a breath-analyzer to determine whether the driver's breath contains alcohol. In this case, the health state of the driver is relayed through the processor403and the communications unit404to the remote facility and appropriate action can be taken. For example, it would be possible to transmit a command (from the remote facility) to the vehicle to activate an alarm or illuminate a warning light or if the vehicle is equipped with an automatic guidance system and ignition shut-off, to cause the vehicle to come to a stop on the shoulder of the roadway or elsewhere out of the traffic stream. The alarm, warning light, automatic guidance system and ignition shut-off are thus particular vehicular components or subsystems represented by406.
In use after a crash, the presence determining system400, health state determining system401and location determining system402can obtain readings from the passenger compartment and direct such readings to the processor403. The processor403analyzes the information and directs or controls the transmission of the information about the occupant(s) to a remote, manned facility. Such information would include the number and type of occupants, i.e., adults, children, infants, whether any of the occupants have stopped breathing or are breathing erratically, whether the occupants are conscious (as evidenced by, e.g., eye motion), whether blood is present (as detected by a chemical sensor) and whether the occupants are making noise. Moreover, the communications link through the communications unit404can be activated immediately after the crash to enable personnel at the remote facility to initiate communications with the vehicle.
An occupant sensing system can also involve sensing for the presence of a living occupant in a trunk of a vehicle or in a closed vehicle, for example, when a child is inadvertently left in the vehicle or enters the trunk and the trunk closes. To this end, a SAW-based chemical sensor 410 is illustrated in
Thus, when the trunk lid409is closed and a source of carbon dioxide such as a child or animal is trapped within the trunk, the chemical sensor 410 will provide information indicating the presence of the carbon dioxide producing object to the interrogator which can then release a trunk lock permitting the trunk lid409to automatically open. In this manner, the problem of children and animals suffocating in closed trunks is eliminated Alternately, information that a person or animal is trapped in a trunk can be sent by the telematics system to law enforcement authorities or other location or facility remote from the vehicle.
A similar device can be distributed at various locations within the passenger compartment of vehicle along with a combined temperature sensor. If the car has been left with a child or other animal while owner is shopping, for example, and if the temperature rises within the vehicle to an unsafe level or, alternately, if the temperature drops below an unsafe level, then the vehicle can be signaled to take appropriate action which may involve opening the windows or starting the vehicle with either air conditioning or heating as appropriate. Alternately, information that a person or animal is trapped within a vehicle can be sent by the telematics system to law enforcement authorities or other location remote from the vehicle. Thus, through these simple wireless powerless sensors, the problem of suffocation either from lack of oxygen or death from excessive heat or cold can all be solved in a simple, low-cost manner through using an interrogator as disclosed in the current assignee's U.S. patent application Ser. No. 10/079,065.
Additionally, a sensitive layer on a SAW can be made to be sensitive to other chemicals such as water vapor for humidity control or alcohol for drunk-driving control. Similarly, the sensitive layer can be designed to be sensitive to carbon monoxide thereby preventing carbon monoxide poisoning. Many other chemicals can be sensed for specific applications such as to check for chemical leaks in commercial vehicles, for example. Whenever such a sensor system determines that a dangerous situation is developing, an alarm can be sounded and/or the situation can be automatically communicated to an off-vehicle location through the internet, telematics, a cell phone such as a 911 call, the Internet or though a subscriber service such as OnStar®.
The operating conditions of the vehicle can also be transmitted along with the status of the occupants to a remote monitoring facility. The operating conditions of the vehicle include whether the motor is running and whether the vehicle is moving. Thus, in a general embodiment in which information on both occupancy of the vehicle and the operating conditions of the vehicle are transmitted, one or more properties or characteristics of occupancy of the vehicle are determined, such constituting information about the occupancy of the vehicle, and one or more states of the vehicle or of a component of the vehicle is determined, such constituting information about the operation of the vehicle. The information about the occupancy of the vehicle and operation of the vehicle are selectively transmitted, possibly the information about occupancy to an emergency response center and the information about the vehicle to a dispatcher, a dealer or repair facility and/or the vehicle manufacturer.
Transmission of the information about the operation of the vehicle, i.e., diagnostic information, may be achieved via a satellite and/or via the Internet. The vehicle would thus include appropriate electronic hardware and/or software to enable the transmission of a signal to a satellite, from where it could be re-transmitted to a remote location (for example via the Internet), and/or to enable the transmission to a web site or host computer. In the latter case, the vehicle could be assigned a domain name or e-mail address for identification or transmission origination purposes.
Use of the Internet for diagnostic information conveying purposes involves programming the communications unit404on the vehicle to communicate with a wireless Internet service provider (ISP) 413 (see
When capable of using multiple communications techniques, the communications unit404can be designed to select which communications technique to use based on various parameters. For example, if the vehicle is a truck trailer or cargo container which is often transported by ship for transoceanic journeys, the communications unit404can be programmed to communicate with either an ISP or a pseudo-ISP depending on the travel status. Thus, it would communicate with an ISP when it is on land, e.g., attached to a truck and being driven from one location to another, and with a communications system on the ship when it is seaborne. In the latter case, the communications unit404could communicate with a ship-resident pseudo-ISP, possibly even installed solely for the purpose of communicating with cargo containers, which would in turn communicate via satellite with a remote location. Other parameters which may be used to determine which communications technique to be used include: the location of the vehicle, the importance of the data or information obtained by the vehicle-resident sensing system to be transmitted and the urgency with which the data or information obtained by the vehicle-resident sensing system should be transmitted. The determination may be made either by the communications unit404or may be made by whatever data gathering system is being used. In the latter case, the importance or urgency of the information is determined by the data gathering system and directed to the communications system with an indication of the manner in which the information should be sent. A priority coding system may be used.
In one embodiment, when capable of using multiple communications techniques, the communications unit404can be designed to select which communications technique to use based on the detection of a wireless ISP with which the communications unit404can communicate. The communications unit404would include or be connected to an ISP detection system, 414programmed to detect the presence of a useable, secure wireless ISP wherever it is and then use this detected wireless ISP to provide information to a remote site via the Internet. A program to enable a computer device to detect available wireless ISP's is known to those skilled in the art.
The diagnostic discussion above has centered on notifying the vehicle operator of a pending problem with a vehicle component. Today, there is great competition in the automobile marketplace and the manufacturers and dealers who are most responsive to customers are likely to benefit by increased sales both from repeat purchasers and new customers. The diagnostic module disclosed herein benefits the dealer by making him instantly aware, through the cellular telephone system, or other communication link, coupled to the diagnostic module or system in accordance with the invention, when a component is likely to fail. As envisioned when the diagnostic module33detects a potential failure it not only notifies the driver through a display34 (as shown in
For most cases, it is sufficient to notify a driver that a component is about to fail through a warning display. In some critical cases, action beyond warning the driver may be required. If, for example, the diagnostic module detected that the alternator was beginning to fail, in addition to warning the driver of this eventuality, the diagnostic system could send a signal to another vehicle system to turn off all non-essential devices which use electricity thereby conserving electrical energy and maximizing the time and distance that the vehicle can travel before exhausting the energy in the battery. Additionally, this system can be coupled to a system such as OnStar® or a vehicle route guidance system, and the driver can be guided to the nearest open repair facility or a facility of his or her choice.
The Internet could be used to transmit information about the operation of the vehicle, including diagnostic information, to any remote site including the dealer and vehicle manufacturer as mentioned above and also any other entity interested in the operation of the vehicle, including for example, an automated highway system, a highway monitoring system, police or any other governmental agency, the vehicle owner if not present in the vehicle, and a vehicle management group.
A crash sensor 416 is provided and determines when the vehicle experiences a crash. Crash sensor 416 may be any type of crash sensor.
Vehicle sensors417include sensors which detect the operating conditions of the vehicle such as those sensors discussed with reference to
Environment sensors418include sensors which provide data concerning the operating environment of the vehicle, e.g., the inside and outside temperatures, the time of day, the location of the sun and lights, the locations of other vehicles, rain, snow, sleet, visibility (fog), general road condition information, pot holes, ice, snow cover, road visibility, assessment of traffic, video pictures of an accident either involving the vehicle or another vehicle, etc. Possible sensors include optical sensors which obtain images of the environment surrounding the vehicle, blind spot detectors which provide data on the blind spot of the driver, automatic cruise control sensors that can provide images of vehicles in front of the host vehicle, and various radar and lidar devices which provide the position of other vehicles and objects relative to the subject vehicle.
The occupant sensing system415, crash sensors416, vehicle sensors417, and environment sensors418can all be coupled to a communications device419which may contain a memory unit and appropriate electrical hardware to communicate with all of the sensors, process data from the sensors, and transmit data from the sensors. The memory unit could be useful to store data from the sensors, updated periodically, so that such information could be transmitted at set time intervals.
The communications device419can be designed to transmit information to any number of different types of facilities. For example, the communications device419could be designed to transmit information to an emergency response facility420in the event of an accident involving the vehicle. The transmission of the information could be triggered by a signal from the crash sensor 416 that the vehicle was experiencing a crash or had experienced a crash. The information transmitted could come from the occupant sensing system415so that the emergency response could be tailored to the status of the occupants. For example, if the vehicle was determined to have ten occupants, more ambulances might be sent than if the vehicle contained only a single occupant. Also, if the occupants are determined not be breathing, then a higher priority call with living survivors might receive assistance first. As such, the information from the occupant sensing system415could be used to prioritize the duties of the emergency response personnel.
Information from the vehicle sensors417and environment sensors418could also be transmitted to law enforcement authorities422in the event of an accident so that the cause(s) of the accident could be determined. Such information can also include information from the occupant sensing system415, which might reveal that the driver was talking on the phone, putting on make-up, or another distracting activity, information from the vehicle sensors417which might reveal a problem with the vehicle, and information from the environment sensors418which might reveal the existence of slippery roads, dense fog and the like.
Information from the occupant sensing system415, vehicle sensors417and environment sensors418could also be transmitted to the vehicle manufacturer423in the event of an accident so that a determination can be made as to whether failure of a component of the vehicle caused or contributed to the cause of the accident. For example, the vehicle sensors might determine that the tire pressure was too low so that advice can be disseminated to avoid maintaining the tire pressure too low in order to avoid an accident. Information from the vehicle sensors417relating to component failure could be transmitted to a dealer/repair facility421which could schedule maintenance to correct the problem.
The communications device419could be designed to transmit particular information to each site, i.e., only information important to be considered by the personnel at that site. For example, the emergency response personnel have no need for the fact that the tire pressure was too low but such information is important to the law enforcement authorities422 (for the possible purpose of issuing a recall of the tire and/or vehicle) and the vehicle manufacturer423.
The communication device can be a cellular phone, DSRC, OnStar®, or other subscriber-based telematics system, a peer-to-peer vehicle communication system that eventually communicates to the infrastructure and then, perhaps, to the Internet with e-mail or instant message to the dealer, manufacturer, vehicle owner, law enforcement authorities or others. It can also be a vehicle to LEO or Geostationary satellite system such as SkyBitz which can then forward the information to the appropriate facility either directly or through the Internet or a direct connection to the internet through a satellite or 802.11 Wi-Fi link or equivalent.
The communication may need to be secret so as not to violate the privacy of the occupants and thus encrypted communication may, in many cases, be required. Other innovations described herein include the transmission of any video data from a vehicle to another vehicle or to a facility remote from the vehicle by any means such as a telematics communication system such as DSRC, OnStar®, a cellular phone system, a communication via GEO, geocentric or other satellite system and any communication that communicates the results of a pattern recognition system analysis. Also, any communication from a vehicle can combine sensor information with location information.
When optical sensors are provided as part of the occupant sensing system415, video conferencing becomes a possibility, whether or not the vehicle experiences a crash. That is, the occupants of the vehicle can engage in a video conference with people at another location424via establishment of a communications channel by the communications device419.
The vehicle diagnostic system described above using a telematics link can transmit information from any type of sensors on the vehicle.
In one particular use of the invention, a wireless sensing and communication system is provided whereby the information or data obtained through processing of input from sensors of the wireless sensing and communication system is further transmitted for reception by a remote facility. Thus, in such a construction, there is an intra-vehicle communications between the sensors on the vehicle and a processing system (control module, computer or the like) and remote communications between the same or a coupled processing system (control module, computer or the like). The electronic components for the intra-vehicle communication may be designed to transmit and receive signals over short distances whereas the electronic components which enable remote communications should be designed to transmit and receive signals over relatively long distances.
The wireless sensing and communication system includes sensors that are located on the vehicle or in the vicinity of the vehicle and which provide information which is transmitted to one or more interrogators in the vehicle by wireless radio frequency means, using wireless radio frequency transmission technology. In some cases, the power to operate a particular sensor is supplied by the interrogator while in other cases, the sensor is independently connected to either a battery, generator (piezo electric, solar etc.), vehicle power source or some source of power external to the vehicle.
One particular system requires mentioning which is the use of high speed satellite or Wi-Fi internet service such as supplied by Wi-Fi hot spots or KVH Industries, Inc. for any and all vehicle communications including vehicle telephone, TV and radio services. With thousands of radio stations available over the internet, for example (see shoutcast.com), a high speed internet connection is clearly superior to satellite radio systems that are now being marketed. Similarly, with ubiquitous internet access that KVH supplies throughout the country, the lack of coverage problems with cell phones disappears. This capability becomes particularly useful for emergency notification when a vehicle has an accident or becomes disabled.
Once a wireless communication system is integrated into a vehicle, it could be used to receive information from remote sites. In the embodiment wherein the vehicle (the pressing unit thereof) is wirelessly communicating with the Internet (using any standard protocol including IEEE 802.xx, WiMax, XMax, Wi-Mobile, etc.), it can be designed to accept transmissions of data and updates for programs resident on the vehicle's processing unit. This bi-directional flow of data can be essentially the same as any bi-directional flow of data over the Internet.
Transmissions of data and updates for programs on the vehicle-resident processing unit or computer can be performed based on the geographical location of the vehicle. That is, the vehicle transmits its location, as determined by a GPS technology for example, to an update server or website and the update server or website commences transmission of the programs updates or data dependent on the vehicle's location (as well as other parameters typical of updating software, such as the current version of the program being updated, the required updates, the optional updates, etc.). In addition to or instead of updating the software on the vehicle-resident processing unit, it is possible to construct the vehicle-resident processing unit to allow for hardware upgrades, i.e., upgradeable processors and memory devices. Such upgrades can be performed by a dealer.
In addition to its use for transferring data between vehicles and remote sites, XMax is useful for transferring information between vehicles, provided the noise rejection is good and sufficiently accommodated for. Information can be transferred indirectly between vehicles using the Internet with each vehicle having a communications system with an identifier and which generates signals to be received by Internet portals. The signals are directed to interested vehicles based on the identifiers of those vehicles. A direct transmission system is also possible wherein the communications system of each vehicle applies the XMax technology to generate signals to be transmitted into the area around the vehicle and received by any vehicles in that area with similar capabilities. Additional details about XMax are found in U.S. Pat. No. 7,003,047.
There is a serious problem developing with vehicles such as cars, trucks, boats and private planes and computer systems. The quality and lifetime of vehicles is increasing and now many vehicles have a lifetime that exceeds ten or more years. On the other hand, computer and related electronic systems, which are proliferating on such vehicles, have shorter and shorter life spans as they are made obsolete by the exponential advances in technology. Owners do not want to dispose of their vehicles just because the electronics have become obsolete. Therefore, a solution as proposed in this invention, whereby a substantial portion of the information, programs, processing power and memory are separate from the vehicle, will increasingly become necessary. One implementation of such a system is for the information, programs, processing power and memory to be resident in a portable device that can be removed from the vehicle. Once removed, the vehicle may still be operable but with reduced functionality. The navigation system, for example, may be resident on the removable device which hereinafter will be referred to as a Personal Information Device (PID) including a GPS subsystem and perhaps an IMU along with appropriate maps allowing a person to navigate on foot as well as in the vehicle. The telephone system which can be either internet or cell phone-based and if internet-based, can be a satellite internet, Wi-Fi or equivalent system which could be equally operable in a vehicle or on foot. The software data and programs can be kept updated including all of the software for diagnostic functions, for example, for the vehicle through the internet connection. The vehicle could contain supplemental displays (such as a heads-up display), input devices including touch pads, switches, voice recognition and cameras for occupant position determination and gesture recognition, and other output devices such as speakers, warning lights etc., for example.
As computer hardware improves it can be an easy step for the owner to replace the PID with the latest version which may even be supplied to the owner under subscription by the Cell Phone Company, car dealership, vehicle manufacturer, computer manufacturer etc. Similarly, the same device can be used to operate the home computer system or entertainment system. In other words, the owner would own one device, the PID, which would contain substantially all of the processing power, software and information that the owner requires to operate his vehicles, computer systems etc. The system can also be periodically backed up (perhaps also over the Internet), automatically providing protection against loss of data in the event of a system failure. The PID can also have a biometrics-based identification system (fingerprint, voiceprint, face or iris recognition etc.) that prevents unauthorized users from using the system and an automatic call back location system based on GPS or other location technologies that permits the owner to immediately find the location of the PID in the event of misplacement or theft.
The PID can also be the repository of credit card information permitting instant purchases without the physical scanning of a separate credit card, home or car door identification system to eliminate keys and conventional keyless entry systems, and other information of a medical nature to aid emergency services in the event of a medical emergency. The possibilities are limitless for such a device. A PID, for example, can be provided with sensors to monitor the vital functions of an elderly person and signal if a problem occurs. The PID can be programmed and provided with sensors to sense fire, cold, harmful chemicals or vapors, biological agents (such as smallpox or anthrax) for use in a vehicle or any other environment. An automatic phone call, or other communication, can be initiated when a hazardous substance (or any other dangerous or hazardous situation or event) is detected to inform the authorities along with the location of the PID. Since the PID would have universal features, it could be taken from vehicle to vehicle allowing each person to have personal features in whatever vehicle he or she was operating. This would be useful for rental vehicles, for example, seats, mirrors, radio stations, HVAC can be automatically set for the PID owner. The same feature can apply to offices, homes, etc.
The same PID can also be used to signal the presence of a particular person in a room and thereby to set the appropriate TV or radio stations, room temperature, lighting, wall pictures etc. For example, the PID could also assume the features of a remote when a person is watching TV. A person could of course have more than one PID and a PID could be used by more than one person provided a means of identification is present such as a biometric based ID or password system. Thus, each individual would need to learn to operate one device, the PID, instead of multiple devices. The PID could even be used to automatically unlock and initiate some action such as opening a door or turning on lights in a vehicle, house, apartment or building. Naturally, the PID can have a variety of associated sensors as discussed above including cameras, microphones, accelerometers, an IMU, GPS receiver, Wi-Fi receiver etc.
Other people could also determine the location of a person carrying the PID, if such a service is authorized by the PID owner. In this manner, parents can locate their children or friends can locate each other in a crowded restaurant or airport. The location or tracking information can be made available on the Internet through the Skybitz or similar low power tracking system. Also, the batteries that operate the PID can be recharged in a variety of ways including fuel cells and vibration-based power generators, solar power, induction charging systems etc. For further background, see N. Tredennick “031201 Go Reconfigure”, IEEE Spectrum Magazine, p. 37-40, December 2003 and D. Verkest “Machine Cameleon” ibid p. 41-46, which describe some of the non-vehicle related properties envisioned here for the PID. Also for some automotive applications see P. Hansen “Portable electronics threaten embedded electronics”, Automotive Industries Magazine, December 2004. Such a device could also rely heavily on whatever network it had access to when it is connected to a network such as the Internet. It could use the connected network for many processing tasks which exceed the capability of the PID or which require information that is not PID-resident. In a sense, the network can become the computer for these more demanding tasks. Using the Internet as the computer gives the automobile companies more control over the software and permits a pricing model based on use rather than a one time sale. Such a device can be based on microprocessors, FPGAs or programmable logical devices or a combination thereof. This is the first disclosure of vehicular uses of such a device to solve the mismatched lifetimes of the vehicle and its electronic hardware and software as discussed above.
When brought into a vehicle, the PID can connect (either by a wire of wirelessly using Bluetooth, Zigbee or 802.11 protocols, for example) to the vehicle system and make use of resident displays, audio systems, antennas and input devices. In this case, the display can be a heads-up display (HUD) and the input devices can be by audio, manual switches, touchpad, joystick, or cameras as disclosed in section 4 and elsewhere herein.
Ultimately vehicles will be connected to the Internet with a high speed connection. Such a connection will still be too slow for vehicle-to-vehicle communications for collision avoidance purposes but it should be adequate for most other vehicle communication purposes. Such a system will probably obsolete current cell phone systems and subscriber systems such as OnStar™. Each user can have a single identification number (which could be his or her phone number) which locates his or her address, phone number, current location etc. The vehicle navigation system can guide the vehicle to the location based on the identification number without the need to input the actual address.
The ubiquitous Internet system could be achieved by a fleet of low earth orbiting satellites (LEDs) or transmission towers transmitting and receiving signals based on one of the 802.11 protocols having a radial range of 50 miles, for example. Thus, approximately 500 such towers could cover the continental United States.
A high speed Internet connection can be used for software upgrade downloading and for map downloading as needed. Each vehicle can become a probe vehicle that locates road defects such as potholes, monitors traffic and monitors weather and road conditions. It can also monitor for terrorist activities such as the release of chemical or biological agents as well as provide photographs of anomalies such as traffic accidents, mud slides or fallen trees across the road, etc., any or all of this information can be automatically fed to the appropriate IP address over the Internet providing for ubiquitous information gathering and dissemination. The same or similar system can be available on other vehicles such as planes, trains, boats, trucks etc.
Today, high speed Internet access is available via GEO satellite to vehicles using the KVH system. It is expected that more and more cities will provide citywide internet services via 802.11 systems including Wi-Fi, Wi-Max and Wi-Mobile or their equivalents. Eventually, it is expected that such systems will be available in rural areas thus making the Internet available nationwide and eventually worldwide through one or a combination of satellite and terrestrial systems. Although the KVH system is based on GEO satellites, it is expected that eventually LEO satellites will offer a similar service at a lower price and requiring a smaller antenna. Such an antenna will probably be based on phase array technology.
As described above, a vehicle designed with a telematics capability will have a vehicle-resident processing unit or computer which communicates with other computers or servers via the Internet. This capability can be used to update programs on the vehicle-resident computer or provide new programs to the vehicle-resident computer.
Another capability which can be performed with the vehicle-resident computer linked to the Internet is to store personal data on an Internet-connected server for the vehicle-resident computer in combination with other computers used by the vehicle owner or operator. Thus, in such a system, there is a central server containing personal data and all of the user's computers, including the vehicle-resident computer, are connected to the server via the Internet. In order for the vehicle-resident computer to access the personal data on the server, a personal identification code would have to be detected while the person is operating or present in the vehicle. This authorization system could be in form a keypad which requires the user to enter a password. Alternatively, the user could be provided with a programmable electronic key which cooperates with a wireless identification and authorization system to allow for the transmission of the personal data from the server to the vehicle-resident computer via the Internet. The identifier may also be a cell phone, PDA or other general purpose device. It could also be a personal RFID device that may be integrated into a key fob used for keyless entry into the vehicle.
When diagnosing the functionality or operability of components on the vehicle in the manner described herein, generally, the data is processed on the vehicle with the end-result of the data processing being transmitted to a remote site. Thus, raw data is processed on the vehicle and an indication of the abnormal operation of a component is transmitted to the remote site.
However, it is also envisioned that in some embodiments, some or all of the data processing is performed at a remote site, which may or may not be the same as the remote site which receives the end-result of the data processing. This minimizes the computer capacity required by the vehicle-resident computer. In this scenario, raw data is transmitted from the vehicle to a remote site, processed at that site to obtain an indication of the operability or functionality of the vehicular components and then either considered at that site or transmitted to another remote site (or even possibly back to the vehicle). Indeed, it is envisioned that data processing now being done by the vehicle-resident computer can be done on a network-resident processor.
Many new sensors are now being adapted to an automobile to increase the safety, comfort and convenience of vehicle occupants. Each of the sensors typically currently requires separate wiring for power and information transfer. Applying teachings of the invention, these separate wires can become unnecessary and sensors could be added at will to the automobile at any location within a few inches of the inductive power line system or, in some cases, within range of an RF interrogator. Even sensors that were not contemplated by the vehicle manufacturer can be added later with a software change to the appropriate vehicle CPU as discussed above. Specifically, the vehicle CPU would be updated via a wireless transmission from a site or location remote from the vehicle when the vehicle transmits an indication that it contains a new sensor and requires software to interact with the new sensor.
A summary of inventions disclosed herein is set forth in the '078 application which is incorporated by reference herein.
Note as stated at the beginning this application is one in a series of applications covering safety and other systems for vehicles and other uses. The disclosure herein goes beyond that needed to support the claims of the particular invention that is being claimed herein. This is not to be construed that the inventor is thereby releasing the unclaimed disclosure and subject matter into the public domain. Rather, it is intended that patent applications have been or will be filed to cover all of the subject matter disclosed above.
The inventions described above are, of course, susceptible to many variations, combinations of disclosed components, modifications and changes, all of which are within the skill of the art. It should be understood that all such variations, modifications and changes are within the spirit and scope of the inventions and of the appended claims. Similarly, it will be understood that applicant intends to cover and claim all changes, modifications and variations of the examples of the preferred embodiments of the invention herein disclosed for the purpose of illustration which do not constitute departures from the spirit and scope of the present invention as claimed.
Although several preferred embodiments are illustrated and described above, there are possible combinations using other geometries, sensors, materials and different dimensions for the components that perform the same functions. This invention is not limited to the above embodiments and should be determined by the following claims.