CENTROID ESTIMATION DEVICE AND CENTROID ESTIMATION METHOD

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First Claim
1. A centroid estimation device that estimates the centroid of a moving body having a plurality of driving wheels, comprising:
 a torque control part configured to determine torque control values for said plurality of driving wheels, and to control torque amounts for said plurality of driving wheels on the basis of said torque control values that have been determined;
a driving force estimation part configured to estimate the driving forces for the driving wheels on the basis of said torque control values;
a first acquisition part acquiring a mutual relationship information between the driving forces for at least two of said plurality of driving wheels, when the rotational speeds of said at least two of said plurality of driving wheels become mutually equal; and
a centroid estimation part configured to estimate the centroid of said moving body on the basis of the positional relationship of said plurality of driving wheels, and the mutual relationship information acquired by said first acquisition part, wherein said torque control part determines the torque control values so that the rotational speeds of said at least two of said plurality of driving wheels become equal, while keeping the total of the torque amounts for all of said plurality of driving wheels the same, during estimation of the centroid of said moving body, said first acquisition part acquires said mutual relationship information on the basis of the driving forces estimated by said driving force estimation part.
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Abstract
While keeping the sum of torques for all four driving wheels constant, a torque control part sequentially determines torque control values so the rotational speed of first, second, and third selected driving wheel pair become the same. Then, a driving force estimation part estimates driving forces of the driving wheels on the basis of the determined torque control values. Subsequently, a centroid estimation part calculates ratios of the driving forces from information about the correlation among the driving forces of the first through third selected driving wheel pairs. Then, the centroid estimation part estimates the centroid position of a moving body on the basis of the ratios of the relevant driving forces. Consequently, the centroid of the moving body can be estimated with a simple configuration without the provision of any special sensors.
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11 Claims
 1. A centroid estimation device that estimates the centroid of a moving body having a plurality of driving wheels, comprising:
 a torque control part configured to determine torque control values for said plurality of driving wheels, and to control torque amounts for said plurality of driving wheels on the basis of said torque control values that have been determined;
a driving force estimation part configured to estimate the driving forces for the driving wheels on the basis of said torque control values;
a first acquisition part acquiring a mutual relationship information between the driving forces for at least two of said plurality of driving wheels, when the rotational speeds of said at least two of said plurality of driving wheels become mutually equal; and
a centroid estimation part configured to estimate the centroid of said moving body on the basis of the positional relationship of said plurality of driving wheels, and the mutual relationship information acquired by said first acquisition part, wherein said torque control part determines the torque control values so that the rotational speeds of said at least two of said plurality of driving wheels become equal, while keeping the total of the torque amounts for all of said plurality of driving wheels the same, during estimation of the centroid of said moving body, said first acquisition part acquires said mutual relationship information on the basis of the driving forces estimated by said driving force estimation part.  View Dependent Claims (2)
 a torque control part configured to determine torque control values for said plurality of driving wheels, and to control torque amounts for said plurality of driving wheels on the basis of said torque control values that have been determined;
 3. (canceled)
 9. A centroid estimation method that estimates the centroid of a moving body having a plurality of driving wheels, comprising the steps of:
 a torque control step of determining torque control values for said plurality of driving wheels, and controlling torque amounts for said plurality of driving wheels on the basis of said torque control values that have been determined;
a driving force estimation step of estimating the driving forces for the driving wheels on the basis of said torque control values;
an acquisition process of acquiring a mutual relationship information between the driving forces for at least two of said plurality of driving wheels, when the rotational speeds of said at least two of said plurality of driving wheels become mutually equal; and
a centroid estimation process of estimating the centroid of said moving body on the basis of the positional relationship of said plurality of driving wheels, and the mutual relationship information acquired by said acquisition process, wherein the torque control values are determined so that the rotational speeds of said at least two of said plurality of driving wheels become equal, while keeping the total of the torque amounts for all of said plurality of driving wheels the same, during estimation of the centroid of said moving body, in said torque control step, said mutual relationship information is acquired on the basis of the driving forces estimated by said driving force estimation step, in said first acquisition step.
 a torque control step of determining torque control values for said plurality of driving wheels, and controlling torque amounts for said plurality of driving wheels on the basis of said torque control values that have been determined;
 10. (canceled)
 11. A nontransient computer readable medium having recorded thereon a centroid estimation program that, when executed, causes a calculation part to execute the centroid estimation method according to claim 9.
1 Specification
The present invention relates to a centroid estimation device, to a centroid estimation method, to a centroid estimation program, and to a recording medium on which such a centroid estimation program is recorded.
For a moving vehicle that has a plurality of driving wheels, such as a four wheel vehicle or the like, from the standpoint of stability of the moving vehicle during driving, braking, steering, and so on, a device has been per se known from the past for performing stabilized motion control of the moving vehicle, according to the running state of the moving vehicle and the state of the road surface upon which it is traveling. Antislip control and direct yaw control and so on may be cited as types of control that are performed by a device of this sort.
For implementation of such antislip control or direct yaw control, it is necessary to acquire the position of the centroid of the moving vehicle. Moreover, while the slip ratios of the various driving wheels are very important variables during control of the motion of the moving vehicle, it is possible to perform slip ratio estimation by ascertaining the position of the centroid of the moving vehicle.
This position of the centroid of the moving vehicle can be derived if the vertical load upon each of the wheels of the moving vehicle is known. Thus, in order to acquire the vertical load upon each of the vehicle wheels, it is per se known, for example, to provide a load sensor to each of the vehicle wheels (see Patent Document #1, hereinafter, it is referred to as the “prior art example”). With the technique of this prior art example, it is arranged to detect the vertical load acting upon each of the wheels of the moving vehicle from the road surface upon which the moving vehicle is traveling, by using strain gauges or the like that are provided to the wheel shafts.
 Patent Document #1. Japanese LaidOpen Patent Publication 2006138800.
With the prior art example described above, it is necessary to provide a load sensor to each of the wheels of the moving vehicle, in order directly to detect the vertical load upon that wheel. However, when this type of configuration is employed, it becomes necessary to perform specific design and assembly in order to attach these special sensors near the wheel shafts. As a result, the cost of manufacturing the moving vehicle can easily become high.
Due to this, it is desirable to find a technique with which it is possible to estimate the position of the centroid of a moving vehicle by estimating the vertical loads that are acting from the road surface upon each of the wheels of the moving vehicle, without providing any load sensors for directly detecting the vertical loads upon the vehicle wheels. This requirement is one of the problems which the present invention aims at solving.
The present invention has been conceived in consideration of the circumstances described above, and its object is to provide a novel centroid estimation device and centroid estimation method, which are capable of estimating the centroid of a moving vehicle without the provision of any special sensors, and with a simple structure.
When considered from a first aspect, the present invention is a centroid estimation device that estimates the centroid of a moving body having a plurality of driving wheels, comprising: a first acquisition part acquiring a mutual relationship information between the driving forces for said plurality of driving wheels, when the rotational speeds of said plurality of driving wheels become mutually equal; and a centroid estimation part configured to estimate the centroid of said moving body on the basis of the positional relationship of said plurality of driving wheels, and the mutual relationship information acquired by said first acquisition part.
Furthermore, when considered from a second aspect, the present invention is a centroid estimation method that estimates the centroid of a moving body having a plurality of driving wheels, comprising the steps of: an acquisition process of acquiring a mutual relationship information between the driving forces for said plurality of driving wheels, when the rotational speeds of said plurality of driving wheels become mutually equal; and a centroid estimation process of estimating the centroid of said moving body on the basis of the positional relationship of said plurality of driving wheels, and the mutual relationship information acquired by said acquisition process.
Moreover, when considered from a third aspect, the present invention is a centroid estimation program, wherein it causes a calculation part to execute the centroid estimation method of the present invention.
And, when considered from a fourth aspect, the present invention is a recording medium, wherein the centroid estimation program of the present invention is recorded thereupon in a form that can be read by a calculation part.
 100 . . . Centroid estimation device
 110 . . . Control unit (torque control part, driving force estimation part, first acquisition part, second acquisition part, and centroid estimation part)
 700 . . . Centroid estimation device
 710 . . . Torque control part
 720 . . . Driving force estimation part
 730 . . . First acquisition part
 740 . . . Second acquisition part
 750 . . . Centroid estimation part
In the following, an embodiment of the present invention will be explained with reference to
Firstly, the theory of the method of centroid estimation employed in this embodiment will be explained.
The variables in a driving wheel model of a driving wheel WH that is included in a moving vehicle MV are shown in
In the driving wheel model shown in
M·(dv/dt)=F_{d}−F_{dr} (1)
Moreover, if the moment of inertia of the driving wheel WH is termed “J_{W}”, then the equation of motion of the driving wheel WH is given by the following Equation (2):
J_{W}·(dω/dt)=T_{m}−r·F_{d} (2)
And, if the coefficient of friction between the driving wheel WH and the road surface is termed “μ”, then the relationship between the driving force F_{d }and the normal reaction force N is given by the following Equation (3):
μ=F_{d}/N (3)
Here, the driving force F_{d }can be acquired rapidly and with good accuracy by a per se known driving force observer on the basis of the torque T_{m }and the rotational speed ω. Note that a driving force observer is described in, for example. Japanese LaidOpen Patent Publication 2010051160 or the like.
Now, in the driving wheel model described above, the slip ratio, is given by the following Equation (4):
λ=(r·ω−v)/Max(r·ω,v) (4)
Here, Max(r·ω, v) means the one of (r·ω) and v that has the larger numerical value. During driving, since (r·ω) is greater than v, accordingly Max(r·ω, v)=r·ω. On the other hand, during braking, since v is greater than (r·ω), accordingly Max(r·ω, v)=v.
In the driving wheel model described above, generally, during driving, the relationships shown in
Moreover, in the change of the friction coefficient μ along with increase of the slip ratio during braking shown in
The estimation of the position of the centroid of the moving vehicle MV employed in this embodiment is performed when the running state of the moving vehicle MV is the stable state. Moreover, in the estimation of the position of the centroid of the moving vehicle MV employed in this embodiment, in the case of a moving vehicle MV in which it is possible to control a plurality of driving wheels independently, as for example an inwheel motor type electric automobile, torque control values are determined so that the rotational speeds of at least two of the driving wheels, among the plurality of driving wheels, become equal to one another, while still keeping the total of the torque amounts for all of the plurality of driving wheels the same.
In the following, the theory will be explained of the estimation of the position of the centroid of a moving vehicle MV, in which four driving wheels, i.e. a front left side driving wheel WH_{FL }(hereinafter also sometimes simply referred to as the “driving wheel WH_{FL}”), a front right side driving wheel WH_{FR }(hereinafter also sometimes simply referred to as the “driving wheel WH_{FR}”), a rear left side driving wheel WH_{RL }(hereinafter also sometimes simply referred to as the “driving wheel WH_{RL}”), and a rear right side driving wheel WH_{RR }(hereinafter also sometimes simply referred to as the “driving wheel WH_{RR}”), are driven by respectively corresponding individual electric motors, and in which it is possible to drive those four driving wheels mutually independently.
Firstly, the theory of estimation of the positions of the centroid of the moving vehicle MV in the longitudinal direction and in the transverse direction will be explained.
While the position of the centroid of the moving vehicle MV is constant in terms of the vehicle itself, if a different set of passengers are riding in the vehicle, or if a different load is loaded, then deviation may occur in the position of the centroid in the longitudinal direction and/or in the transverse direction. And, if the position of the centroid deviates, then the vertical loads upon the various driving wheels will become different. Due to this, when the same motor torques are applied to the four driving wheels (WH_{FL}, WH_{FR}, WH_{RL}, and WH_{RR}), then differences in the normal reaction forces will occur due to the fact that the load imposed upon each of the driving wheels is different, and as a result the driving forces for the various driving wheels will become different. This phenomenon can be explained from Equation (3): during travel upon a road surface having some coefficient of friction μ, the driving force F_{d }becomes greater the greater is the normal reaction force N, and similarly the driving force F_{d }becomes smaller the smaller is the normal reaction force N.
The estimation of the positions of the centroid of the moving vehicle MV in the longitudinal direction and in the transverse direction is performed according to the following procedure.
As schematically shown in
The distribution of the motor torque amounts T_{m1 }and T_{m2 }may change while the condition that the total torque amount T_{m}(=2·T_{m1}+2·T_{m2}) is kept constant is upheld. For example, when the torque distribution of the motor torque amounts T_{m1 }and T_{m2 }is changed and the rotational speeds ω_{FL }and ω_{RL }become equal, since the speed v is the same, accordingly, from Equation (4) given above, the slip ratios λ_{FL }and λ_{RL }become equal to one another. As will be understood from
F_{d,FL}/N_{FL}=F_{d,RL}/N_{RL} (5)
Then, from the relationships “N_{FL}=g·W_{FL}, N_{FR}=g·W_{FR}” given above, when as in Equation (5) above F_{d,FL}N_{FL}=F_{d,RL}/N_{RL}, the load W_{RL }can be expressed as the following Equation (6):
W_{RL}=(F_{d,RL}/F_{d,FL})·W_{FL} (6)
Here, when
k_{d2}=(F_{d,RL}/F_{d,FL}) (7)
is substituted, Equation (6) can be expressed as the following Equation (8):
W_{RL}=k_{d2}·W_{FL} (8)
Moreover when, under the condition that the total torque amount T_{m }is kept constant, the distribution of the motor torque amounts T_{m1 }and T_{m2 }is changed and the rotational speeds ω_{FL }and ω_{RR }become equal, since the speed v is the same, accordingly, from Equation (4) given above, the slip ratios λ_{FL }and λ_{RL }become equal to one another. As will be understood from
W_{RR}=(F_{d,RR}/F_{d,FL})·W_{FL} (9)
Here, when
k_{d3}=(F_{d,RR}/F_{d,FL}) (10)
is substituted, Equation (9) can be expressed as the following Equation (11):
W_{RR}=k_{d3}·W_{FL} (11)
Yet further when, under the condition that the total torque amount T_{m }is kept constant, the distribution of the motor torque amounts T_{m1 }and T_{m2 }is changed and the rotational speeds ω_{FR }and ω_{RR }become equal, since the speed v is the same, accordingly, from Equation (4) given above, the slip ratios λ_{FR }and λ_{RR }become equal to one another. As will be understood from
k_{d1}=(F_{d,FR}/F_{d,RR})·k_{d3} (13)
is substituted, Equation (12) can be expressed as the following Equation (14):
W_{FR}=k_{d1}·W_{FL} (14)
The relationship between the positions in which the driving wheels WH_{FL}, WH_{FR}, WH_{RL}, and WH_{RR }are arranged and the position of the centroid G of the moving vehicle MV is shown in
When the moving vehicle MV is traveling at a constant speed upon a flat road surface that is almost parallel to the horizontal plane, then the relationship between the total load “W_{FL}+W_{FR}” imposed upon the front side driving wheels WH_{FL }and WH_{RL }and the total load “W_{RL}+WH_{RR}” imposed upon the rear side driving wheels WH_{RL }and WH_{RR }becomes as shown in
From
(W_{FL}+W_{FR})·g·L_{F}=(W_{RL}+W_{RR})·g·L_{R} (15)
Here, when the relationship “L=L_{F}+L_{R}” is substituted into Equation (15), the lengths L_{F }and L_{R }are given by the following Equations (16) and (17) respectively:
L_{F}=(W_{RL}+W_{RR})/(W_{FL}+W_{FR}+W_{RL}+W_{RR})·L (16)
L_{R}=(W_{FL}+W_{FR})/(W_{FL}+W_{FR}+W_{RL}+W_{RR})·L (17)
And, when the loads W_{RL}, W_{RR}, and W_{FR }given by Equations (8), (11), and (14) described above are substituted into Equations (16) and (17), the lengths L_{F }and L_{R }are respectively given by the following Equations (18) and (19):
When the moving vehicle MV is traveling upon a flat road surface that is almost parallel to the horizontal plane, the relationship between the total load “W_{FL}+W_{RL}” imposed upon the left side driving wheels WH_{FL }and WH_{RL }and the total load “W_{FR}+W_{RR}” imposed upon the right side driving wheels WH_{FR }and WH_{RR }becomes as shown in
From
(W_{FL}+W_{RL})·g·Lt_{L}=(W_{FR}+W_{RR})·g·Lt_{R} (20)
Here, when the relationship “Lt=Lt_{L}+Lt_{R}” and the loads W_{RL}, W_{RR}, and W_{FR }given by Equations (8), (11), and (14) described above are substituted into Equation (20), the lengths Lt_{L }and Lt_{R }are given by the following Equations (21) and (22) respectively:
Accordingly, when the moving vehicle MV is traveling at constant speed upon a flat road surface that is almost parallel to the horizontal plane, by controlling the motor torque amounts for the driving wheels WH_{FL}, WH_{FR}, WH_{RL}, and WH_{RR}, and by using the ratios k_{d1}, k_{d2}, and k_{d3 }of the driving forces when the rotational speeds of combinations of the driving wheels agree with one another, it is possible to estimate the lengths L_{F }and L_{R }related to the position in the longitudinal direction of the centroid of the moving vehicle MV, and the lengths Lt_{L }and Lt_{R }related to the position in the transverse direction of the centroid, according to Equations (18) and (19), and Equations (21) and (22). In other words, since no load shifting occurs while the moving vehicle MV is traveling at constant speed upon a flat road surface, it is possible to obtain the position of the centroid by doing as described above, and by employing the ratios k_{d1}, k_{d2}, and k_{d3 }of the driving forces that are calculated while changing the distribution of motor torques to the driving wheels.
Next, the theory of estimation of the position of the centroid of the moving vehicle MV in the vertical direction will be explained.
When the moving vehicle MV is traveling at an acceleration α upon a road surface that is inclined at an angle of slope θ, the relationship between the total load “W_{FL}+W_{FR}” imposed upon the front side driving wheels WH_{FL }and WH_{FR }and the total load “W_{RL}+W_{RR}” imposed upon the rear side driving wheels WH_{RL }and WH_{RR }becomes as shown in
From
(W_{FL}+W_{FR})·α·H÷(W_{RL}+W_{RR})·α·H=(W_{RL}+W_{RR})·g·(L_{R}−H·tan θ)·cos θ−(W_{FL}+W_{FR})·g·(L_{F}+H·tan θ)·cos θ (23)
From this Equation (23), the height H of the centroid of the moving vehicle MV is given by the following Equation (24):
Here, when the distribution of the motor torque amounts T_{m1 }and T_{m2 }is varied while the angle of slope θ is constant and also the acceleration α is constant, and if (F_{d,RL}/F_{d,FL}) when the rotational speeds ω_{FL }and ω_{RL }become equal is written as k_{d2}, then the relationship “W_{RL}=k_{d2}·W_{FL}” (i.e. Equation (8) above) is obtained.
Moreover, when the distribution of the motor torque amounts T_{m1 }and T_{m2 }is varied while the angle of slope θ is constant and also the acceleration α is constant, and if (F_{d,RR}/F_{d,FL}) when the rotational speeds ω_{FL }and ω_{RR }become equal is written as k_{d3}, then the relationship “W_{RR}=k_{d3}·W_{FL}” (i.e. Equation (11) above) is obtained. Yet further, when the distribution of the motor torque amounts T_{m1 }and T_{m2 }is varied while the angle of slope θ is constant and also the acceleration α is constant, and if (F_{d,FR}/F_{d,RR})·k_{d3 }when the rotational speeds ω_{FR }and ω_{RR }become equal is written as k_{d1}, then the relationship “W_{FR}=k_{d1}·W_{FL}” (i.e. Equation (14) above) is obtained.
And, when the loads W_{RL}, W_{RR}, and W_{FR }given by the equations “W_{RL}=k_{d2}·W_{FL}”, “W_{RR}=k_{d3}·W_{FL}”, and “W_{FR}=k_{d1}·W_{FL}” are substituted into Equation (24), then the height H of the centroid of the moving vehicle MV from the road surface is given by the following Equation (25):
Accordingly, when the moving vehicle MV is traveling upon a road surface that is sloped at an angle, or when the moving vehicle MV is traveling while accelerating, it is possible to estimate the height HI of the centroid of the moving vehicle MV from the road surface by controlling the motor torque amounts for the driving wheels WH_{FL}, WH_{FR}, WH_{RL}, and WH_{RR}, and by using the ratios k_{d1}, k_{d2}, and k_{d3 }of the driving forces when the rotational speeds of various combinations of the driving wheels agree with one another.
Although, while the moving vehicle MV is traveling at an acceleration upon a road surface that is sloped at an angle, shifting of the load of the moving vehicle MV occurs due to the angle of slope and/or the acceleration, since the amount of this shifting of the load is constant during traveling with the angle of slope θ and the acceleration α remaining constant, accordingly, as described above, it is possible to obtain the height H of the centroid by using the ratios k_{d1}, k_{d2}, and k_{d3 }of the driving forces that are calculated while changing the distribution of motor torques to the various driving wheels. Note that it is possible to obtain the height H of the centroid with Equation (25), if α is kept constant even though θ=0, or if θ is kept constant even though α=0.
Note that, when “α=0” and also “θ=0”, then the denominator of Equation (25) becomes zero, so that it is not possible to calculate the height H of the centroid of the moving vehicle MV. And, although it is possible to calculate the height H of the centroid of the moving vehicle MV when either “α≠0” or when “θ≠0”, nevertheless the denominator of Equation (25) becomes close to zero when the absolute value of α or of θ is small, so the reliability of the value that is calculated becomes low. Due to this, it is best to arrange to calculate the height H of the centroid of the moving vehicle MV using Equation (25) when either the absolute value of a is quite large, or the absolute value of θ is quite large.
In this embodiment, the normal reaction forces acting upon the driving wheels are estimated by taking advantage of the position of the centroid of the moving vehicle MV which is estimated as described above, without using any load sensors. And the slip ratios are estimated on the basis of the normal reaction forces that have been estimated as described above. In the following, a summary of the method for estimation of the normal reaction forces acting upon the driving wheels, and a summary of the method for estimation of the slip ratios, will be explained.
The method for estimation of the normal reaction forces acting upon each of the driving wheels of the moving vehicle MV will now be explained.
If the weight of the moving vehicle MV is termed MM (=W_{FL}+W_{FR}+W_{RL}+W_{RR}), then, from Equations (8), (11), and (14) described above, the relationship given by the following Equation (26) holds:
W_{FL}+k_{d1}·W_{FL}+k_{d2}·W_{FL}+k_{d3}·W_{FL}=MM (26)
And, from Equation (26) and Equations (14), (8), and (11) described above, the loads W_{FL}, W_{FR}, W_{RL}, and W_{RR }are given by the following Equations (27) through (30):
W_{FL}=(1/(1+k_{d1}+k_{d2}+k_{d3}))·MM (27)
W_{FR}=(k_{d1}/(1+k_{d1}+k_{d2}+k_{d3}))·MM (28)
W_{RL}=(k_{d2}/(1+k_{d1}+k_{d2}+k_{d3}))·MM (29)
W_{RR}=(k_{d3}/(1+k_{d1}+k_{d2}+k_{d3}))·MM (30)
Accordingly, from these Equations (27) through (30) and the relationships “N_{FL}=g·W_{FL}, N_{FR}=g·W_{FR}, N_{RL}=g·W_{RL}, and N_{RR}=g·W_{RR}”, the normal reaction forces N_{FL}, N_{FR}, N_{RL}, and N_{RR }are given by the following Equations (31) through (34) respectively:
N_{FL}=(1/(1+k_{d1}+k_{d2}+k_{d3}))·MM·g (31)
N_{FR}=(k_{d1}/(1+k_{d1}+k_{d2}+k_{d3})·MM·g (32)
N_{RL}=(k_{d2}/(1+k_{d1}+k_{d2}+k_{d3}))·MM·g (33)
N_{RR}=(k_{d3}/(1+k_{d1}+k_{d2}+k_{d3}))·MM·g (34)
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If, when the moving vehicle MV is traveling at an acceleration α upon a road surface whose angle of slope is θ, the sum of the loads imposed upon the front side driving wheels WH_{FL }and WH_{FR }is termed W_{F}(=W_{FL}+W_{FR}), and the sum of the loads imposed upon the rear side driving wheels WH_{RL }and WH_{RR }is termed W_{R}(=W_{RL}+W_{RR}), then Equation (23) described above becomes the following Equation (35):
W_{F}·α·H+(MM−W_{F})·α·H=(MM−W_{F})·g·(L_{R}−H·tan θ)·cos θ−W_{F}·g·(L_{F}+H·tan θ)·cos θ (35)
When this Equation (35) is rearranged, the load W_{F }can be expressed by the following Equation (36):
Moreover, from Equation (36) and the relationship “W_{R}=MM−W_{F}”, the load W_{R }can be expressed by the following Equation (37):
Here, the shifting of the load when the moving vehicle MV is traveling at an acceleration α upon a road surface whose angle of slope is θ is only in the longitudinal direction, and no shifting of the load takes place in the transverse direction. Due to this, the above described relationship “W_{FR}=k_{d1}·W_{FL}” (i.e. Equation (14)) and the above described relationship “W_{RR}=k_{d3}·W_{FL}=k_{d3}·(W_{RL}/k_{d2})=(k_{d3}/k_{d2})·W_{RL}” (i.e. Equations (11) and (8)) are maintained.
Due to this, from the relationship “W_{FR}=k_{d1}·W_{FL}”, the relationship of the following Equation (38) becomes valid for the load W_{F}:
W_{F}=W_{FL}+W_{FR}=W_{FL}+k_{d1}·W_{FL}=(1+k_{d1})·W_{FL} (38)
Accordingly, the loads W_{FL }and W_{FR }can be expressed by the following Equations (39) and (40) respectively:
W_{FL}=(1/(1+k_{d1}))·W_{F} (39)
W_{FR}=W_{F}−W_{FL}=(k_{d1}/(1+k_{d1}))·W_{F} (40)
Moreover, from the relationship “W_{RR}=(k_{d3}/k_{d2})·W_{RL}”, the relationship of the following Equation (41) becomes valid for the load W_{R}:
Accordingly, the loads W_{RL }and W_{RR }may be expressed by the following Equations (42) and (43) respectively:
W_{RL}=(k_{d2}/(k_{d2}+k_{d3}))·W_{R} (42)
W_{RR}=W_{R}−W_{RL}=(k_{d3}/(k_{d2}+k_{d3}))·W_{R} (43)
Accordingly, from these Equations (39), (40), (42), and (43), from Equations (36) and (37) described above, and from the relationships “N_{FL}=g·W_{FL}, N_{FR}=g·W_{FR}, N_{RL}=g·W_{RL}, and N_{RR}=g·W_{RR}”, the normal reaction forces N_{FL}, N_{FR}, N_{RL}, and N_{RR }are given by the following Equations (44) through (47) respectively. Note that it is still possible to obtain the normal reaction forces acting upon the driving wheels according to Equations (44) through (47), even if either one or the angle of slope θ or the acceleration α is zero.
With the slip ratio estimation method employed in this embodiment, it is possible to obtain estimated values for the friction coefficients from Equation (3) described above, from the normal reaction forces acting upon the driving wheels estimated as described above, and from the driving forces for the driving wheels as estimated by a per se known driving force observer. And, from the frictional coefficients that have been estimated and the values of the rotational speeds of the motors, the slip ratios for the two driving wheels to which attention is directed are calculated as described below.
Note that it will be supposed that, among two of the driving wheels WH and WH_{2}, the torque instruction value for the motor that drives the first driving wheel WH_{1 }is denoted by T_{m1}, while the torque instruction value for the motor that drives the second driving wheel WH_{2 }is denoted by T_{m2}. And it will be supposed that, for the first driving wheel WH_{1}, the rotational speed is “ω_{1}” and the friction coefficient is “μ_{1}”. Moreover, summaries of the slip ratio estimation method during driving and during braking will be explained while supposing that, for the second driving wheel WH_{2}, the rotational speed is “ω_{2}” and the friction coefficient is “μ_{2}”.
Since, during driving, the values (r·Φ_{1}) and (r·ω_{2}) are greater than or equal to the speed v, accordingly, from Equation (4) given above, the slip ratios λ_{1 }and λ_{2 }are given by the following Equations (48) and (49):
λ_{1}=(r·ω_{1}−v)/r·ω_{1} (48)
λ_{2}=(r·ω_{2}−v)/r·ω_{2} (49)
And, since the speed v is common to Equation (48) and Equation (49), accordingly the relationship given by the following Equation (50) holds:
v=(1−λ_{1})·r·ω_{1}=(1−λ_{2})·r·ω_{2} (50)
Now since, as shown in
μ_{A}/λ_{A}=μ_{B}/λ_{B} (51)
Here, the value μ_{A }is the friction coefficient corresponding to the slip ratio λ_{A}, and the value μ_{B }is the friction coefficient corresponding to the slip ratio λ_{B}. Note that the relationship of Equation (51) also holds for the stable regions in the case of a wet road surface and in the case of a freezing road surface, as will be apparent from the characteristics of a wet road surface and of a freezing road surface shown in
Moreover in the unstable regions, even if the state of the road surface is the same, as in the examples for a dry road surface shown in
Due to this, it is possible to calculate the slip ratios λ_{1 }and λ_{2 }from Equations (50) and (51), according to the following Equations (52) and (53):
λ_{1}=(ω_{2}−ω_{1})/((μ_{2}/μ_{1})·ω_{2}−ω_{1}) (52)
λ_{2}=(ω_{2}−ω_{1})/(ω_{2}−(μ_{1}/μ_{2})·ω_{1}) (53)
Moreover since, during braking, the values (r·ω_{1}) and (r·ω_{2}) are less than or equal to the speed v, accordingly, from Equation (4) given above, the slip ratios λ_{1 }and λ_{2 }are given by the following Equations (54) and (55):
λ_{1}=(r·ω_{1}−v)/v (54)
λ_{2}=(r·ω_{2}−v)/v (55)
Since the speed v is common to Equation (54) and Equation (55), accordingly the relationship given by the following Equation (56) holds:
v=r·ω_{1}/(1+λ_{1})=r·ω_{2}/(1+λ_{2}) (56)
Due to this, it is possible to calculate the slip ratios λ_{1 }and λ_{2 }from Equations (51) and (56), according to the following Equations (57) and (58):
λ_{1}=(ω_{2}−ω_{1})/((μ_{2}/μ_{1})·ω_{1}−ω_{2}) (57)
λ_{2}=(ω_{2}−ω_{1})/(ω_{1}−(μ_{1}/μ_{2})·ω_{2}) (58)
Next, the configuration of the centroid estimation device according to the embodiment will be explained.
Note that, in the embodiment, as shown in
The schematic configuration of a centroid estimation device 700 according to the embodiment of the present invention is shown in
Inverters 910_{j }(where j=FL, FR, RL, and RR), motors 920_{j}, rotational speed sensors 930_{j}, and various sensors 950 are mounted to the moving vehicle MV. Here, the inverters 910_{j}, the motors 920_{j}, and the rotational speed sensors 930_{j }are installed so as to correspond to each of the driving wheels WH_{j}.
Each of the inverters 910_{j }described above receives a torque creation signal sent from the centroid estimation device 700, corresponding to a torque instruction value. And each of the inverters 910_{j }generates a motor drive signal according to the abovementioned torque creation signal, and sends this motor drive signal that it has generated to its corresponding motor 920_{j}.
Each of the motors 920_{j }described above receives the motor drive signal sent from its corresponding inverter 910_{j}. And each of the motors 920_{j }performs motor rotational motion on the basis of this motor drive signal, and thereby rotates its driving wheel WH_{j}. Note that, if the motor drive signal is negative, then regeneration is performed so as to reduce the wheel rotational speed, so that the driving wheel WH_{j }is braked.
Each of the rotational speed sensors 930_{j }described above detects the rotational speed ω_{j }of its corresponding driving wheel WH_{j}. And each of the rotational speed sensors 930_{j }sends this rotational speed ω_{j }that it has thus detected to the centroid estimation device 700.
The various sensors 950 described above include sensors that are employed for torque control and centroid estimation, such as an accelerator opening amount sensor, an acceleration sensor, an angular velocity sensor, a gyro sensor, and so on. The results of detection by these various sensors 950 are sent to the centroid estimation device 700.
Next, the configuration of the centroid estimation device 700 described above will be explained. As shown in
The torque control part 710 described above determines torque control values for the four driving wheels WH_{FL}, WH_{FR}, WH_{RL}, and WH_{RR}, and controls the torque amounts for the four driving wheels WH_{FL}, WH_{FR}, WH_{RL}, and WH_{RR }on the basis of these torque control values that have been determined. And, when the torque control part 710 has determined the torque control values, it generates torque creation signals on the basis of these torque control values that it has determined, and sends these torque creation signals that it has generated to the inverters 910_{j}.
When performing estimation of the centroid of the moving vehicle MV, the torque control part 710 determines torque control values so as, while keeping the total of the torque amounts for all of the four driving wheels WH_{FL}, WH_{FR}, WH_{RL}, and WH_{RR }the same, to make the rotational speeds of two of the driving wheels, among the four driving wheels, become equal to one another. The torque control values that have been determined by the torque control part 710 in this manner are sent to the driving force estimation part 720. Moreover, the torque control part 710 generates torque creation signals on the basis of the torque control values that have been determined in this manner, and sends these torque creation signals that have been generated to the inverters 910_{j}.
In this embodiment, as the first control procedure for centroid estimation, the torque control part 710 selects the driving wheels WH_{FL }and WH_{RL }as being a pair of driving wheels whose rotational speeds are to be made equal (hereinafter this pair of driving wheels WH_{FL }and WH_{RL }may also be termed the “first selected driving wheel pair”). And, under the condition that the total torque amount T_{m }is kept the same, the torque control part 710 determines torque control values T_{m1 }and T_{m2 }such that the rotational speeds ω_{FL }and ω_{RL }of these driving wheels WH_{FL }and WH_{RL }that have been selected become equal to one another. And the torque control part 710 sends these torque control values T_{m1 }and T_{m2 }that have thus been determined to the driving force estimation part 720.
Next, as the second control procedure for centroid estimation, the torque control part 710 selects the driving wheels WH_{FL }and WH_{RR }as being a pair of driving wheels whose rotational speeds are to be made equal (hereinafter this pair of driving wheels WH_{FL }and WH_{RR }may also be termed the “second selected driving wheel pair”). And, under the condition that the total torque amount T_{m }is kept the same, the torque control part 710 determines torque control values T_{m1 }and T_{m2 }such that the rotational speeds ω_{FL }and ω_{RR }of these driving wheels WH_{FL }and WH_{RL }that have now been selected become equal to one another. And the torque control part 710 sends these torque control values T_{m1 }and T_{m2 }that have thus been determined to the driving force estimation part 720. Note that, even if the total torque amount T_{m }that is inputted during this processing changes, still it is possible to perform centroid estimation without any problem by performing setting of the torque control values T_{m1 }and T_{m2 }by using their ratios with respect to the total torque amount T_{m}.
Next, as the third control procedure for centroid estimation, the torque control part 710 selects the driving wheels WH_{FR }and WH_{RR }as being a pair of driving wheels whose rotational speeds are to be made equal (hereinafter this pair of driving wheels WH_{FR }and WH_{RR }may also be termed the “third selected driving wheel pair”). And, under the condition that the total torque amount T_{m }is kept the same, the torque control part 710 determines torque control values T_{m1 }and T_{m2 }such that the rotational speeds ω_{FR }and ω_{RR }of these driving wheels WH_{FR }and WH_{RR }that have been selected become equal to one another. And the torque control part 710 sends these torque control values T_{m1 }and T_{m2 }that have thus been determined to the driving force estimation part 720.
Note that the torque control part 710 is adapted to acquire the rotational speeds ω_{j }detected by the various rotational speed sensors 930_{j }via the second acquisition part 740, and to determine whether or not the rotational speeds of the selected pair of driving wheels are equal to one another.
Moreover, it would be acceptable for the speed v of the moving vehicle MV to be kept the same during the intervals in which each of the first, the second, and the third control procedure are executed; or, alternatively, it would also be acceptable for the speeds v of the moving vehicle MV not to be equal during the intervals when the first to the third control procedure are executed. This is because no shifting of the load takes place while the moving vehicle MV is traveling upon a flat road surface at a constant speed.
Moreover, during traction control, the torque control part 710 sends a slip ratio estimation instruction to the slip ratio calculation part 790. And during traction control, via the second acquisition part 740, the torque control part 710 receives the rotational speeds ω_{j }sent from the respective rotational speed sensors 930_{j }and the results of detection sent from the various sensors 950. Moreover, the torque control part 710 receives the slip ratios sent from the slip ratio calculation part 790, and the torque control part 710 determines torque instruction values T_{mj }for traction control on the basis of the above rotational speeds ω_{j}, the above detection results, and the above slip ratios.
Next, the torque control part 710 generates torque creation signals on the basis of the torque instruction values T_{mj }that it has determined, and sends these torque creation signals that it has generated to the inverters 910_{j}. Note that the torque control part 710 also sends the torque instruction values T_{mj }that have been determined in this manner to the driving force estimation part 720.
The driving force estimation part 720 described above implements the function of the driving force observer described above. The driving force estimation part 720 receives the torque control values T_{m1 }and T_{m2 }for the selected driving wheel pair sent from the torque control part 710, and also the rotational speeds for that selected driving wheel pair. And by functioning as a driving force observer on the basis of the torque control values T_{m1 }and T_{m2 }and the rotational speeds, the driving force estimation part 720 estimates the driving forces of the selected pair of driving wheels. The values of the driving forces that have been estimated in this manner are sent to the first acquisition part 730.
Note that in this embodiment, during traction control, the driving force estimation part 720 sends the driving forces for the driving wheels, which it has estimated by functioning as a driving force observer, to the slip ratio calculation part 790.
As mutual relationship information between the driving forces for the four driving wheels, the first acquisition part 730 described above acquires the values of the driving forces F_{d,FL }and F_{d,RL }for the first selected pair of drive wheels, the values of the driving forces F_{d,FL }and F_{d,RR }for the second selected pair of drive wheels, and the values of the driving forces F_{d,FR }and F_{d,RR }for the third selected pair of drive wheels sent from the driving force estimation part 720. And the first acquisition part 730 sends this mutual relationship information for the driving forces for the four driving wheels to the centroid estimation part 750.
The second acquisition part 740 described above acquires running state information for the moving vehicle MV from the various sensors 950. Moreover, the second acquisition part 740 receives the rotational speeds ω_{j }sent from the rotational speed sensors 930_{j}. And the second acquisition part 740 sends this running state information to the centroid estimation part 750. Furthermore, the second acquisition part 740 sends this running state information and the abovementioned rotational speeds ω_{j }to the torque control part 710. Yet further, the second acquisition part 740 sends the abovementioned rotational speeds ω_{j }to the slip ratio calculation part 790.
The centroid estimation part 750 described above receives the mutual relationship information for the driving forces for the four driving wheels sent from the first acquisition part 730. Moreover, the centroid estimation part 750 receives the running state information for the moving vehicle MV sent from the second acquisition part 740. And when, on the basis of the running state information, the centroid estimation part 750 has determined that the moving vehicle MV is traveling at a constant speed upon a flat road surface that is almost parallel to the horizontal plane, then it calculates the lengths L_{F }and L_{R }from Equations (18) and (19) and so on given above, and also calculates the lengths Lt_{L }and Lt_{R }from Equations (21) and (22) and so on given above.
Furthermore when, on the basis of the running state information, the centroid estimation part 750 has determined that the moving vehicle MV is traveling at an acceleration α upon a road surface that slopes at an angle of slope θ, or when it has determined that the moving vehicle MV is traveling at a constant speed upon a road surface that slopes at an angle of slope θ, or when it has determined that the moving vehicle MV is traveling at an acceleration α upon a flat road surface that is almost parallel to the horizontal plane, then it calculates the height H of the centroid of the moving vehicle MV from Equation (25) and so on given above.
Yet further, on the basis of the information giving the position of the centroid and the total weight MM of the moving vehicle MV, and using Equations (31) through (34) given above or Equations (44) through (47) given above, the centroid estimation part 750 calculates the normal reaction forces N_{FL}, N_{FR}, N_{RL}, and N_{RR }acting upon the driving wheels WH_{FL}, WH_{FR}, WH_{RL}, and WH_{RR}. The normal reaction forces N_{FL}, N_{FR}, N_{RL}, and N_{RR }that have been calculated in this manner are sent to the slip ratio calculation part 790 as normal reaction force information.
The details of the processing for estimating the position of the centroid and the normal reaction forces by the centroid estimation part 750 will be described hereinafter.
The slip ratio calculation part 790 described above receives the normal reaction force information for the moving vehicle MV sent from the centroid estimation part 750. Moreover, the slip ratio calculation part 790 receives the driving forces F_{d,FL}, F_{d,FR}, F_{d,RL}, and F_{d,RR }of the driving wheels WH_{FL}, WH_{FR}, WH_{RL}, and WH_{RR }sent from the driving force estimation part 720. And, by using Equation (3) described above, the slip ratio calculation part 790 calculates friction coefficients for the driving wheels WH_{FL}, WH_{FR}, WH_{RL}, and WH_{RR}. And, by using Equations (48) and (49) given above, or using Equations (57) and (58) given above, the slip ratio calculation part 790 then calculates slip ratios for the driving wheels WH_{FL}, WH_{FR}, WH_{RL}, and WH_{RR}. The slip ratios that have been calculated in this manner are sent to the torque control part 710 as estimated slip ratios.
The operation of the centroid estimation device 700 having the configuration described above will now be explained.
Firstly, the processing for estimation of the centroid of the moving vehicle MV and of the normal reaction forces that act upon its driving wheels will be explained.
Here, it will be supposed that the rotational speeds ω_{j }detected by the rotational speed sensors 930_{j }(where j=FL, FR, RL, and RR) are sent sequentially to the second acquisition part 740. Moreover, it will be supposed that the results of detection from the various sensors 950 are sent sequentially to the second acquisition part 740.
And it will be supposed that the rotational speeds ω_{j }that have been acquired are sent sequentially from the second acquisition part 740 to the torque control part 710 and to the slip ratio calculation part 790. Moreover, it will be supposed that the results of detection by the various sensors 950 are sent sequentially from the second acquisition part 740 to the torque control part 710 and to the centroid estimation part 750.
The estimation of the positions of the centroid of the moving vehicle MV in the longitudinal direction and in the transverse direction, and the estimation of the normal reaction forces, are executed when it has been determined, on the basis of the results of detection sent from the various sensors 950, that the moving vehicle MV is traveling at constant speed upon a flat road surface. Note that in this embodiment it is supposed that, each time the motors of the moving vehicle MV are started, there is a possibility that the positions of the passengers riding in the vehicle or the position of a load in the vehicle may change, and accordingly it is arranged for processing for estimating the position of the centroid of the moving vehicle MV to be started each time the motors 920_{j }that are installed to the moving vehicle MV are started.
In control for performing the estimation processing for the positions of the centroid of the moving vehicle MV in the longitudinal direction and in the transverse direction, first, as the first control procedure, the torque control part 710 selects the driving wheels WH_{FL }and WH_{RL }(i.e. the first selected driving wheel pair). And, under the condition that the total torque amount T_{m }is kept the same, the torque control part 710 determines torque control values T_{m1 }and T_{m2 }so that the rotational speeds ω_{FL }and ω_{RL }of the driving wheels WH_{FL }and WH_{RL }become the same, and sends the torque control values T_{m1 }and T_{m2 }that it has thus determined to the driving force estimation part 720, along with the values of the rotational speeds ω_{FL }and ω_{RL}.
Upon receipt of the torque control values T_{m1 }and T_{m2}, and the values of the rotational speeds ω_{FL }and ω_{RL }sent from the torque control part 710, the driving force estimation part 720 estimates the driving forces F_{d,FL }and F_{d,RL }for the first selected pair of driving wheels according to its function as a driving force observer, described above. And the driving force estimation part 720 sends these driving forces F_{d,FL }and F_{d,RL }for the first selected pair of driving wheels that it has thus estimated to the first acquisition part 730.
Next, as the second control procedure, the torque control part 710 selects the driving wheels WH_{FL }and WH_{RR }(i.e. the second selected driving wheel pair). And, under the condition that the total torque amount T_{m }is kept the same, the torque control part 710 determines torque control values T_{m1 }and T_{m2 }so that the rotational speeds ω_{FL }and ω_{RR }of the driving wheels WH_{FL }and WH_{RR }become the same, and sends the torque control values T_{m1 }and T_{m2 }that it has thus determined to the driving force estimation part 720, along with the values of the rotational speeds ω_{FL }and ω_{RR}.
Upon receipt of the torque control values T_{m1 }and T_{m2}, and the values of the rotational speeds ω_{FR }and ω_{RR }sent from the torque control part 710, the driving force estimation part 720 estimates the driving forces F_{d,FL }and F_{d,RR }for the second selected pair of driving wheels according to its function as a driving force observer, described above. And the driving force estimation part 720 sends these driving forces F_{d,FL }and F_{d,RR }for the second selected pair of driving wheels that it has thus estimated to the first acquisition part 730.
Next, as the third control procedure, the torque control part 710 selects the driving wheels WH_{FR }and WH_{RR }(i.e. the third selected driving wheel pair). And, under the condition that the total torque amount T_{m }is kept the same, the torque control part 710 determines torque control values T_{m1 }and T_{m2 }so that the rotational speeds ω_{FR }and ω_{RR }of the driving wheels WH_{FR }and WH_{RR }become the same, and sends the torque control values T_{m1 }and T_{m2 }that it has thus determined to the driving force estimation part 720, along with the values of the rotational speeds ω_{FR }and ω_{RR}.
Upon receipt of the torque control values T_{m1 }and T_{m2}, and the values of the rotational speeds ω_{FR }and ω_{RR }sent from the torque control part 710, the driving force estimation part 720 estimates the driving forces F_{d,FR }and F_{d,RR }for the third selected pair of driving wheels according to its function as a driving force observer, described above. And the driving force estimation part 720 sends these driving forces F_{d,FR }and F_{d,RR }for the third selected pair of driving wheels that it has thus estimated to the first acquisition part 730.
Upon acquisition of the driving forces F_{d,FL }and F_{d,RL }for the first selected pair of driving wheels, the driving forces F_{d,FL }and F_{d,RR }for the second selected pair of driving wheels, and the driving forces F_{d,FL }and F_{d,RR }for the third selected pair of driving wheels, the first acquisition part 730 sends the values of the driving forces for these first through third selected driving wheel pairs to the centroid estimation part 750 as mutual relationship information for the driving forces for the four driving wheels.
Upon receipt of the mutual relationship information for the driving forces for the driving wheels sent from the first acquisition part 730, the centroid estimation part 750 estimates the position of the centroid of the moving vehicle MV on the basis of the results of detection by the various sensors 950 sent from the second acquisition part. 740 when the moving vehicle MV is traveling at a constant speed upon a flat road surface.
During this estimation of the position of the centroid of the moving vehicle MV, first, from the values of the driving forces F_{d,FL }and F_{d,RL }for the first selected pair of driving wheels, the centroid estimation part 750 calculates k_{d2 }using Equation (7) given above, and also calculates k_{d3 }using Equation (10) given above from the values of the driving forces F_{d,FL }and F_{d,RR }for the second selected pair of driving wheels. And also, using Equation (13) given above, the centroid estimation part 750 calculates k_{d1 }from the values of the driving forces F_{d,FR }and F_{d,RR }for the third selected pair of driving wheels, and from the value of k_{d3 }which has just been calculated.
Next, the centroid estimation part 750 calculates the lengths L_{F }and L_{R }according to Equations (18) and (19) given above. Moreover, the centroid estimation part 750 calculates the lengths Lt_{L }and Lt_{R }according to Equations (21) and (22) given above.
And next, the centroid estimation part 750 calculates the normal reaction forces N_{FL}, N_{FR}, N_{RL}, and N_{RR }acting upon the driving wheels WH_{FL}, WH_{FR}, WH_{RL}, and WH_{RR }according to Equations (31) through (34) given above. The normal reaction forces N_{FL}, N_{FR}, N_{RL}, and N_{RR }that have been calculated in this manner are sent to the slip ratio calculation part 790 as normal reaction force information.
Estimation of the position of the centroid of the moving vehicle MV in the vertical direction and estimation of the normal reaction forces are performed when, on the basis of the results of detection sent from the various sensors 950, it has been determined that the moving vehicle MV is traveling at an acceleration α upon a road surface that slopes at an angle of slope θ, or when it has been determined that the moving vehicle MV is traveling at a constant speed upon a road surface that slopes at an angle of slope θ, or when it has been determined that the moving vehicle MV is traveling at an acceleration α upon a flat road surface that is almost parallel to the horizontal plane.
Note that it is supposed that the lengths L_{F }and L_{R }have already been derived.
In this estimation of the position in the vertical direction of the centroid of the moving vehicle MV, first, the torque control part 710 selects the first selected driving wheel pair. And, in a similar manner to the case of processing for estimation of the positions of the centroid “in the longitudinal direction and in the transverse direction” described above, the torque control part 710 determines torque control values T_{m1 }and T_{m2 }so that the rotational speeds of the first selected pair of driving wheels become equal to one another, and sends these torque control values T_{m1 }and T_{m2 }that have thus been determined to the driving force estimation part 720, along with the values of the rotational speeds ω_{FL }and ω_{FR}. And, according to its function as a driving force observer described above, the driving force estimation part 720 estimates the driving forces F_{d,FL }and F_{d,RL }for this first selected pair of driving wheels, and sends the results of this estimation to the first acquisition part 730.
Next, the torque control part 710 selects the second selected driving wheel pair. And, in a similar manner to the case of processing for estimation of the positions of the centroid “in the longitudinal direction and in the transverse direction” described above, the torque control part 710 determines torque control values T_{m1 }and T_{m2 }so that the rotational speeds of the second selected pair of driving wheels become equal to one another, and sends these torque control values T_{m1 }and T_{m2 }that have thus been determined to the driving force estimation part 720, along with the values of the rotational speeds ω_{FL }and ω_{RR}. And, according to its function as a driving force observer described above, the driving force estimation part 720 estimates the driving forces F_{d,FL }and F_{d,RR }for this second selected pair of driving wheels, and sends the results of this estimation to the first acquisition part 730.
And next, the torque control part 710 selects the third selected driving wheel pair. And, in a similar manner to the case of processing for estimation of the positions of the centroid “in the longitudinal direction and in the transverse direction” described above, the torque control part 710 determines torque control values T_{m1 }and T_{m2 }so that the rotational speeds of the third selected pair of driving wheels become equal to one another, and sends these torque control values T_{m1 }and T_{m2 }that have thus been determined to the driving force estimation part 720, along with the values of the rotational speeds ω_{FR }and ω_{RR}. And, according to its function as a driving force observer described above, the driving force estimation part 720 estimates the driving forces F_{d,FR }and F_{d,RR }for this third selected pair of driving wheels, and sends the results of this estimation to the first acquisition part 730.
And, upon receipt of these estimation results sent from the driving force estimation part 720, the first acquisition part 730 sends the values of the driving forces for the first through third driving wheel pairs to the centroid estimation part 750 as mutual relationship information for the driving forces for the four driving wheels.
In a similar manner to the case of processing for estimation of the positions of the centroid “in the longitudinal direction and in the transverse direction” described above, the centroid estimation part 750 calculates the ratios of the driving forces for the driving wheels k_{d1 }(=(F_{d,FR}/F_{d,RR})·k_{d3}), k_{d2 }(=F_{d,RL}/F_{d,FL}), and k_{d3 }(=F_{d,RR}/F_{d,FL}). And next, the centroid estimation part 750 calculates the height H of the centroid of the moving vehicle MV according to Equation (25) given above.
And next, the centroid estimation part 750 calculates the normal reaction forces N_{FL}, N_{FR}, N_{RL}, and N_{RR }acting upon the driving wheels WH_{FL}, WH_{FR}, WH_{RL}, and WH_{RR }according to Equations (44) through (47) given above. The normal reaction forces N_{FL}, N_{FR}, N_{RL}, and N_{RR }that have been calculated in this manner are sent to the slip ratio calculation part 790 as normal reaction force information.
Next, the slip ratio estimation processing performed in the embodiment will be explained.
Upon receipt of the “normal reaction force information” sent from the centroid estimation part 750, the slip ratio calculation part 790 executes slip ratio estimation processing.
In the embodiment, during estimation of the slip ratios, “parallel type” torque distribution is performed in which, along with the torque instruction values for the driving wheel WH_{FL }and the driving wheel WH_{FR }being set to a torque instruction value T_{m1}, also the torque instruction values for the driving wheel WH_{RL }and the driving wheel WH_{RR }are set to a torque instruction value T_{m2}, and the slip ratios λ_{j }(where j=FL, FR, RL, and RR) are estimated under these conditions.
During this estimation of the slip ratios λ_{j}, first, estimation of the slip ratios λ_{FL }and λ_{RL }for the left side driving wheels WH_{FL }and WH_{RL }is performed.
During this estimation of these slip ratios λ_{FL }and λ_{RL }for the left side driving wheels WH_{FL }and WH_{RL}, first, the torque control part 710 determines torque control values T_{m1 }and T_{m2 }when performing “parallel type” torque distribution on the basis of the sum total TT_{m }of the torque control values for the driving wheels WH_{FL }through WH_{RR }at the present time point, according to “T_{m1}=TT_{m}/4−ΔT_{m}” and “T_{m2}=TT_{m}/4+ΔT_{m}”. Here, ΔT_{m }is set in order to provide a moderate difference between T_{m1 }and T_{m2 }for calculation of the slip ratios. Moreover, no change in the sum total TT_{m }of the torque instruction values takes place.
Next the torque control part 710, along with generating torque creation signals on the basis of the torque control value T_{m1 }that has been determined and sending these torque creation signals that have thus been generated to the inverters 910_{FL }and 910_{FR}, also generates torque creation signals on the basis of the torque control value T_{m2 }that has been determined and sends these torque creation signals that have thus been generated to the inverters 910_{RL }and 910_{RR}. And the torque control part 710 sends a slip ratio estimation instruction that includes a designation of the driving state or the braking state and a designation of the left side driving wheels WH_{FL }and WH_{RL }to the slip ratio calculation part 790.
Upon receipt of this slip ratio estimation instruction, the slip ratio calculation part 790 takes the driving wheels WH_{FL }and WH_{RL }as being the driving wheels WH_{1 }and WH_{2 }in the theory of slip ratio estimation described above, and calculates the friction coefficients μ_{FL }and μ_{RL }at the same road surface position. And, on the basis of the abovementioned friction coefficients μ_{FL }and μ_{RL }and the rotational speeds ω_{FL }and ω_{RL }at the time point of calculation of those friction coefficients μ_{FL }and μ_{RL}, the slip ratio calculation part 790 calculates estimated values for λ according to Equations (48) and (49) given above, or according to Equations (57) and (58) given above.
Next, the slip ratio calculation part 790 sends the slip ratios λ_{FL }and λ_{RL }to the torque control part 710. And then the slip ratio estimation processing for the left side driving wheels terminates.
Next, estimation of the slip ratios λ_{FR }and λ_{RR }for the right side driving wheels WH_{FR }and WH_{RR }is performed. During this estimation of these slip ratios λ_{FR }and λ_{RR }for the right side driving wheels WH_{FR }and WH_{RR}, the slip ratio calculation part 790 takes the driving wheels WH_{FR }and WH_{RR }as being the driving wheels WH_{1 }and WH_{2 }in the theory of slip ratio estimation described above, and calculates the friction coefficients μ_{FR }and μ_{RR }in a similar manner to the case described above for the driving wheels WH_{FL }and WH_{RL}.
Next, in a similar manner to the case for the driving wheels WH_{FL }and WH_{RL }described above, the slip ratio calculation part 790 obtains the slip ratios λ_{FR }and λ_{RR }on the basis of the abovementioned friction coefficients μ_{FR }and μ_{RR }and the rotational speeds ω_{FR }and ω_{RR }at the time point of calculation of those friction coefficients μ_{FR }and μ_{RR}. And the slip ratio calculation part 790 sends these slip ratios λ_{FR }and λ_{RR }that have thus been obtained to the torque control part 710.
As has been explained above, in this embodiment, while keeping the total of the torque amounts for all of the four driving wheels WH_{FL}, WH_{FR}, WH_{RL}, and WH_{RR }constant, the torque control part 710 determines torque control values so that the rotational speeds of the first selected driving wheel pair (i.e. of the driving wheels WH_{FL }and WH_{RL}) become equal to one another, and then determines torque control values so that the rotational speeds of the second selected driving wheel pair (i.e. of the driving wheels WH_{FL }and WH_{RR}) become equal to one another. And next the torque control part 710 determines torque control values so that the rotational speeds of the third selected driving wheel pair (i.e. of the driving wheels WH_{FR }and WH_{RR}) become equal to one another. And the driving force estimation part 720 estimates the driving forces for the driving wheels on the basis of the torque control values that have been determined by the torque control part 710. Next, the centroid estimation part 750 calculates the ratios of the driving forces k_{d1 }(=F_{d,FR}/F_{d,RR}·k_{d3}), k_{d2 }(=F_{d,RL}/F_{d,FL}), and k_{d3 }(=F_{d,RR}/F_{d,FL}) from the mutual relationship information of the driving forces for the first through the third selected pairs of driving wheels. And then the centroid estimation part 750 estimates the position of the centroid of the moving vehicle MV on the basis of the abovementioned ratios k_{d1}, k_{d2}, and k_{d3 }of the driving forces and the positional relationship of the four driving wheels, and also estimates the normal reaction forces acting upon the driving wheels.
Thus, according to this embodiment of the present invention, it is possible to estimate the centroid of the moving vehicle with a simple structure, and without providing any special sensor.
Moreover, in this embodiment, the slip ratio calculation part 790 calculates the friction coefficients μ_{FL}, μ_{FR}, μ_{RL}, and μ_{RR }related to the plurality of driving wheels WH_{FL}, WH_{FR}, WH_{RL}, and WH_{RR }on the basis of the driving forces for the driving wheels that have been estimated from the torque control values for the plurality of driving wheels WH_{FL}, WH_{FR}, WH_{RL}, and WH_{RR}, and the normal reaction forces that have been derived by the centroid estimation part 750. And the slip ratio calculation part 790 calculates the slip ratios λ_{FL}, λ_{FR}, λ_{RL}, and λ_{RR }for the plurality of driving wheels WH_{FL}, WH_{FR}, WH_{RL}, and WH_{RR }on the basis of the friction coefficients μ_{FL}, μ_{FR}, μ_{RL}, and μ_{RR }that have thus been calculated, and the rotational speeds ω_{FL}, ω_{FR}, ω_{RL}, and ω_{RR }that have been acquired by the second acquisition part 740.
Due to this, by employing the position of the centroid of the moving vehicle MV that has thus been estimated, it is possible to estimate the friction coefficient for each of the tires and the slip ratio for each of the driving wheels simply and moreover rapidly and with good accuracy. As a result, due to the employment of centroid estimation according to the present invention, it is possible to determine whether or not the road surface is one upon which slippage can easily occur.
Furthermore, since in this embodiment it is possible to estimate the position in the longitudinal direction of the centroid of the moving vehicle, accordingly it is possible to ascertain the moment in the yaw direction. Due to this, it is also possible for the present invention to be applied in the following applications:
(1) estimation of the turning radius in terms of running speed and steering angle:
(2) determination of the steering characteristics of the moving vehicle (understeering, oversteering, or neutral steering); and
(3) horizontal slippage suppression control.
Furthermore, in this embodiment, since it is possible to estimate the height of the centroid of the moving vehicle from the road surface, and since it is possible to estimate the position of the centroid of the moving vehicle in the vertical direction, accordingly it is possible to ascertain the moments in the pitch direction and in the roll direction. Due to this, the present invention can also be applied to the following other applications:
(4) estimation of the pitching amount during starting off and during stopping, and of the pitching amount corresponding to acceleration or deceleration;
(5) estimation of the rolling amount when going around a bend, corresponding to the curve radius and to the running speed.
Accordingly, if it seems that horizontal slippage, pitching, or rolling may become greater, it becomes possible to warn the driver and/or automatically to reduce the motor torque in order to prevent such problems, and this can serve for ensuring safety and/or for prevention of deterioration of the driving feeling.
The present invention is not to be considered as being limited to the embodiment described above; it could be altered in various different ways.
For example, in the embodiment described above, the centroid estimation part obtains the ratio of the driving forces for the driving wheels (F_{d,RL}/F_{d,FL}) when the rotational speeds of the driving wheels WH_{FL }and WH_{RL }becomes equal, the ratio of the driving forces for the driving wheels (F_{d,RR}/F_{d,FL}) when the rotational speeds of the driving wheels WH_{FL }and WH_{RR }becomes equal, and the ratio of the driving forces for the driving wheels (F_{d,FR}/F_{d,RR}) when the rotational speeds of the driving wheels WH_{FR }and WH_{RR }becomes equal, and thereby estimates the position of the centroid of the moving vehicle. By contrast, instead of the ratio (F_{d,RR}/F_{d,FL}), it would also be acceptable to arrange to obtain the ratio of the driving forces for the driving wheels (F_{d,RL}/F_{d,FR}) when the rotational speeds of the driving wheels WH_{FR }and WH_{RL }become equal, and for the centroid estimation part to estimate therefrom the position of the centroid of the moving vehicle.
Moreover, in the embodiment described above, while keeping the total of the torque amounts for all of the four driving wheels WH_{FL}, WH_{FR}, WH_{RL}, and WH_{RR }the same, the torque control part sequentially selected driving wheel pairs whose rotational speed was to be kept equal to one another (i.e. the first selected driving wheel pair, the second selected driving wheel pair, and the third selected driving wheel pair), and determined the torque control values so that the rotational speeds of the selected pair of driving wheels became equal to one another. By contrast, it would also be acceptable to arrange for the torque control part to determine torque control values so that the rotational speeds of all of the four driving wheels become equal to one another simultaneously.
Moreover, in the embodiment described above, in the estimation of the height of the centroid of the moving vehicle, it is necessary to calculate the ratios k_{d1}, k_{d2}, and k_{d3 }of the driving forces when the rotational speeds become equal for respective combinations of the driving wheels during intervals in which the acceleration α remains constant or the angle of slope θ remains constant. However, with the method of this embodiment in which the ratios k_{d1}, k_{d2}, and k_{d3 }of the driving forces are calculated sequentially, there are also some cases in which it is not possible to estimate the height H of the centroid of the moving vehicle MV by calculating the ratios k_{d1}, k_{d2}, and k_{d3 }of the driving forces during intervals in which the acceleration α remains constant or the angle of slope θ remains constant.
Supposing this type of case, when the moving vehicle MV is traveling at a constant speed upon a flat road surface that is almost parallel to the horizontal plane, torque distributions when the rotational speeds become equal are obtained in advance for the respective combinations of the driving wheels. And then it is possible to take these torque distributions as initial values, and to estimate the height H of the centroid of the moving vehicle MV from Equation (25) given above, by calculating the ratios k_{d1}, k_{d2}, and k_{d3 }of the driving forces when the rotational speeds become equal, when the moving vehicle MV is traveling upon a road surface that is inclined, or when the moving vehicle MV is traveling with a certain acceleration.
Here, to compare the amount of shifting of the load due to the acceleration and due to the sloping road surface when the moving vehicle MV is traveling at an acceleration α upon a road surface that is inclined at an angle of slope θ with the amount of such shifting when the moving vehicle MV is traveling at a constant speed upon a flat road surface, the distributions of motor torque that make the rotational speeds equal to one another are different. Due to this, the ratios k_{d1}, k_{d2}, and k_{d3 }of the driving forces when the moving vehicle MV is traveling upon a road surface that is inclined at an angle of slope θ at an acceleration α (hereinafter termed the “driving force ratios on a nonflat road surface and/or at nonconstant speed”), and the ratios k_{d1}, k_{d2}, and k_{d3 }of the driving forces when the moving vehicle MV is traveling upon a flat road surface that is almost parallel to the horizontal plane and at a constant speed (hereinafter termed the “driving force ratios on a flat road surface and at constant speed”), have different values. However, the differences between the driving force ratios during traveling upon a nonflat road surface and/or at nonconstant speed and the driving force ratios during traveling upon a flat road surface at constant speed are not very great. Accordingly, it is possible to estimate the height H of the centroid of the moving vehicle MV from the road surface with good accuracy in a comparatively short period of time by obtaining the torque distributions when the rotational speeds become equal for the various combinations of the driving wheels when the moving vehicle MV is traveling upon a flat road surface at constant speed in advance, and by storing them as initial values.
Moreover, in the embodiment described above, “parallel type” torque distribution is performed in which, along with the torque control values for the driving wheel WH_{FL }and for the driving wheel WH_{FR }being set to the torque instruction value T_{m1}, also the torque control values for the driving wheel WH_{RL }and for the driving wheel WH_{RR }are set to the torque instruction value T_{m2}, and the slip ratios λ_{j }(where j=FL, FR, RL, and RR) are estimated based thereupon. By contrast, it would also be acceptable to arrange to perform “crossed type” torque distribution in which, along with the torque control values for the driving wheel WH_{FL }and for the driving wheel WH_{RR }being set to the torque instruction value T_{m1}, also the torque control values for the driving wheel WH_{FR }and for the driving wheel WH_{RL }are set to the torque instruction value T_{m2}, and the slip ratios λ_{j }are estimated based thereupon. Furthermore, it would also be acceptable to arrange to perform the “parallel type” torque distribution and the “crossed type” torque distribution described above alternatingly, and to estimate the slip ratios λ_{j }based thereupon.
Note that, with slip ratio estimation in which “crossed type” torque distribution is performed, the slip ratios λ_{FL }and λ_{FR }for the front side driving wheels are calculated by taking the driving wheels WH_{FL }and WH_{FR }as being the driving wheels WH_{1 }and WH_{2 }in the explanation of “slip ratio estimation” given above. Moreover, in slip ratio estimation in which “crossed type” torque distribution is performed, the slip ratios λ_{FL }and λ_{FR }for the rear side driving wheels are calculated by taking the driving wheels WH_{RL }and WH_{RR }as being the driving wheels WH_{1 }and WH_{2 }in the explanation of “slip ratio estimation” given above.
Moreover, in the embodiment described above, the present invention was applied to a case in which the moving vehicle MV had four driving wheels that were capable of being driven mutually independently. By contrast, the present invention is not limited to a case in which the moving vehicle has four driving wheels; provided that a moving vehicle has a plurality of driving wheels that can be driven mutually independently, the present invention can be applied to estimation of the position of the centroid of that moving vehicle.
In the following, an example of the present invention will be explained with reference to
The schematic configuration of a centroid estimation device 100 according to the example of the present invention is shown in
As shown in
Moreover, motors 920_{j }are installed to the moving vehicle MV. And the inverters 910_{j}, the motors 920_{j}, and the rotational speed sensors 930_{j }are installed so as to correspond to the respective driving wheels WH_{j}.
The control unit 110 described above comprises a central processing device (i.e. a CPU) that serves as a calculation part. By executing a program, this control unit 110 fulfills the functions of the torque control part 710, the driving force estimation part 720, the first acquisition part 730, the second acquisition part 740, the centroid estimation part 750, and the slip ratio calculation part 790 in the centroid estimation device 700 of the embodiment described above.
The program executed by the control unit 110 is stored in the storage unit 120, and is loaded from the storage unit 120 and executed. It would be acceptable to arrange for this program to be acquired in a format of being recorded upon a transportable recording medium such as a CDROM, a DVD or the like; or it could also be acquired by the method of being distributed via a network such as the internet or the like.
Note that the processing executed by the control unit 110 will be described hereinafter.
Information and data of various types used by the control unit 110, such as the program described above and so on, is stored in the storage unit 120 described above. The control unit 110 is adapted to be capable of accessing this storage unit 120,
The operation of the centroid estimation device 100 having the configuration described above will now be explained.
Here, it will be supposed that the rotational speeds ω_{j }that have been detected by the rotational speed sensors 930_{j }are sequentially sent to the control unit 110. Moreover, it will be supposed that the results of detection by the various sensors 950 are sequentially sent to the control unit 110. Furthermore, it will be supposed that the function of a driving force observer is performed by the control unit 110, so that the driving forces for the respective driving wheels WH_{j }are sequentially calculated.
In this example, during estimation of the position of the centroid of the moving vehicle MV and slip ratio estimation that employs the result of this estimation of centroid position, as shown in
In the step S12, on the basis of the results of detection sent from the various sensors 950, the control unit 110 makes a decision as to whether or not the moving vehicle MV is traveling at constant speed upon a flat road surface. If the result of the decision is negative (N in the step S12), then the flow of control proceeds to a step S13.
In the step S13, the control unit 110 makes a decision as to whether or not estimation of the height H of the centroid of the moving vehicle MV has been completed. If the result of this decision is negative (N in the step S13), then the flow of control proceeds to a step S14. In this step S14, the control unit 110 performs processing to estimate the height H of the centroid of the moving vehicle MV from the road surface. The processing of this step S14 will be described hereinafter. And when this processing to estimate the height H of the centroid of the moving vehicle MV has been completed, the flow of control proceeds to a step S15.
On the other hand, if the result of the decision in the step S12 described above is affirmative (Y in the step S12), then the flow of control is transferred to a step S15. Moreover, if the result of the decision in the step S13 described above is affirmative (Y in the step S13), then the flow of control is likewise transferred to the step S15.
In this step S15, the control unit 110 performs slip ratio estimation processing using the normal reaction forces N_{FL}, N_{FR}, N_{RL}, and N_{RR }acting upon the driving wheels WH_{FL}, WH_{FR}, WH_{RL}, and WH_{RR }that have been calculated, in a similar manner to the case with the slip ratio estimation processing performed in the embodiment described above. And when this slip ratio estimation processing has been completed, the flow of control returns to the step S12.
Subsequently, the processing of the steps S12 through S15 described above is repeated.
Next, the “processing for estimating the positions of the centroid in the longitudinal direction and in the transverse direction” performed in the step S11 will be explained.
During this processing for estimating the positions of the centroid in the longitudinal direction and in the transverse direction, first, as shown in
In this step S22, the control unit 110 selects the driving wheels WH_{FL }and WH_{RL }as the selected driving wheel pair. Next, in a step S23, “processing to derive the driving forces for the selected pair of driving wheels when their rotational speeds become equal” is performed. The processing of this step S23 will be described hereinafter.
Next, in a step S24, the control unit 110 makes a decision as to whether or not, in the directly preceding step S23, it was possible to derive the driving forces F_{d,FL }and F_{d,RL }for the selected driving wheel pair (i.e. for the first selected driving wheel pair). If the result of the decision is negative (N in the step S24), then the flow of control is transferred to a step S32 which will be described hereinafter. On the other hand, if the result of the decision in the step S24 is affirmative (Y in the step S24), then the flow of control proceeds to a step S25.
In the step S25, the control unit 110 selects the driving wheels WH_{FL }and WH_{RR }as the selected driving wheel pair. And next, in a step S26, “processing to derive the driving forces for the selected pair of driving wheels when their rotational speeds become equal” is performed. The processing of this step S26 will be described hereinafter.
Next, in a step S27, the control unit 110 makes a decision as to whether or not, in the directly preceding step S26, it was possible to derive the driving forces F_{d,FL }and F_{d,RR }for the selected driving wheel pair (i.e. for the second selected driving wheel pair). If the result of the decision is negative (N in the step S27), then the flow of control is transferred to the step S32 which will be described hereinafter. On the other hand, if the result of the decision in the step S27 is affirmative (Y in the step S27), then the flow of control proceeds to a step S28.
In the step S28, the control unit 110 selects the driving wheels WH_{FR }and WH_{RR }as the selected driving wheel pair. And next, in a step S29, “processing to derive the driving forces for the selected pair of driving wheels when their rotational speeds become equal” is performed. The processing of this step S29 will be described hereinafter.
Next, in a step S30, the control unit 110 makes a decision as to whether or not, in the directly preceding step S29, it was possible to derive the driving forces F_{d,FR }and F_{d,RR }for the selected driving wheel pair (i.e. for the third selected driving wheel pair). If the result of the decision is negative (N in the step S30), then the flow of control is transferred to the step S32 which will be described hereinafter. On the other hand, if the result of the decision in the step S30 is affirmative (Y in the step S30), then the flow of control proceeds to a step S31.
Next, in the step S31, from the values F_{d,FL }and F_{d,RL }of the driving forces for the first selected pair of driving wheels, the control unit 110 calculates k_{d2 }by using Equation (7) given above, and also, from the values F_{d,FL }and F_{d,RR }of the driving forces for the second selected pair of driving wheels, calculates k_{d3 }by using Equation (10) given above. And then, from the values F_{d,FR }and F_{d,RR }of the driving forces for the third selected pair of driving wheels and from the value of k_{d3 }that has been calculated as described above, the control unit 110 calculates k_{d1 }by using Equation (13) given above.
Next, the control unit 110 calculates the lengths L_{F }and L_{R }according to Equations (18) and (19) given above, and also calculates the lengths Lt_{L }and Lt_{R }according to Equations (21) and (22) given above. And next the control unit 110 calculates the normal reaction forces N_{FL}, N_{FR}, N_{RL}, and N_{RR }acting upon the driving wheels WH_{FL}, WH_{FR}, WH_{RL}, and WH_{RR }according to Equations (31) through (34) given above. And then the flow of control proceeds to the step S32.
In this step S32, the control unit 110 returns the distribution of the motor torque values for the four driving wheels to the values at the starting time point of processing in the step S11 (this will be described hereinafter with reference to
And next, in a step S33, the control unit 110 makes a decision as to whether or not it has been possible to estimate the position of the centroid of the moving vehicle MV. If the result of the decision is negative (N in the step S33), then the flow of control returns to the step S21. On the other hand, if the result of the decision in the step S33 is affirmative (Y in the step S33), then this processing for estimating the position of the centroid of the moving vehicle MV terminates. And then the flow of control proceeds to the step S12 of
<
Next, the “processing to derive the driving forces for the selected pair of driving wheels when their rotational speeds become equal” performed in the steps S23, S26, and S29 described above will be explained.
As shown in
In the step S43, the control unit 110 makes a decision as to whether or not the relationship “ω_{1}≈ω_{2}” holds between the rotational speeds of the selected pair of driving wheels. If the result of the decision is affirmative (Y in the step S43), then the flow of control proceeds to a step S44. In this step S44, the control unit 110 acquires the driving forces F_{d,FL }and F_{d,RL }for the selected pair of driving wheels. When the driving forces when the rotational speeds of the selected pair of driving wheels are almost equal have been acquired in this manner, this driving force derivation processing terminates.
On the other hand, if the result of the decision in the step S43 described above is negative (N in the step S43), then the flow of control is transferred to a step S45. In this step S45, the control unit 110 makes a decision as to whether or not the relationship “ω_{1}2” holds between the rotational speeds of the selected pair of driving wheels. If the result of the decision is affirmative (Y in the step S45), then the flow of control proceeds to a step S46.
In this step S46, the control unit 110 sets a new distribution ratio k_{1 }equal to “k_{1}+Δk”, and also sets a new distribution ratio k_{2 }equal to “k_{2}−Δk”. As a result, along with a new torque control value T_{m1 }being set to “k_{1}·T_{m}=(k_{1}+Δk)T_{m}”, also a new torque control value T_{m2 }is set to “k_{2}·T_{m}=(k_{2}−Δk)T_{m}”. And then the flow of control is transferred to a step S48 that will be described hereinafter.
On the other hand, if the result of the decision in the step S45 described above is negative (N in the step S45), then the flow of control is transferred to a step S47. In this step S47, the control unit 110 sets a new distribution ratio k_{1 }to “k_{1}−Δk”, and also sets a new distribution ratio k_{2 }equal to “k_{2}+Δk”. As a result, along with a new torque control value T_{m1 }being set to “k_{1}·T_{m}=(k_{1}−Δk)T_{m}”, also a new torque control value T_{m2 }is set to “k_{2}·T_{m}=(k_{2}+Δk)T_{m}”. And then the flow of control proceeds to the step S48.
In the step S48, in a similar manner to the case in the step S42 described above, the control unit 110 acquires the “rotational speeds ω_{FL }and ω_{RL}”, which are the rotational speeds ω_{1 }and ω_{2 }of the selected pair of driving wheels.
And next, in a step S49, the control unit 110 makes a decision as to whether or not the rotational speed ω_{1 }or the rotational speed ω_{2 }has greatly changed. If the result of the decision is affirmative (Y in the step S49), then this processing for derivation of the driving forces terminates. In this case, the reason for the termination of the processing for derivation of the driving forces is because, when the rotational speed ω_{1 }or the rotational speed ω_{2 }has abruptly risen from the previous time it was acquired, it is decided that the slip ratio is close to being in a large state, for example.
On the other hand, if the result of the decision in the step S49 is negative (N in the step S49), then the flow of control returns to the step S43. Note that, in the processing of this step S23, since the torque distribution ratios k_{1 }and k_{2 }are adjusted, accordingly it is still possible to continue processing for derivation of the driving forces when the rotational speeds become equal, even if the total torque amount T_{m }(which is determined from the amount by which the accelerator pedal is depressed) changes.
To compare the “processing for derivation of the driving forces when the rotational speeds of the selected pair of driving wheels become equal” in the step S26 mentioned above with the processing for derivation of the driving forces in the step S23, the points of difference are that, in the steps S42 and S48, the control unit 110 acquires the “rotational speeds ω_{FL }and ω_{RR}” as the rotational speeds ω_{1 }and ω_{2 }of the selected pair of driving wheels, and that, in the step S44, the control unit 110 acquires the driving forces F_{d,FL }and F_{d,RR }of the selected pair of driving wheels.
Moreover, to compare the “processing for derivation of the driving forces when the rotational speeds of the selected pair of driving wheels become equal” in the step S29 mentioned above with the processing for derivation of the driving forces in the step S23, the points of difference are that, in the steps S42 and S48, the control unit 110 acquires the “rotational speeds ω_{FR }and ω_{RR}” as the rotational speeds ω_{1 }and ω_{2 }on of the selected pair of driving wheels, and that, in the step S44, the control unit 110 acquires the driving forces F_{d,FR }and F_{d,RR }of the selected pair of driving wheels.
Here a case will be supposed in which, in the processing described above for estimation of the position of the centroid of the moving vehicle MV, as for example shown in
And, in the processing of the step S22 of
Then let it be supposed that when, by its function as a driving force observer, the control unit 110 calculates the driving forces for the first selected pair of driving wheels on the basis of the torque control values T_{m1 }(=120 Nm) and T_{m2 }(=60 Nm), these driving forces are respectively F_{d,FL}=400 N and F_{d,RL}=200 N. As a result, by employing Equation (7) given above, the result k_{d2}=(F_{d,RL}/F_{d,FL})=(200/400)=½ is obtained.
Furthermore, in the processing of the step S25 described above, the front left side driving wheel WH_{FL }and the rear right side driving wheel WH_{RR }are selected as the second selected driving wheel pair. Moreover let it be supposed that, in the processing of the step S26, as shown in
Then let it be supposed that when, by its function as a driving force observer, the control unit 110 calculates the driving forces for the second selected pair of driving wheels on the basis of the torque control values T_{m1 }(=108 Nm) and T_{m2 }(=72 Nm), these driving forces are respectively F_{d,FL}=360 N and F_{d,RR}=240 N. As a result, by employing Equation (10) given above, the result k_{d3}=(F_{d,RR}/F_{d,FL})=(240/360)=⅔ is obtained.
Yet further, in the processing of the step S28 described above, the front right side driving wheel WH_{FR }and the rear right side driving wheel WH_{RR }are selected as the third selected driving wheel pair. Moreover let it be supposed that, in the processing of the step S29, as shown in
Then let it be supposed that when, by its function as a driving force observer, the control unit 110 calculates the driving forces for the third selected pair of driving wheels on the basis of the torque control values T_{m1 }(=135 Nm) and T_{m2 }(=45 Nm), these driving forces are respectively F_{d,FR}=450 N and F_{d,RR}=150 N. As a result, by employing Equation (13) given above, the result k_{d1}=(F_{d,FR}/F_{d,RR})·k_{d3}=(450/150)·(⅔)=2 is obtained.
Next, from these driving force ratios k_{d1}=2, k_{d2}=½, and k_{d3}=⅔, the control unit 110 calculates the lengths L_{F }and L_{R }according to Equations (18) and (19) given above, and also calculates the lengths Lt_{L }and Lt_{R }according to Equations (21) and (22) given above. The results obtained are that L_{F}=(7/25)·L, L_{R}=(18/25)L, Lt_{L}=(16/25)Lt, and Lt_{R}=(9/25)Lt.
Note that, during the calculation of the driving forces for the selected pairs of driving wheels described above, since the vehicle is traveling at constant speed, accordingly (dω/dt) is assumed as being 0, so that a variant of Equation (2) described above is used, i.e. “F_{d}=T_{m}/r” (where r=0.3 m).
Next, the “centroid height estimation processing” performed in the step S14 will be explained. Note that it will be supposed that the lengths L_{F }and L_{R }have already been derived.
During this estimation of the height H of the centroid of the moving vehicle MV from the road surface, as shown in
In this step S52, the control unit makes a decision as to whether or not, when the moving vehicle has been traveling on a flat road surface at a constant speed, the ratios of the driving forces when the rotational speeds became equal, i.e. k_{d1 }(=(F_{d,FR}/F_{d,RR})·k_{d3}), k_{d2 }(=F_{d,RL}/F_{d,FL}), and k_{d3 }(=F_{d,RR}/F_{d,FL}), have been calculated. If the result of the decision is affirmative (Y in the step S52), then the flow of control proceeds to a step S53. In this step S53, the torque control values T_{m1 }and T_{m2 }when the ratios of the driving forces for the driving wheels k_{d1}, k_{d2}, and k_{d3 }were calculated are set as initial values. Then the flow of control proceeds to a step S54.
On the other hand, if the result of the decision in the step S52 described above is negative (N in the step S52), then the flow of control is transferred to the step S54.
In the step S54, the control unit selects the first selected driving wheel pair, in a similar manner to the processing of the step S22 of
Here, when the initial values of the torque control values have been installed in the step S53, the control unit performs similar processing to that of the above step S23 while using those initial values.
Next in a step S56 the control unit 110 makes a decision as to whether or not, in the directly preceding step S55, it was possible to derive the driving forces F_{d,FL }and F_{d,RL }for the first selected pair of driving wheels. If the result of the decision is negative (N in the step S56, then the flow of control is transferred to a step S64 that will be described hereinafter. On the other hand, if the result of the decision in the step S56 is affirmative (Y in the step S56), then the flow of control proceeds to a step S57.
In this step S57, the control unit 110 selects the second selected driving wheel pair, in a similar manner to the processing of the step S25 of
Here, when the initial values of the torque control values have been installed in the step S53, the control unit performs similar processing to that of the above step S26 while using those initial values.
Next in a step S59 the control unit 110 makes a decision as to whether or not, in the directly preceding step S58, it was possible to derive the driving forces F_{d,FL }and F_{d,RR }for the second selected pair of driving wheels. If the result of the decision is negative (N in the step S59), then the flow of control is transferred to the step S64 that will be described hereinafter. On the other hand, if the result of the decision in the step S59 is affirmative (Y in the step S59), then the flow of control proceeds to a step S60.
In this step S60, the control unit 110 selects the third selected driving wheel pair, in a similar manner to the processing of the step S28 of
Here, when the initial values of the torque control values have been installed in the step S53, the control unit performs similar processing to that of the above step S29 while using those initial values.
Next in a step S62 the control unit 110 makes a decision as to whether or not, in the directly preceding step S61, it was possible to derive the driving forces F_{d,FR }and F_{d,RR }for the third selected pair of driving wheels. If the result of the decision is negative (N in the step S62), then the flow of control is transferred to the step S64 that will be described hereinafter. On the other hand, if the result of the decision in the step S62 is affirmative (Y in the step S62), then the flow of control proceeds to a step S63.
In the step S63, the control unit calculates k_{d2 }from the values F_{d,FL }and F_{d,RL }of the driving forces for the first selected pair of driving wheels by using Equation (7) given above, and also calculates k_{d3 }from the values F_{d,FL }and F_{d,RR }of the driving forces for the second selected pair of driving wheels by using Equation (10) given above. And then, by using Equation (13) given above, the control unit calculates k_{d1 }from the values F_{d,FR }and F_{d,RR }of the driving forces for the third selected pair of driving wheels, and from k_{d3 }that has been calculated as described above.
Next, the control unit calculates the height H of the centroid of the moving vehicle MV from the road surface according to Equation (25) given above. And next the control unit 110 calculates the normal reaction forces N_{FL}, N_{FR}, N_{RL}, and N_{RR }acting upon the driving wheels WH_{FL}, WH_{FR}, WH_{RL}, and WH_{RR }according to Equations (44) through (47) given above. And then the flow of control proceeds to the step S64.
In the step S64, the control unit returns the distribution of motor torque values for the four driving wheels to the values at the starting time point of processing in the step S14 (refer to
And next in a step S65 the control unit 110 makes a decision as to whether or not it has been possible to estimate the height H of the centroid of the moving vehicle MV. If the result of the decision is negative (N in the step S65), then the flow of control returns to the step S51. On the other hand, if the result of the decision in the step S65 is affirmative (Y in the step S65), then this processing for estimating the height H of the centroid of the moving vehicle terminates. And then the flow of control is transferred to the step S15 of
As has been explained above, in the example, while keeping the total of the torque amounts for all of the four driving wheels WH_{FL}, WH_{FR}, WH_{RL}, and WH_{RR }the same, the control unit 110 determines torque control values so that the rotational speeds of the first selected driving wheel pair (i.e. the driving wheels WH_{FL }and WH_{RL}) become equal to one another, and next determines torque control values so that the rotational speeds of the second selected driving wheel pair (i.e. the driving wheels WH_{FL }and WH_{RR}) become equal to one another. And next the control unit 110 determines torque control values so that the rotational speeds of the third selected driving wheel pair (i.e. the driving wheels WH_{FR }and WH_{RR}) become equal to one another. And the control unit 110 estimates the driving forces for the driving wheels on the basis of the torque control values that have been determined. Next, the control unit 110 calculates the ratios of the driving forces k_{d1 }(=(F_{d,FR}/F_{d,RR})·k_{d3}), k_{d2 }(=F_{d,RL}/F_{d,FL}), and k_{d3 }(=F_{d,RR}/F_{d,FL}) from the mutual relationship information of the driving forces for the first through the third selected pairs of driving wheels. And then the control unit 110 estimates the position of the centroid of the moving vehicle MV on the basis of the abovementioned ratios k_{d1}, k_{d2}, and k_{d3 }of the driving forces and the positional relationship of the four driving wheels, and also estimates the normal reaction forces acting upon the driving wheels.
Thus, according to the present invention, it is possible to estimate the position of the centroid of the moving vehicle with a simple structure, and without the provision of any special sensor.
Moreover, in the example, the control unit 110 derives the normal reaction forces N_{FL}, N_{FR}, N_{RL}, and N_{RR }that act upon the driving wheels WH_{FL}, WH_{FR}, WH_{RL}, and WH_{RR }on the basis of the position of the centroid of the moving vehicle MV that has been estimated. Next, the control unit 110 calculates the friction coefficients μ_{FL}, μ_{FR}, μ_{RL}, and μ_{RR }related to the plurality of driving wheels WH_{FL}, WH_{FR}, WH_{RL}, and WH_{RR }on the basis of the driving forces for the driving wheels that have been estimated from the torque control values for the plurality of driving wheels WH_{FL}, WH_{FR}, WH_{RL}, and WH_{RR}, and on the basis of the normal reaction forces that have been derived. And the control unit 110 calculates the slip ratios λ_{FL}, λ_{FR}, λ_{RL}, and λ_{RR }of the plurality of driving wheels WH_{FL}, WH_{FR}, WH_{RL}, and WH_{RR }on the basis of the friction coefficients μ_{FL}, μ_{FR}, μ_{RL}, and μ_{RR }that have been calculated, and on the basis of the rotational speeds ω_{FL}, ω_{FR}, ω_{RL}, and ω_{RR }that have been acquired.
Due to this, by employing the position of the centroid of the moving vehicle MV that has been estimated, it is possible to estimate the friction coefficient for each of the tires and the slip ratio for each of the driving wheels simply and rapidly and moreover with good accuracy. As a result, by employing the centroid estimation of the present invention, it is possible to determine whether or not the road surface is one upon which it is easy for slippage to occur.
The present invention is not to be considered as being limited to the example described above; it may be altered in various ways.
For example, in the example described above, the control unit estimated the position of the centroid of the moving vehicle by obtaining the ratio (F_{d,RL}/F_{d,FL}) of the driving forces for the driving wheels WH_{FL }and WH_{RL }when their rotational speeds became equal to one another, the ratio (F_{d,RR}/F_{d,FL}) of the driving forces for the driving wheels WH_{FL }and WH_{RR }when their rotational speeds became equal to one another, and the ratio (F_{d,FR}/F_{d,RR}) Of the driving forces for the driving wheels WH_{FR }and WH_{RR }when their rotational speeds became equal to one another. By contrast, instead of obtaining the ratio (F_{d,RR}/F_{d,FL}), it would also be acceptable to arrange for the control unit to estimate the position of the centroid of the moving vehicle by obtaining the ratio (F_{d,RL}/F_{d,FR}) of the driving forces for the driving wheels WH_{FR }and WH_{RL }when their rotational speeds become equal to one another.
Moreover, in the example described above, while keeping the total of all of the torque amounts for the four driving wheels WH_{FL}, WH_{FR}, WH_{RL}, and WH_{RR }the same, the control unit sequentially selected driving wheel pairs whose rotational speeds were to be made equal to one another (i.e. the first selected driving wheel pair, the second selected driving wheel pair, and the third selected driving wheel pair), and determined torque control values such that the rotational speeds of the selected pair of driving wheels agreed with one another. By contrast, it would also be acceptable to arrange for the torque control unit to determine the torque control values so that the rotational speeds of all of the four driving wheels agreed with one another simultaneously.
For example, if the total torque for all of the four driving wheels is 360 Nm (see
However it is not simple to adjust the torques for the four driving wheels by increasing and decreasing them while maintaining the condition that the total torque is kept constant; and moreover, since the condition is also added that the yaw moment imposed upon the moving vehicle should not become high, a complicated algorithm is required in order to obtain all the driving force ratios in a single episode of processing. Accordingly, by performing adjustment of the torques sequentially in order as shown in the above example, processing is performed in a simple manner so as to satisfy both the two conditions the condition that the total torque should be kept constant, and the condition that no large yaw moment should be imposed upon the moving vehicle.
Moreover, in the example described above, “parallel type” torque distribution is performed in which, along with the torque control values for the driving wheel WH_{FL }and for the driving wheel WH_{FR }being set to the torque instruction value T_{m1}, also the torque control values for the driving wheel WH_{RL }and for the driving wheel WH_{RR }are set to the torque instruction value T_{m2}, and the slip ratios λ_{j }(where j=FL, FR, RL, and RR) are estimated based thereupon. By contrast, it would also be acceptable to arrange to perform “crossed type” torque distribution in which, along with the torque control values for the driving wheel WH_{FL }and for the driving wheel WH_{RR }being set to the torque instruction value T_{m1}, also the torque control values for the driving wheel WH_{FR }and for the driving wheel WH_{RL }are set to the torque instruction value T_{m2}, and the slip ratios λ_{j }are estimated based thereupon.
Furthermore, in the example described above, the present invention was applied to a case in which the moving vehicle MV had four driving wheels that could be driven independently of one another. By contrast, the present invention is not limited to a case in which the moving vehicle has four driving wheels; provided that the moving vehicle has a plurality of driving wheels that can be driven independently of one another, the present invention can be applied, and the position of the centroid of the moving vehicle can be estimated.