METHOD FOR MANUFACTURING A TOOTHING AND TOOTHING

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Abstract
A method for producing a toothing with multiple teeth of a gear element for a gas turbine engine including the following steps: predefining a tooth root shape that defines a shape of the toothing in the area of tooth roots of adjacent teeth, wherein the tooth root shape is described by a spline curve at least in certain sections, in particular completely; and forming the toothing with the tooth root shape. A toothing for a gear element includes multiple teeth and a tooth root shape which is formed in the area of tooth roots of adjacent teeth and which is formed according to a spline curve at least in certain sections, in particular completely.
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1 Specification
This application claims priority to German Application No. 10 2018 108 753.5 filed Apr. 12, 2018, which application is incorporated by reference herein.
The present disclosure relates to a method for producing a toothing according to claim 1, to a toothing according to claim 16, to a gear element and a gas turbine engine.
Toothings have multiple teeth with respectively one tooth tip and a tooth root located opposite the tooth tip, with the teeth being connected to each other via the tooth roots. A possible tooth root shape is a trochoid, which can be created in a rolling process of a tool, e.g. during gear hobbing. The shape of the toothing in the area of the tooth roots of adjacent teeth regularly has a great impact on the loadcarrying capacity of the toothing.
It is the objective of the present invention to improve the manufacturing of a toothing.
According to one aspect, a method for producing a toothing with multiple teeth, in particular a gear element for a gas turbine engine, is provided. The method comprises the step of predefining a tooth root shape which defines a shape of the toothing in the area of tooth roots of adjacent teeth, wherein the tooth root shape is described by a spline curve at least in certain sections, in particular completely. The method further comprises the step of forming the toothing with the tooth root shape. The toothing may for example be formed at a work piece, so that a gear element is produced from a work piece.
The tooth root shape extends e.g. across a portion of a side of a tooth and across a portion of a side of the adjacent tooth of the toothing. The tooth root shape can border an involute profile of each of the two teeth. In the transverse section (perpendicular to a rotational axis of the toothing), the involute profile is e.g. described by an involute. The involute profile of each tooth flank of the toothing e.g. extends from the adjacent tooth root shape to the tooth tip of the respective tooth. The toothing can be formed at a spur gear, e.g. inside a root form diameter (also referred to as the “true form diameter”, TF) of the toothing of the spur gears. The rootform diameter is that diameter of the toothing at which the transition from the tooth root curve to the involute profile takes place.
The description of the tooth root shape by means of a spline curve can be adjusted to the given application case in a particularly flexible manner, whereby the method for producing the toothing can be improved. Also, in this way toothings with a particularly high loadcarrying capacity can be provided. The description of the tooth root shape by means of the spline curve can e.g. occur in the transverse section of the toothing.
A spline function of a certain degree is a function that is comprised piecewise of polynomials of no higher than that degree. The spline curve may e.g. have a degree of more that or equal to 2, in particular a degree of more that or equal to 3. The spline curve is e.g. continuously differentiable, in particular one time less than the grade. The spline curve can e.g. have a C0, C1 or C2 continuity at a defined degree 3.
It can be provided that the tooth root shape (104A104C) is not described by a Bézier curve and/or that it is not describable by a Bézier curve. For example, the spline curve cannot be described by a Bézier curve.
The spline curve may optionally be a Bspline curve. A Bspline curve is a spline curve that is shown with respect to a base of Bspline functions. A Bspline function is a spline function with a compact support. Bspline functions can be calculated by using Coxde Boor recursion formula. The Bspline curve is determined by control points (also referred to as de Boor points). The Bspline curve is always located in the convex hull of the control points. The Bspline curve with a degree g can be defined as follows (e.g. in the transverse section of the toothing):
Here,
represent possible points of the Bspline curve as a function of the Bspline curve parameter t which can be varied in the range of 0<=t<=1 (zero smaller or equal to t smaller or equal to 1). Further,
represent the n+1 control points of the Bspline curve. The N_{k,g}(t) form the known normed Bspline functions and the base of the Bspline curve. The (B) spline curve can be an interpolating (B) spline curve. For example, the (B) spline curve interpolates its defining points. The interpolation conditions can be defined as follows:
Here,
represent the (n+1) defining points through which the Bspline curve must run.
The spline curve comprises multiple polynomials that are composed piecewise (at least at one node, in particular at two, three, or more than three nodes).
The toothing may e.g. be a spur gear toothing. The description of the tooth root shape by means of the spline curve is in particular realized in the transverse section of the toothing.
The (B)spline curve can have a parameter set with multiple parameters, wherein the parameters of the parameter set of the spline curve are respectively defined in polar coordinates as follows: a center point of a connecting line between two facing flanks of adjacent teeth at the height of a root form diameter of the toothing is defined; the semicircle of a circle about the center point that is facing towards the tooth root shape is divided into multiple, in particular equidistant, angles; and the respective parameter is defined by respectively one of the angles and a radial distance to the center point. Thus, the parameters can be indicated in polar coordinates beginning at the center point. This facilitates a simple calculation of the spline curve. The parameter set can be comprised of the defining points of the Bspline curve. Such a parameter set can be particularly easily scalable and can be applied to any size of the toothings.
The step of predefining the tooth root shape can comprise optimizing the parameters. In this manner, a parameter set can be found that facilitates a toothing with a particularly high loadcarrying capacity.
The step of optimizing the parameters can comprise defining a perturbation curve (or control cam) described by a parameter set. Here, the parameters of the parameter set of the (B) spline curve can be determined through the perturbation curve. In this manner, the optimizing can be simplified, since (i) the design space dimension can be reduced, (ii) complex tooth root geometries can maintain their qualitative shape and (iii) implicit geometric requirements are met a priori. In addition, it has been shown that particularly good results can be obtained in particular in this manner.
Optionally, the perturbation curve is a spline curve, in particular a Bspline curve. Alternatively, the perturbation curve can be a polynomial function, a Bézier curve (e.g. of the third degree) or a NURBS curve (nonuniform rationale Bspline curve).
In one embodiment, the number of parameters of the perturbation curve is smaller than the number of parameters of the (B) spline curve. This facilitates a further simplification of the optimizing process.
Optimizing the parameter values can comprise the following: multiple parameter sets with parameter values that vary from one parameter set to the other parameter set are predetermined. For each of the multiple parameter sets, a tooth root loadcarrying capacity of a toothing having a tooth root shape is determined, which is described by a spline curve with the respective parameter set. Then, the parameter set of that spline curve is selected for which the highest tooth root loadcarrying capacity has been determined. Optimizing can comprise establishing a random number (or a pseudo random number). The (pseudo) random number is e.g. used when varying the parameter sets. The varied parameter sets may e.g. be parameters of the perturbation curve, which may e.g. be control points. Alternatively, the varied parameter sets can be parameters of the spline curve (of the tooth root shape) itself, which may e.g. be the defining points or the control points.
The spline curve (in particular the Bspline curve) may for example have 4, 5 or more than 5, in particular 10 or more than 10, control points. In one embodiment, the (B) spline curve has 25 control points or more. In this manner, a great variety of tooth root shapes can be rendered. The Bspline function comprises e.g. at least 4 defining points and correspondingly the same number of control points. In this manner, a polynomial order of 3 (and thus C2continuity) can be ensured. Optionally, the degree of the (B) spline curve can be set to exactly 3 and at the same time more than 4 control points can be used, which allows for a high flexibility when producing the optimized tooth root shape.
Optionally, the (B) spline curve has an uneven number of control points. Here, particularly good tooth root strengths can be achieved in some application cases. Alternatively or additionally, the perturbation curve has an uneven number of control points.
As has already been mentioned, the (B) spline curve can be an interpolating (B) spline curve. For example, the (B) spline curve interpolates its defining points.
Optionally, the spline curve of the tooth root shape is a noninterpolated spline curve. Here, it is e.g. possible that the spline curve is determined by the control points KP.
The step of forming the toothing can comprise providing a work piece and machining, in particular cutting machining. The machining can comprise a nonrolling machining procedure, in particular profile milling or profile grinding. Alternatively, e.g. a gear hobbing of the work piece is possible. Thus, a gear element with the toothing can be produced. Alternatively, a gear element with the toothing can be primary formed. Thus, one aspect refers to a corresponding method for producing a gear element. The gear element can be a gear wheel, in particular for a gearbox of a gas turbine engine.
According to one aspect, a method for producing a gas turbine engine is indicated in which a gearbox with a gear element is provided that is produced as previously described.
What is provided according to one aspect is a toothing for a gear element, in particular of a gear element. The toothing can be produced according to a method according to any embodiment described herein. The toothing comprises multiple teeth and a tooth root shape formed in the area of tooth roots of adjacent teeth. Here, the tooth root shape is formed at least in certain sections, in particular completely, according to a spline curve.
The toothing can be symmetrical or asymmetrical. In both cases, the tooth root shape can be symmetrical or asymmetrical. Further, the toothing can be formed in a straight or oblique manner.
What is provided according to one aspect is a gear element, in particular for a gas turbine engine. The gear element may have any desired toothing described herein. The gear element may for example be an element of a planetary gearbox, e.g. a planetary gear, alternatively a sun gear or a ring gear of the planetary gearbox. Optionally, the planetary gearbox is embodied for driving the fan of the gas turbine engine.
What is provided according to one aspect is a gas turbine engine, in particular for an aircraft. The gas turbine engine comprises a core engine that comprises a turbine, a compressor and a core shaft that connects the turbine with the compressor; a fan that is positioned upstream of the core engine, wherein the fan comprises multiple fan blades; and a gearbox that can be driven by the core shaft, wherein the fan can be driven by means of the gearbox with a lower rotational speed than the core shaft, wherein the gearbox comprises a gear element with a toothing according to any of the embodiments described herein.
In the gas turbine engine, the turbine can be a first turbine, the compressor can be a first compressor and the core shaft can be a first core shaft. The core engine can further comprise a second turbine, a second compressor and a second core shaft that connects the second turbine to the second compressor. The second turbine, the second compressor and the second core shaft can be arranged in such a manner that they can rotate with a higher rotational speed than the first core shaft.
As noted elsewhere herein, the present disclosure may relate to a gas turbine engine, such as for example an aircraft engine. Such a gas turbine engine may comprise a core engine comprising a turbine, a combustion device, a compressor, and a core shaft connecting the turbine to the compressor. Such a gas turbine engine may comprise a fan (having fan blades) located upstream of the core engine.
Arrangements of the present disclosure may be particularly, although not exclusively, beneficial for gear fans that are driven via a gearbox. Accordingly, the gas turbine engine may comprise a gearbox that is driven via the core shaft, with its drive driving the fan in such a manner that it has a lower rotational speed than the core shaft. The input to the gearbox may be directly from the core shaft, or indirectly from the core shaft, for example via a spur shaft and/or gear. The core shaft may rigidly connect the turbine and the compressor, such that the turbine and the compressor rotate at the same speed (with the fan rotating at a lower speed).
The gas turbine engine as described and/or claimed herein may have any suitable general architecture. For example, the gas turbine engine may have any desired number of shafts that connect turbines and compressors, for example one, two or three shafts. Purely by way of example, the turbine connected to the core shaft may be a first turbine, the compressor connected to the core shaft may be a first compressor, and the core shaft may be a first core shaft. The core engine may further comprise a second turbine, a second compressor, and a second core shaft connecting the second turbine to the second compressor. The second turbine, second compressor, and second core shaft may be arranged to rotate at a higher rotational speed than the first core shaft.
In such an arrangement, the second compressor may be positioned axially downstream of the first compressor. The second compressor may be arranged to receive (for example directly receive, for example via a generally annular duct) a flow from the first compressor.
The gearbox may be embodied to be driven by the core shaft that is configured to rotate (for example in use) at the lowest rotational speed (for example the first core shaft in the example above). For example, the gearbox may be embodied to be driven only by the core shaft that is configured to rotate (for example in use) at the lowest rotational speed (for example only by the first core shaft, and not the second core shaft, in the example above). Alternatively, the gearbox may be embodied to be driven by one or multiple shafts, for example the first and/or second shaft in the above example.
In a gas turbine engine as described and/or claimed herein, a combustion device may be provided axially downstream of the fan and the compressor (or the compressors). For example, the combustion device may be located directly downstream of the second compressor (for example at the exit thereof), if a second compressor is provided. By way of further example, the flow at the exit to the combustor may be provided to the inlet of the second turbine, if a second turbine is provided. The combustion device may be provided upstream of the turbine(s).
The or each compressor (for example the first compressor and the second compressor according to the above description) may comprise any number of stages, for example multiple stages. Each stage may comprise a row of rotor blades and a row of stator vanes, which may be variable stator vanes (i.e. in that their angle of incidence may be variable). The row of rotor blades and the row of stator vanes may be axially offset with respect to each other.
The or each turbine (for example the first turbine and second turbine according to the above description) may comprise any number of stages, for example multiple stages.
Each stage may comprise a row of rotor blades and a row of stator vanes. The row of rotor blades and the row of stator vanes may be axially offset with respect to each other.
Each fan blade may have a radial span width extending from a root (or hub) at a radially inner gaswashed location, or from a 0% span position to a tip with a 100% span width. Here, the ratio of the radius of the fan blade at the hub to the radius of the fan blade at the tip may be less than (or on the order of) any of: 0.4, 0.39, 0.38 0.37, 0.36, 0.35, 0.34, 0.33, 0.32, 0.31, 0.3, 0.29, 0.28, 0.27, 0.26, or 0.25. The ratio of the radius of the fan blade at the hub to the radius of the fan blade at the tip may be in a closed range bounded by any two values in the previous sentence (i.e., the values may represent upper or lower bounds). These ratios may commonly be referred to as the hubtotip ratio. The radius at the hub and the radius at the tip may both be measured at the leading edge (or the axially forwardmost) edge of the blade. The hubtotip ratio refers, of course, to the gaswashed portion of the fan blade, i.e. the portion that is located radially outside any platform.
The radius of the fan may be measured between the engine centerline and the tip of a fan blade at its leading edge. The fan diameter (which may generally be twice the radius of the fan) may be greater than (or on the order of) any of: 250 cm (about 100 inches), 260 cm, 270 cm (about 105 inches), 280 cm (about 110 inches), 290 cm (about 115 inches), 300 cm (about 120 inches), 310 cm, 320 cm (about 125 inches), 330 cm (about 130 inches), 340 cm (about 135 inches), 350cm, 360cm (about 140 inches), 370 cm (about 145 inches), 380 (about 150 inches) cm or 390 cm (about 155 inches). The fan diameter may be in a closed range bounded by any two of the values in the previous sentence (i.e. the values may represent upper or lower bounds).
The rotational speed of the fan may vary during operation. Generally, the rotational speed is lower for fans with a higher diameter. Purely by way of nonlimitative example, the rotational speed of the fan at cruise conditions may be less than 2500 rpm, for example less than 2300 rpm. Purely by way of further nonlimitative example, the rotational speed of the fan at cruise conditions for an engine having a fan diameter in the range of from 250 cm to 300 cm (for example 250 cm to 280 cm) may be in the range from 1700 rpm to 2500 rpm, for example in the range of between 1800 rpm to 2300 rpm, for example in the range of between 1900 rpm to 2100 rpm. Purely by way of further nonlimitative example, the rotational speed of the fan at cruise conditions for an engine having a fan diameter in the range of between 320 cm to 380 cm may be in the range of between 1200 rpm to 2000 rpm, for example in the range of between 1300 rpm to 1800 rpm, for example in the range of between 1400 rpm to 1600 rpm.
In use of the gas turbine engine, the fan (with the associated fan blades) rotates about a rotational axis. This rotation results in the tip of the fan blade moving with a velocity U_{tip}. The work done by the fan blades on the flow results in an enthalpy rise dH of the flow. A fan tip loading may be defined as dH/U_{tip}^{2}, where dH is the enthalpy rise (for example the 1D average enthalpy rise) across the fan and U_{tip }is the (translational) velocity of the fan tip, for example at the leading edge of the tip (which may be defined as the fan tip radius at the leading edge multiplied by the angular speed). The fan tip loading at cruise conditions may be greater than (or on the order of) any of: 0.3, 0.31, 0.32, 0.33, 0.34, 0.35, 0.36, 0.37, 0.38, 0.39 or 0.4 (with all units in this paragraph being) Jkg^{−1}K^{−1}/(ms^{−1})^{2}). The fan tip loading may be in a closed range bounded by any two of the values in the previous sentence (i.e. the values may represent upper or lower bounds).
Gas turbine engines in accordance with the present disclosure may have any desired bypass ratio, where the bypass ratio is defined as the ratio of the mass flow rate of the flow through the bypass duct to the mass flow rate of the flow through the core at cruise conditions. In some arrangements, the bypass ratio may be greater than (or on the order of): 10, 10.5, 11, 11.5, 12, 12.5, 13, 13.5, 14, 14.5, 15, 15.5, 16, 16.5, or 17. The bypass ratio may be in a closed range bounded by any two of the values in the previous sentence (i.e. the values may represent upper or lower bounds). The bypass duct may be substantially annular. The bypass duct may be radially outside the core engine. The radially outer surface of the bypass duct may be defined by a nacelle and/or a fan housing.
The overall pressure ratio of a gas turbine engine as described and/or claimed herein may be defined as the ratio of the stagnation pressure upstream of the fan to the stagnation pressure at the exit of the highest pressure compressor (before entry into the combustion device). By way of nonlimitative example, the overall pressure ratio of a gas turbine engine as described and/or claimed herein at cruising speed may be greater than (or on the order of): 35, 40, 45, 50, 55, 60, 65, 70, 75. The overall pressure ratio may be in a closed range bounded by any two of the values in the previous sentence (i.e. the values may represent upper or lower bounds).
Specific thrust of an engine may be defined as the net thrust of the engine divided by the total mass flow through the engine. At cruise conditions, the specific thrust of an engine as described and/or claimed herein may be less than (or on the order of): 110 Nkg^{−1}s, 105 Nkg^{−1}s, 100 Nkg^{−1}s, 95 Nkg^{−1}s, 90 Nkg^{−1}s, 85 Nkg^{−1}s or 80 Nkg^{−1}s. The specific thrust may be in a closed range bounded by any two of the values in the previous sentence (i.e. the values may represent upper or lower bounds). Such engines may be particularly efficient as compared to conventional gas turbine engines.
A gas turbine engine as described and/or claimed herein may have any desired maximum thrust. Purely by way of nonlimitative example, a gas turbine as described and/or claimed herein may be capable of producing a maximum thrust of at least (or on the order of): 160 kN, 170 kN, 180 kN, 190 kN, 200 kN, 250 kN, 300 kN, 350 kN, 400 kN, 450 kN, 500 kN, or 550 kN. The maximum thrust may be in a closed range bounded by any two of the values in the previous sentence (i.e. the values may represent upper or lower bounds). The thrust referred to above may be the maximum net thrust at standard atmospheric conditions at sea level plus 15 deg C. (ambient pressure 101.3 kPa, temperature 30 deg C.), with the engine being static
In use, the temperature of the flow at the entry to the high pressure turbine may be particularly high. This temperature, which may be referred to as TET, may be measured at the exit to the combustion device, for example immediately upstream of the first turbine vane, which itself may be referred to as a nozzle guide vane. At cruise, the TET may be at least (or on the order of): 1400 K, 1450 K, 1500 K, 1550 K, 1600 K or 1650 K. The TET at cruise may be in a closed range bounded by any two of the values in the previous sentence (i.e. the values may represent upper or lower bounds). The maximum TET in use of the engine may be, for example, at least (or on the order of): 1700 K, 1750 K, 1800 K, 1850 K, 1900 K, 1950 K or 2000 K. The maximum TET may be in a closed range bounded by any two of the values in the previous sentence (i.e. the values may represent upper or lower bounds). The maximum TET may occur, for example, at a high thrust condition, for example at a maximum takeoff (MTO) condition.
A fan blade and/or aerofoil portion of a fan blade as described and/or claimed herein may be manufactured from any suitable material or combination of materials. For example, at least a part of the fan blade and/or aerofoil may be manufactured at least in part from a composite, for example a metal matrix composite and/or an organic matrix composite, such as carbon fiber. By way of further example at least a part of the fan blade and/or aerofoil may be manufactured at least in part from a metal, such as a titanium based metal or an aluminum based material (such as an aluminumlithium alloy) or a steel based material. The fan blade may comprise at least two regions that are manufactured by using different materials. For example, the fan blade may have a protective leading edge, which may be manufactured using a material that is better able to resist impact (for example from birds, ice or other material) than the rest of the blade. Such a leading edge may, for example, be manufactured using titanium or a titaniumbased alloy. Thus, purely by way of example, the fan blade may have a carbonfiber or aluminum based body (such as an aluminum lithium alloy) with a titanium leading edge.
A fan as described and/or claimed herein may comprise a central portion, from which the fan blades may extend, for example in a radial direction. The fan blades may be attached to the central portion in any desired manner. For example, each fan blade may comprise a fixture which may engage a corresponding slot in the hub (or disc). Purely by way of example, such a fixture may be present in the form of a dovetail that may be inserted into a corresponding slot in the hub/disc and/or may engage with the same in order to fix the fan blade to the hub/disc. By way of further example, the fan blades maybe formed integrally with a central portion. Such an arrangement may be referred to as a blisk or a bling. Any suitable method may be used to manufacture such a blisk or bling. For example, at least a part of the fan blades may be machined from a block and/or at least part of the fan blades may be attached to the hub/disc by welding, such as linear friction welding.
The gas turbine engines described and/or claimed herein may or may not be provided with a variable area nozzle (VAN). Such a variable area nozzle may allow for the exit area of the bypass duct to be varied during operation. The general principles of the present disclosure may apply to engines with or without a VAN.
The fan of a gas turbine as described and/or claimed herein may have any desired number of fan blades, for example 16, 18, 20, or 22 fan blades.
As used herein, cruise conditions may refer to the cruise conditions of an aircraft to which the gas turbine engine is attached. Such cruise conditions may be conventionally defined as the conditions at midcruise, for example the conditions experienced by the aircraft and/or engine at the midpoint (in terms of time and/or distance) between top of climb and start of descend.
Purely by way of example, the forward speed at the cruise condition may be any point in the range from Mach 0.7 to 0.9, for example 0.75 to 0.85, for example 0.76 to 0.84, for example 0.77 to 0.83, for example 0.78 to 0.82, for example 0.79 to 0.81, for example on the order of Mach 0.8, on the order of Mach 0.85, or in the range from 0.8 to 0.85. Any single speed within these ranges may be the cruise condition. For some aircrafts, the cruise conditions may be outside these ranges, for example below Mach 0.7 or above Mach 0.9.
Purely by way of example, the cruise conditions may correspond to standard atmospheric conditions at an altitude that is in the range from 10000 m to 15000 m, for example in the range from 10000 m to 12000 m, for example in the range from 10400 m to 11600 m (around 38000 ft), for example in the range from 10500 m to 11500 m, for example in the range from 10600 m to 11400 m, for example in the range from 10700 m (around 35000 ft) to 11300 m, for example in the range from 10800 m to 11200 m, for example in the range from 10900 m to 11100 m, for example on the order of 11000 m. The cruise conditions may correspond to standard atmospheric conditions at any given altitude in these ranges.
Purely by way of example, the cruise conditions may correspond to the following: a forward Mach number of 0.8; a pressure of 23000 Pa; and a temperature of −55 deg C.
As used anywhere herein, “cruise” or “cruise conditions” may refer to the aerodynamic design point. Such an aerodynamic design point (or ADP) may correspond to the conditions (comprising, for example, one or more of the Mach Number, environmental conditions and thrust requirement) in which the fan is designed to operate. This may mean, for example, the conditions at which the fan (or the gas turbine engine) is designed to have optimum efficiency.
During operation, a gas turbine engine as described and/or claimed herein may operate at the cruise conditions defined elsewhere herein. Such cruise conditions may be determined by the cruise conditions (for example the midcruise conditions) of an aircraft to which at least one (for example two or four) of the gas turbine(s) engine may be mounted in order to provide propulsive thrust.
The skilled person will appreciate that, except where mutually exclusive, a feature or parameter described in relation to any one of the above aspects may be applied to any other aspect. Furthermore, except where mutually exclusive, any feature or parameter described herein may be applied to any aspect and/or combined with any other feature or parameter described herein.
Embodiments will now be described by way of example only, with reference to the Figures, in which:
During operation, the core airflow A is accelerated and compressed by the lowpressure compressor 14, where further compression takes place. The air that is discharged from the highpressure compressor 15 in a compressed state is directed into the combustion device 16 where it is mixed with fuel and the mixture is combusted. The resulting hot combustion products are then propagated through the highpressure turbine 17 and the lowpressure turbine 19 and thus drive it by before being discharged through the core exhaust nozzle 20 for providing a certain thrust. The highpressure turbine 17 drives the highpressure compressor 15 via a suitable interconnecting shaft 27. The fan 23 usually provides the greatest portion of the propulsive thrust. The epicyclic planetary gearbox 30 is a reduction gear.
An exemplary arrangement for a geared fan gas turbine engine 10 is shown in
Note that the terms “low pressure turbine” and “low pressure compressor” as used herein may be taken to refer to the turbine stages with the lowest pressure and the compressor stages with the lowest pressure (i.e., not including the fan 23) and/or refer to the turbine and compressor stages that are connected to each other by the interconnecting shaft 26 with the lowest rotational speed in the engine (i.e., not including the gearbox output shaft that drives the fan 23). In some documents, the “low pressure turbine” and the “low pressure compressor” referred to herein may alternatively also be known as an “intermediate pressure turbine” and an “intermediate pressure compressor”. Where such alternative nomenclature is used, the fan 23 may be referred to as a first or lowest pressure stage.
The epicyclic planetary gearbox 30 is shown in more detail in
The epicyclic planetary gearbox 30 shown in
It will be obvious that the arrangement shown in
Accordingly, the present disclosure extends to a gas turbine engine 10 having any arrangement of gearbox styles (for example star arrangement or epicyclic planetary arrangements), support structures, input and output shaft arrangement, and bearing locations.
Optionally, the gearbox may drive additional and/or alternative components (e.g. the intermediate pressure compressor and/or a booster compressor).
Other gas turbine engines 10 to which the present disclosure may be applied may have alternative configurations. For example, such engines may have a different number of compressors and/or turbines and/or a different number of interconnecting shafts. By way of further example, the gas turbine engine shown in
The geometry of the gas turbine engine 10, and components thereof, is defined by a conventional axis system, comprising an axial direction (which is aligned with the rotational axis 9), a radial direction (in the bottomtotop direction in
Each of the teeth 101 has a tooth tip 103 that is facing away from the rotational axis D of the gear wheel, and a tooth root 102 via which the tooth 101 is connected to a base body 107 of the gear wheel. The base body 107 is a circular cylinder or alternatively a hollow circular cylinder. The teeth 101 are arranged at an outer circumference of the base body 107. In other toothings, e.g. the toothing of a ring gear, for example of the ring gear 38 according to
At its flanks, each of the teeth 101 has an involute profile 105. If a taut thread is unwound form the circumference of a circle, the course of the thread end describes an involute. With spur gears, the circle for defining the involute is referred to as the base circle. In
Respectively two adjacent teeth 101 describe a tooth root shape 104A together. The tooth root shape 104A is a concave surface and a concave line in the transverse section according to
In
The tooth root shape 104A is embodied according to a spline curve, in general at least in certain sections, in the shown example completely. In the shown example, the tooth root shape 104A is formed according to a Bspline curve. Put differently: the tooth root shape 104A is a Bspline curve. In the present case, the Bspline curve has the third degree, but alternatively also a degree 2 or higher degrees than 3 are possible.
The Bspline functions N_{k,g }(which are normed and belong to the knot vector) form a base of a spline space. They are locally defined and linearly independent. The Bspline functions have local supports. The Bspline functions form a positive partition of unity. Beginning and end of the Bspline curve are defined by points of intersection S of the flanks of the teeth 101 with the root form diameter d_{Ff }(or the root form diameters d_{Ff }of the two teeth 101, if these are different).
The interpolation conditions of the Bspline curve are defined as follows (in the transverse section of the toothing):
Here,
represent the (n+1) defining points DP of the Bspline curve. Further,
represent the (n+1) control points KP of the Bspline curve. The variables t_{i }run along the Bspline curve. As the origin of coordinates for the Cartesian coordinates xy that point can e.g. be chosen at which the transverse section intersects with the rotational axis D, the center point M or one of the two points of intersection S.
In
The parameterization of the Bspline curve is realized by means of auxiliary variables. A straight line (line segment) is placed between the two points of intersection S of the flanks of the teeth 101 with the root form diameter d_{Ff }(or the root form diameters d_{Ff}). The two points of intersection S are thus located on flanks of two of adjacent teeth 101 that do not have a common denominator. One of the points of intersection S can be located on a front flank, while the other of the two points of intersection S is located on the rear flank (with respect to a rotational direction). The center of the straight line between the points of intersection S is indicated as a center point M in
In the shown example, the Bspline curve comprises 25 defining points DP (that can also be referred to as support points). Generally, also less or more defining points DP can be used. For example, the Bspline curve can generally have more than 5, more than 10, more than 20, or more than 24 defining points DP.
Two of the defining points DP are arranged at the two points of intersection S. The other defining points DP are arranged on that side of the straight line between the points of intersection S that faces towards the tooth roots 102 (in other words, the tooth root shape 104A) of the two teeth 101. The defining points DP are arranged along rays that have their origin in the center point M. Here, the rays are distributed evenly about the center point M. Starting from a first defining point DP at one of the points of intersection S, the other defining points DP are arranged at unvarying angular distances up to an angle of 180 degrees, with the defining points DP also having equidistant angles φ_{i }about the center point M (below the straight line between the two points of intersection S).
The distance r_{i }of the individual defining points DP from the center point M is defined based on a factor ρ_{i}, the factor ρ_{i }is multiplied by the basic radius R_{G}, r_{i}=R_{G}ρ_{i}. If all factors ρ_{i }are set to 1, the defining points DP describe a semicircle. The first and the last defining point DP (at the points of intersection S) are not variable with respect to their position relative to the center point M. In this manner, a G^{0}continuity of the contour of the toothing 100A can be ensured. Here, G^{0}continuity means that the involute profiles 105 and the tooth root shape 104A touch at the transition.
The factors ρ_{i }are controlled based on a perturbation curve PK, see
By means of the perturbation curve PK, the values of the factors ρ_{i }can be determined for the predetermined angles φ_{i}. The factors ρ_{i }are thus selected trough the perturbation curve PK. The perturbation curve PK has a number of (m+1) control points KPK, in the shown example 7 control points KPK, with also less or more control points KPK being conceivable, e.g. 5 to 10 control points KPK, or more than 4, or more than 5 control points. In the present case, the control points KPK are arranged at positions φ=jπ/m (along the axis of abscissas). The first and the last control point KPK are located at the positions φ=0 and φ=π and have a fixed ordinate value of 1 (so that the first and the last control point KP of the tooth root shape 104A are located at the respective point of intersection S). The ordinate values p_{j }of the other control points KPK are variable. These are only 5 values based on which the shape of the perturbation curve PK is set, which in turn determines the shape of the Bspline curve of the tooth root shape 104A. The variable s runs along the perturbation curve PK (Bspline curve).
In this manner, the tooth root shape can be predetermined in a simple and efficient manner with just a few parameters.
The toothing 100A according to
As illustrated in
Alternatively, it is also possible to form an asymmetrical toothing with a symmetrical tooth root shape. Further, it is possible to form a symmetrical toothing with an asymmetrical tooth root shape.
The tooth root shapes 104A, 104B according to
Further, it is to be understood that the root form diameter d_{Ff }of the two adjacent teeth 101 of the respective toothing 100A100C can be equal or alternatively also different.
The toothings 100A100C can be formed as spur or helical toothings.
Further, it is alternatively possible to form the Bspline curve of the tooth root shape 104A104C as a noninterpolating curve, in particular also in such a manner that it is not defined by the defining points DP. In that case, the Bspline curve can optionally be determined by the control points KP. Here, this control points KP can be defined by a perturbation curve (e.g. in a corresponding manner to the one described above), in particular in the form of a Bspline curve.
In the following, a method for producing a toothing, in particular any of the previously described toothings 100A100C, is described based on
In general,
In a second step S2, the toothing 100A100C with the tooth root shape 104A104C is formed, e.g. by a work piece being provided with a toothing 100A100C.
A further step S122 comprises predefining multiple parameter sets with varied parameter values. In the course of it, it is optionally possible to predetermine start values (e.g. all values p_{i }are set to 1). Variation may e.g. be performed in discrete steps and/or based on random numbers or pseudo random numbers. The variation is in particular performed within a definition range. The definition range may e.g. be 0≤p_{i}≤2 (0 smaller or equal to p_{i }smaller or equal to 2; in particular if the perturbation curve PK is a Bspline curve, as in the above example, the perturbation curve PK is located inside the convex hull of its control polygon).
A further step S123 comprises establishing, for each of the multiple parameter sets, a tooth root loadcarrying capacity of a toothing 100A100C with a tooth root shape 104A104C that is described by a (B) spline curve according to the respective parameter set. This may e.g. be performed by means of a FEM model, in particular in the normal cut. The calculation of the tooth root loadcarrying capacity can also be performed with other numerical methods (e.g. the boundary element method, BEM). The calculation does not necessarily have to take place only in the normal cut. Also, a 3Dcalculation and/or optimizing is possible. For example, a variable tooth root surface in the axial direction is possible, which e.g. can be determined by a threedimensional calculation and/or optimizing. A tooth root safety S_{F}, e.g. can be calculated according to the international norm ISO 63363 and/or according to guideline VDI 2737. The tooth root loadcarrying capacity can be determined based on the tooth root safety.
A further step S124 comprises determining that parameter set of the (B) spline curve for which the highest tooth root loadcarrying capacity has been determined. The steps S122 to S124 can optionally be performed in multiple iterations. Here, a maximum number for the repetitions and/or a stop criterion (e.g. converging parameter) can be predetermined. In particular, the values p_{j }of the perturbation curve PK can be subjected to the optimization process. Based on the perturbation curve PK, the modified values p_{j }yield the defining points DP of the Bspline curve of the tooth root shape 104A104C, whereby the Bspline curve can be uniquely defined.
The steps S121 to S124 can e.g. be performed in an automated manner, in particular by means of a computer 302 (see in particular
The tool 300 according to
The produced gear element with the toothing 100A100C is in particular a gear element according to
It is to be understood that the invention is not limited to the above described embodiments and various modifications and improvements can be realized without departing from the concepts described herein. Except where they are mutually exclusive, any of the features can be used separately or in combination with any other features, and the disclosure extends to all combinations and subcombinations of one or multiple features described herein and includes the same.
 9 main rotational axis
 10 gas turbine engine
 11 core engine
 12 air intake
 14 lowpressure compressor
 15 highpressure compressor
 16 combustion device
 17 highpressure turbine
 18 bypass thrust nozzle
 19 lowpressure turbine
 20 core thrust nozzle
 21 engine nacelle
 22 bypass channel
 23 fan
 24 stationary support structure
 26 shaft
 27 connecting shaft
 28 sun gear
 30 gearbox
 32 planetary wheels
 34 planetary carrier
 36 linkage
 38 ring gear
 40 linkage
 100A100C toothing
 101 tooth
 102 tooth root
 103 tooth tip
 104A104C tooth root shape
 105 involute profile
 106 undercut
 107 base body
 200 work piece
 300 tool
 301 drive
 302 computer
 A core air flow
 B bypass air flow
 D rotational axis
 DP defining point
 KP control point
 M center point
 PG control polygon
 PK perturbation curve
 KPK control point (perturbation curve)
 S point of intersection
 d pitch circle diameter
 d_{a }tip diameter
 d_{b }base circle diameter
 d_{f }tooth root diameter
 d_{Ff }root form diameter
 d_{Nf }root use diameter
 p_{i }parameter (perturbation curve)
 R_{G }basic radius
 R_{i }radius
 s_{t }spur gear thickness
 φ_{i }angles
 ρ_{i }factor