1. A system, comprising:
- a processor; and
a memory that stores executable instructions that, when executed by the processor, facilitate performance of operations, comprising;
determining source chunks stored within a storage system, wherein the source chunks are determined to have fewer than a defined number of data fragments;
based on combining the source chunks, generating a meta chunk; and
encoding the meta chunk to generate coding fragments that are employable to recover at least a portion of the source chunks.
Data protection with meta chunks increases capacity use efficiency without verification and data copying. In one aspect, a meta chunk is a data protection unit, which combines two or more source chunks that are determined to have a reduced sets of data fragments. The meta chunk can be encoded to generate a set of coding fragments, which can be stored and utilized to recover data fragments of any of the two or more source chunks. Further, the source chunks can be linked to the meta chunk. Furthermore, the sets of coding fragments, that were previously generated by individually encoding each source chunk, can be deleted.
- 1. A system, comprising:
a processor; and a memory that stores executable instructions that, when executed by the processor, facilitate performance of operations, comprising; determining source chunks stored within a storage system, wherein the source chunks are determined to have fewer than a defined number of data fragments; based on combining the source chunks, generating a meta chunk; and encoding the meta chunk to generate coding fragments that are employable to recover at least a portion of the source chunks.
- View Dependent Claims (2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10)
- 11. A method, comprising:
selecting, by a system comprising a processor, source chunks from chunks of an object storage system, wherein the source chunks are determined to have fewer data fragments than remaining of the chunks other than the source chunks; combining the source chunks to generate a meta chunk; and based on erasure coding the meta chunk, determining coding fragments for the source chunks at a meta chunk level, wherein the coding fragments are to be employed to recover at least a portion of the source chunks during a failure condition.
- View Dependent Claims (12, 13, 14, 15, 16)
- 17. A computer-readable storage medium comprising instructions that, in response to execution, cause a server device comprising a processor to perform operations, comprising:
combining source chunks stored within an object storage system to generate a meta chunk, wherein the source chunks are determined not to have more than a defined number of data fragments; and
- View Dependent Claims (18, 19, 20)
The subject disclosure relates generally to storage systems. More specifically, this disclosure relates to a system and method for efficient data protection with meta chunks.
The large increase in amount of data generated by digital systems has created a new set of challenges for data storage environments. Traditional storage area network (SAN) and/or network-attached storage (NAS) architectures have not been designed to support data storage and/or protection at large multi-petabyte capacity levels. Object storage technology can be utilized to meet these requirements. By utilizing object storage technology, organizations can not only keep up with rising capacity levels, but can also store these new capacity levels at a manageable cost point.
Typically, a scale-out, cluster-based, shared-nothing object storage that employs a microservices architecture pattern, for example, an Elastic Cloud Storage (ECS™) can be utilized as a storage environment for a new generation of workloads. ECS™ utilizes the latest trends in software architecture and development to achieve increased availability, capacity use efficiency, and performance. ECS™ uses a specific method for disk capacity management, wherein disk space is partitioned into a set of blocks of fixed size called chunks. User data is stored in these chunks and the chunks are shared. One chunk can comprise fragments of several user objects. Chunk content is modified in an append mode. When chunks become full, they are sealed and the content of sealed chunks is immutable. Oftentimes, chunks can comprise a reduced set of data fragments. This increases capacity overheads on data protection and there are some cases when the overheads may be unreasonably high.
The above-described background relating to ECS™ is merely intended to provide a contextual overview of some current issues, and is not intended to be exhaustive. Other contextual information may become further apparent upon review of the following detailed description.
The following presents a simplified summary of the specification in order to provide a basic understanding of some aspects of the specification. This summary is not an extensive overview of the specification. It is intended to neither identify key or critical elements of the specification nor delineate the scope of any particular embodiments of the specification, or any scope of the claims. Its sole purpose is to present some concepts of the specification in a simplified form as a prelude to the more detailed description that is presented in this disclosure.
Example systems and methods, and other embodiments, disclosed herein relate to facilitating capacity management in distributed storage systems. In one example embodiment, a system is disclosed that comprises a processor and a memory that stores executable instructions that, when executed by the processor, facilitate performance of operations. Moreover, the operations comprise determining source chunks stored within an object storage system; wherein the source chunks are determined to have fewer than a defined number of data fragments. Further, operations comprise based on combining the source chunks, generating a meta chunk; and encoding the meta chunk to generate coding fragments that are employable to recover at least a portion of the source chunks.
Another example embodiment of the specification relates to a method that comprises selecting, by a system comprising a processor, source chunks from chunks of an object storage system; wherein the source chunks are determined to have fewer data fragments than remaining of the chunks other than the source chunks and combining the source chunks to generate a meta chunk. Further, the method comprises based on erasure coding the meta chunk, determining coding fragments for the source chunks at a meta chunk level, wherein the coding fragments are to be employed to recover at least a portion of the source chunks during a failure condition.
Another example embodiment of the specification relates to a computer-readable storage medium comprising instructions that, in response to execution, cause a computing node device comprising a processor to perform operations, comprising combining source chunks stored within an object storage system to generate a meta chunk; wherein the source chunks are determined to have fewer than a defined number of data fragments; and based on erasure coding the meta chunk, determining coding fragments for the source chunks at a meta chunk level, wherein the coding fragments are to be employed to recover at least a portion of the source chunks during a failure condition.
The following description and the drawings set forth certain illustrative aspects of the specification. These aspects are indicative, however, of but a few of the various ways in which the principles of the specification may be employed. Other advantages and novel features of the specification will become apparent from the detailed description of the specification when considered in conjunction with the drawings.
One or more embodiments are now described with reference to the drawings, wherein like reference numerals are used to refer to like elements throughout. In the following description, for purposes of explanation, numerous specific details are set forth in order to provide a thorough understanding of the various embodiments. It may be evident, however, that the various embodiments can be practiced without these specific details, e.g., without applying to any particular networked environment or standard. In other instances, well-known structures and devices are shown in block diagram form in order to facilitate describing the embodiments in additional detail.
The term “cloud” as used herein can refer to a cluster of nodes (e.g., set of network servers), for example, within a distributed object storage system, that are communicatively and/or operatively coupled to each other, and that host a set of applications utilized for servicing user requests. In general, the cloud computing resources can communicate with user devices via most any wired and/or wireless communication network to provide access to services that are based in the cloud and not stored locally (e.g., on the user device). A typical cloud-computing environment can include multiple layers, aggregated together, that interact with each other to provide resources for end-users.
Example systems and methods disclosed herein, in one or more embodiments, relate to an elastic cloud storage (ECS™) platform that can combine the cost advantages of commodity infrastructure with the reliability, availability and serviceability of traditional arrays. In one aspect, the ECS™ platform can comprise a cluster of nodes (also referred to as “cluster” herein) that delivers scalable and simple public cloud services with the reliability and/or control of a private-cloud infrastructure. Moreover, the ECS™ platform comprises a scale-out, cluster-based, shared-nothing object storage, which employs a microservices architecture pattern. The ECS™ platform can support storage, manipulation, and/or analysis of unstructured data on a massive scale on commodity hardware. As an example, ECS™ can support mobile, cloud, big data, content-sharing, and/or social networking applications. ECS™ can be deployed as a turnkey storage appliance or as a software product that can be installed on a set of qualified commodity servers and/or disks. The ECS™ scale-out and geo-distributed architecture is a cloud platform that can provide at least the following features: (i) lower cost than public clouds; (ii) unmatched combination of storage efficiency and data access; (iii) anywhere read/write access with strong consistency that simplifies application development; (iv) no single point of failure to increase availability and performance; (v) universal accessibility that eliminates storage silos and inefficient extract, transform, load (ETL)/data movement processes; etc.
In an aspect, ECS™ does not rely on a file system for disk capacity management. Instead, ECS™ partitions disk space into a set of blocks of fixed size called chunks (e.g., having a chunk size of 128 MB). All user data is stored in these chunks and the chunks are shared. Typically, a chunk can comprise fragments of several different user objects. The chunk content can be modified in an append-only mode. When a chunk becomes full, it can be sealed and the content of a sealed chunk is immutable. Further, ECS™ does not employ traditional data protection schemes like mirroring or parity protection. Instead, ECS™ utilizes erasure coding for data protection. Although the systems and methods disclosed herein have been described with respect to object storage systems (e.g., ECS™), it is noted that the subject specification is not limited to object storage systems and can be utilized for most any storage systems that utilize erasure coding for data protection and chunks for disk capacity management. Thus, any of the embodiments, aspects, concepts, structures, functionalities or examples described herein are non-limiting, and the technology may be used in various ways that provide benefits and advantages in computing and data storage in general.
Clients 108 can send data system-related requests to the cluster 102, which in general is configured as one large object namespace; there may be on the order of billions of objects maintained in a cluster, for example. To this end, a node such as the node 104(2) generally comprises ports 112 by which clients connect to the cloud storage system. Example ports are provided for requests via various protocols, including but not limited to SMB (server message block), FTP (file transfer protocol), HTTP/HTTPS (hypertext transfer protocol), and NFS (Network File System); further, SSH (secure shell) allows administration-related requests, for example.
Each node, such as the node 104(2), includes an instance of an object storage system 114 and data services. For a cluster that comprises a “GEO” zone of a geographically distributed storage system, at least one node, such as the node 104(2), includes or coupled to reference tracking asynchronous replication logic 116 that synchronizes the cluster/zone 102 with each other remote GEO zone 118. Note that ECS™ implements asynchronous low-level replication, that is, not object level replication. Typically, organizations protect against outages or information loss by backing-up (e.g., replicating) their data periodically. During backup, one or more duplicate or deduplicated copies of the primary data are created and written to a new disk or to a tape, for example within a different zone. The term “zone” as used herein can refer to one or more clusters that is/are independently operated and/or managed. Different zones can be deployed within the same location (e.g., within the same data center) or at different geographical locations (e.g., within different data centers).
In general, and in one or more implementations, e.g., ECS™, disk space is partitioned into a set of large blocks of fixed size called chunks; user data is stored in chunks. Chunks are shared, that is, one chunk may contain segments of multiple user objects; e.g., one chunk may contain mixed segments of some number of (e.g., three) user objects. In one embodiment, a chunk manager 120 can be utilized to manage the chunks and their protection (e.g., via erasure coding (EC)). In an aspect, the chunk manager 120 can generate meta chunks, wherein a meta chunk is a data protection unit, which unites two or more normal (e.g., source) chunks that have a reduced sets of data fragments. A CPU 122 and RAM 124 are shown for completeness; note that the RAM 124 can comprise at least some non-volatile RAM. The node includes storage devices such as disks 126, comprising hard disk drives and/or solid-state drives. It is noted that the storage devices can comprise volatile memory(s) or nonvolatile memory(s), or both volatile and nonvolatile memory(s). Examples of suitable types of volatile and non-volatile memory are described below with reference to
In an aspect, the chunk can be protected by employing erasure coding. During erasure coding, a chunk can be divided into k data fragments of equal size. To encode the chunk, redundant m coding fragments are created so that the system can tolerate the loss of any m fragments. The process of generating the coding fragments is called encoding. The process of data fragments recovery using available data and coding fragments is called decoding. As an example, the encoding operation can be represented with the equation below:
and wherein, Xi,j is a defined coefficient from a coding matrix (e.g., wherein i, j, and/or k can be most any integer). Further, Dj are independent data fragments and Ci are coding fragments.
According to an aspect, the systems and methods disclosed herein can support geographically distributed setups (GEO) comprising two or more zones. GEO can be used to provide an additional protection of user data by means of replication. Replication works at the chunk level, wherein a backup copy of a chunk stored in a primary zone can be replicated to one or more secondary zones. Each zone protects the chunks it stores. If a copy of a chunk becomes unavailable, it can be recovered using its other copy. This process is called GEO recovery.
Referring now to
In one aspect, a source chunk detection component 302 can be utilized to determine two or more source chunks. As an example, a source chunk is a chunk that comprises fewer data fragments than a maximum number (k) of data fragments that can be stored within a chunk. There are several cases when a chunk has fewer than k data fragments. In one example, a chunk can be sealed before it gets filled. In this example scenario, a storage system stores only one or more (l) first data fragments, the data fragments with user data and the remaining k-l data fragments contain no user data so they are not stored. This scenario is normally a result of a failure or a node restart. As an example, when a storage system survives a period of instability, the system may produce thousands of poorly filled chunks with just one or two data fragments. In another example, a quasi-compacting garbage collection process detects unused blocks within chunks, reclaims their capacity, and re-uses the freed capacity to create new composite chunks. With the quasi-compacting garbage collection on, chunks degrade gradually. That is, a particular chunk can “lose” its data fragments at its beginning, its end, or in the middle. The number of lost fragments grows with the lapse of time.
Typically, a chunk table 304 can store information about chunks, for example, the number of data fragments stored in each chunk. The source chunk detection component 302 can utilize this information to identify two of more source chunks that can be combined to generate a meta chunk. As an example, source chunk detection component 302 can determine source chunks that when combined have k (or fewer than k) data fragments. The source chunk detection component 302 can optimize the source chunks selected such that the combined number of data fragments of the chunks has the closest value to k. It is noted that a source chunk can be a normal chunk or an existing meta chunk.
According to an aspect, a meta chunk generation component 306 can create a new meta chunk based on the source chunks selected by the source chunk detection component 302. It is noted that physical capacity is not allocated for the meta chunk. However, the meta chunk generation component 306 can create a layout within the new meta chunk. This layout maps the data fragments of the source chunks to the data fragments of the new meta chunk. This mapping can be stored within the chunk table 304. The creation of meta chunks does not impact data access because data location is still specified using source chunks, which remain the same. This assures advantage of meta chunks over conventional copying garbage collection. Use of meta chunks does not require resource-demanding verification procedure. Further, utilization of meta chunks does not require user data location updates. In one example, meta chunks can be utilized to protect user data at the zone/cluster level and information about meta chunks is typically not replicated to remote zones.
As described in detail supra, the meta chunk generation component 306 can generate a new meta chunk. A layout can be created within the new meta chunk that maps the data fragments of the source chunks to the data fragments of the new meta chunk. Further, an encoding component 402 can utilize erasure coding to encode the new meta chunk. The combined data fragments of the source chunks involved (k or fewer) are used for encoding. The encoding component 402 can generate and store m coding fragments for the new meta chunk. In an aspect, metadata of the source chunks (e.g., stored in chunk table 304) can be updated to reference their meta chunk.
Furthermore, a cleanup component 404 can be utilized to delete coding fragments associated with the source chunks (e.g., that were previously generated to protect each source chunk). As an example, for N source chunks, the cleanup component 404 can delete N sets of m coding fragments, one set per source chunk from the initial set. Source meta chunks (if any) can also be deleted by the cleanup component 404. Performing data protection at the meta chunk level (instead of source chunk level) allows to reduce the capacity overheads by N times, where N is a number of source chunks united in one meta chunk. Moreover, N*m previously generated coding fragments for the source chunks are replaced with just m coding fragments of the standard size for a meta chunk.
In one aspect, a failure detection component 502 can determine that a failure condition has occurred. For example, a failure condition can comprise a loss and/or unavailability of data (e.g., one or more data and/or coding fragments) due to data corruption, hardware failures, data center disasters, natural disasters, malicious attacks, etc. Moreover, the failure detection component 502 can detect the unavailability and/or loss at the source chunk level. A decoding component 506 can perform recovery of the data fragment at the meta chunk level. For example, the decoding component 506 can employ a decoding matrix that corresponds to the coding matrix utilized during erasure coding. Further, the decoding component 506 can utilize mapping information (e.g., that maps source chunks to a meta chunk) that is, for example, stored within the chunk table 304, to determine the meta chunk that is too be recovered. The decoding results in a recovery of the data fragments, which can then be stored as a part of its parent source chunk (e.g., by employing the data storage component 508).
In this example, Chunk A 602 comprises nine data fragments, D1A, D3A, D4A, D5A, D6A, D7A, D10A, D11A, and D12A (e.g., data fragments D2A, D8A, and D9A, can be deleted by a quasi-compacting garbage collector); Chunk B 604 comprises one data fragment D1B (e.g., the chunk was sealed prematurely); Chunk C 606 comprises two data fragment D1C, D2C (e.g., the chunk was sealed prematurely). Altogether the chunks above comprise 12 (k) data fragments and 12 (3*m) coding fragments. The overheads on data protection is 1 ( 12/12) instead of target ⅓ ( 4/12). In one aspect, the chunks A-C can be identified as source chunks that can be combined into a meta chunk (e.g., via the source chunk detection component 302).
FIG, 6D illustrates an example final layout of data and coding fragments. Since encoding is performed at meta chunk level, there are twelve data fragments (k) 652 and four (m) coding fragments 654 and the target level of overheads on data protection ⅓ ( 4/12) can be achieved. Data protection with meta chunks is a lightweight alternative to the copying garbage collector in ECS™. It increases of capacity use efficiency without verification and/or data copying. Although
Referring now to
At 704, a meta chunk can be generated based on the source chunks. Physical capacity is not allocated for the meta chunk, but a layout can be created within the new meta chunk. This layout can link the data fragments of the source chunks involved to the data fragments of the meta chunk. At 706, the meta chunk can be encoded to generate a set of coding fragments. As an example, the combined data fragments (k or fewer) of the source chunks are erasure coded by utilizing a k+m protection scheme and m coding fragments for the meta chunk are produced and stored. This set of coding fragments can be utilized to recover data fragments of one or more of the source chunks. At 708, the source chunks can be linked to the meta chunk. As an example, the metadata of the source chunks can be updated to include a reference to the meta chunk. Further, at 710, the individual sets of coding fragments, that were previously generated by individually encoding each source chunk, can be deleted. In one aspect, if the source chunks comprise one or more previously generated meta chunks, the previously generated meta chunks can also be deleted. Further, in this example scenario, the source chunks of the one or more previously generated meta chunks can be linked to the new meta chunk.
The systems and methods (e.g., 100-800) disclosed herein provide at least the following non-limiting advantages: (i) reduced capacity overheads during data protection; and (ii) creation of meta chunks does not impact data access because data location is still specified using normal chunks, which remain the same. Use of meta chunks does not require neither resource-demanding verification procedure nor user data location updates.
The ECS™ cluster 902 does not protect user data with traditional schemes like mirroring or parity protection. Instead, the ECS™ cluster 902 utilizes a k+m erasure coding protection scheme, wherein a data block (e.g., data chunk) is divided into k data fragments and m coding fragments are created (e.g., by encoding the k data fragments). Encoding is performed in a manner such that the ECS™ cluster 902 can tolerate the loss of any m fragments. As an example, the default scheme for ECS™ is 12+4, i.e. k equals to 12 and m equals to 4; however, the subject disclosure is not limited to this erasure coding protection scheme. When some fragments are lost, the missing fragments are restored via a decoding operation.
In one aspect, the storage services 9081-908M can handle data availability and protection against data corruption, hardware failures, and/or data center disasters. As an example, the storage services 9081-908M can comprise an unstructured storage engine (USE) (not shown), which is a distributed shared service that runs on each node 9041-904M, and manages transactions and persists data to nodes. The USE enables global namespace management across geographically dispersed data centers through geo-replication. In an aspect, the USE can write all object-related data (such as, user data, metadata, object location data) to logical containers of contiguous disk space known as chunks. Chunks are open and accepting writes, or closed and not accepting writes. After chunks are closed, the USE can erasure-code them. The USE can write to chunks in an append-only pattern so that existing data is never overwritten or modified. This strategy improves performance because locking and cache validation is not required for I/O operations. All nodes 9041-904M can process write requests for the same object simultaneously while writing to different chunks.
ECS™ continuously monitors the health of the nodes 9041-904M, their disks, and objects stored in the cluster. ECS™ disperses data protection responsibilities across the cluster, it can automatically re-protect at-risk objects when nodes or disks fail. When there is a failure of a node or drive in the site, the USE can identify the chunks and/or erasure coded fragments affected by the failure and can write copies of the affected chunks and/or erasure coded fragments to good nodes and disks that do not currently have copies.
Private and hybrid clouds greatly interest customers, who are facing ever-increasing amounts of data and storage costs, particularly in the public cloud space. ECS™ provides a scale-out and geo-distributed architecture that delivers an on-premise cloud platform that scales to exabytes of data with a TCO (Total Cost of Ownership) that'"'"'s significantly less than public cloud storage. Further, ECS™ provides versatility, hyper-scalability, powerful features, and use of low-cost industry standard hardware.
Referring now to
Generally, program modules include routines, programs, components, data structures, etc., that perform particular tasks or implement particular abstract data types. Moreover, those skilled in the art will appreciate that the inventive methods can be practiced with other computer system configurations, including single-processor or multiprocessor computer systems, minicomputers, mainframe computers, as well as personal computers, hand-held computing devices, microprocessor-based or programmable consumer electronics, and the like, each of which can be operatively coupled to one or more associated devices. The illustrated aspects of the specification can also be practiced in distributed computing environments where certain tasks are performed by remote processing devices that are linked through a communications network. In a distributed computing environment, program modules can be located in both local and remote memory storage devices.
Computing devices typically include a variety of media, which can include computer-readable storage media and/or communications media, which two terms are used herein differently from one another as follows. Computer-readable storage media can be any available storage media that can be accessed by the computer and includes both volatile and nonvolatile media, removable and non-removable media. By way of example, and not limitation, computer-readable storage media can be implemented in connection with any method or technology for storage of information such as computer-readable instructions, program modules, structured data, or unstructured data. Computer-readable storage media can include, but are not limited to, RAM, ROM, EEPROM, flash memory or other memory technology, CD-ROM, digital versatile disk (DVD) or other optical disk storage, magnetic cassettes, magnetic tape, magnetic disk storage or other magnetic storage devices, or other tangible and/or non-transitory media which can be used to store desired information. Computer-readable storage media can be accessed by one or more local or remote computing devices, e.g., via access requests, queries or other data retrieval protocols, for a variety of operations with respect to the information stored by the medium.
Communications media typically embody computer-readable instructions, data structures, program modules or other structured or unstructured data in a data signal such as a modulated data signal, (e.g., a carrier wave or other transport mechanism), and includes any information delivery or transport media. The term “modulated data signal” or signals refers to a signal that has one or more of its characteristics set or changed in such a manner as to encode information in one or more signals. By way of example, and not limitation, communication media include wired media, such as a wired network or direct-wired connection, and wireless media such as acoustic, radio frequency (RF), infrared and other wireless media.
In order to provide a context for the various aspects of the disclosed subject matter,
Moreover, those skilled in the art will appreciate that the inventive systems can be practiced with other computer system configurations, comprising single-processor or multiprocessor computer systems, computing devices, mini-computing devices, mainframe computers, as well as personal computers, hand-held computing devices (e.g., PDA, phone, watch), microprocessor-based or programmable consumer or industrial electronics, and the like. The illustrated aspects can also be practiced in distributed computing environments where tasks are performed by remote processing devices that are linked through a communication network; however, some if not all aspects of the subject disclosure can be practiced on stand-alone computers. In a distributed computing environment, program modules can be located in both local and remote memory storage devices.
With reference to
System bus 1018 can be any of several types of bus structure(s) comprising a memory bus or a memory controller, a peripheral bus or an external bus, and/or a local bus using any variety of available bus architectures comprising, but not limited to, industrial standard architecture (ISA), micro-channel architecture (MSA), extended ISA (EISA), intelligent drive electronics (IDE), VESA local bus (VLB), peripheral component interconnect (PCI), card bus, universal serial bus (USB), advanced graphics port (AGP), personal computer memory card international association bus (PCMCIA), Firewire (IEEE 1394), small computer systems interface (SCSI), and/or controller area network (CAN) bus used in vehicles.
System memory 1016 comprises volatile memory 1020 and nonvolatile memory 1022. A basic input/output system (BIOS), comprising routines to transfer information between elements within computer 1012, such as during start-up, can be stored in nonvolatile memory 1022. By way of illustration, and not limitation, nonvolatile memory 1022 can comprise ROM, PROM, EPROM, EEPROM, or flash memory. Volatile memory 1020 comprises RAM, which acts as external cache memory. By way of illustration and not limitation, RAM is available in many forms such as SRAM, dynamic RAM (DRAM), synchronous DRAM (SDRAM), double data rate SDRAM (DDR SDRAM), enhanced SDRAM (ESDRAM), Synchlink DRAM (SLDRAM), Rambus direct RAM (RDRAM), direct Rambus dynamic RAM (DRDRAM), and Rambus dynamic RAM (RDRAM).
Computer 1012 also comprises removable/non-removable, volatile/non-volatile computer storage media.
It is to be appreciated that
A user can enter commands or information into computer 1012 through input device(s) 1036. Input devices 1036 comprise, but are not limited to, a pointing device such as a mouse, trackball, stylus, touch pad, keyboard, microphone, joystick, game pad, satellite dish, scanner, TV tuner card, digital camera, digital video camera, web camera, cellular phone, user equipment, smartphone, and the like. These and other input devices connect to processing unit 1014 through system bus 1018 via interface port(s) 1038. Interface port(s) 1038 comprise, for example, a serial port, a parallel port, a game port, a universal serial bus (USB), a wireless based port, e.g., Wi-Fi, Bluetooth®, etc. Output device(s) 1040 use some of the same type of ports as input device(s) 1036.
Thus, for example, a USB port can be used to provide input to computer 1012 and to output information from computer 1012 to an output device 1040. Output adapter 1042 is provided to illustrate that there are some output devices 1040, like display devices, light projection devices, monitors, speakers, and printers, among other output devices 1040, which use special adapters. Output adapters 1042 comprise, by way of illustration and not limitation, video and sound devices, cards, etc. that provide means of connection between output device 1040 and system bus 1018. It should be noted that other devices and/or systems of devices provide both input and output capabilities such as remote computer(s) 1044.
Computer 1012 can operate in a networked environment using logical connections to one or more remote computers, such as remote computer(s) 1044. Remote computer(s) 1044 can be a personal computer, a server, a router, a network PC, a workstation, a microprocessor based appliance, a peer device, or other common network node and the like, and typically comprises many or all of the elements described relative to computer 1012.
For purposes of brevity, only a memory storage device 1046 is illustrated with remote computer(s) 1044. Remote computer(s) 1044 is logically connected to computer 1012 through a network interface 1048 and then physically and/or wirelessly connected via communication connection 1050. Network interface 1048 encompasses wire and/or wireless communication networks such as local-area networks (LAN) and wide-area networks (WAN). LAN technologies comprise fiber distributed data interface (FDDI), copper distributed data interface (CDDI), Ethernet, token ring and the like. WAN technologies comprise, but are not limited to, point-to-point links, circuit switching networks like integrated services digital networks (ISDN) and variations thereon, packet switching networks, and digital subscriber lines (DSL).
Communication connection(s) 1050 refer(s) to hardware/software employed to connect network interface 1048 to bus 1018. While communication connection 1050 is shown for illustrative clarity inside computer 1012, it can also be external to computer 1012. The hardware/software for connection to network interface 1048 can comprise, for example, internal and external technologies such as modems, comprising regular telephone grade modems, cable modems and DSL modems, wireless modems, ISDN adapters, and Ethernet cards.
The computer 1012 can operate in a networked environment using logical connections via wired and/or wireless communications to one or more remote computers, cellular based devices, user equipment, smartphones, or other computing devices, such as workstations, server computers, routers, personal computers, portable computers, microprocessor-based entertainment appliances, peer devices or other common network nodes, etc. The computer 1012 can connect to other devices/networks by way of antenna, port, network interface adaptor, wireless access point, modem, and/or the like.
The computer 1012 is operable to communicate with any wireless devices or entities operatively disposed in wireless communication, e.g., a printer, scanner, desktop and/or portable computer, portable data assistant, communications satellite, user equipment, cellular base device, smartphone, any piece of equipment or location associated with a wirelessly detectable tag (e.g., scanner, a kiosk, news stand, restroom), and telephone. This comprises at least Wi-Fi and Bluetooth® wireless technologies. Thus, the communication can be a predefined structure as with a conventional network or simply an ad hoc communication between at least two devices.
The computing system 1000 is operable to communicate with any wireless devices or entities operatively disposed in wireless communication, e.g., desktop and/or portable computer, server, communications satellite, etc. This includes at least WiFi and Bluetooth® wireless technologies. Thus, the communication can be a predefined structure as with a conventional network or simply an ad hoc communication between at least two devices.
WiFi, or Wireless Fidelity, allows connection to the Internet from a couch at home, a bed in a hotel room, or a conference room at work, without wires. WiFi is a wireless technology similar to that used in a cell phone that enables such devices, e.g., computers, to send and receive data indoors and out; anywhere within the range of a base station. WiFi networks use radio technologies called IEEE 802.11 (a, b, g, n, etc.) to provide secure, reliable, fast wireless connectivity. A WiFi network can be used to connect computers to each other, to the Internet, and to wired networks (which use IEEE 802.3 or Ethernet). WiFi networks operate in the unlicensed 5 GHz radio band at a 54 Mbps (802.11a) data rate, and/or a 2.4 GHz radio band at an 11 Mbps (802.11b), a 54 Mbps (802.11g) data rate, or up to a 600 Mbps (802.11n) data rate for example, or with products that contain both bands (dual band), so the networks can provide real-world performance similar to the basic 10BaseT wired Ethernet networks used in many offices.
As it employed in the subject specification, the term “processor” can refer to substantially any computing processing unit or device comprising, but not limited to comprising, single-core processors; single-processors with software multithread execution capability; multi-core processors; multi-core processors with software multithread execution capability; multi-core processors with hardware multithread technology; parallel platforms; and parallel platforms with distributed shared memory in a single machine or multiple machines. Additionally, a processor can refer to an integrated circuit, a state machine, an application specific integrated circuit (ASIC), a digital signal processor (DSP), a programmable gate array (PGA) including a field programmable gate array (FPGA), a programmable logic controller (PLC), a complex programmable logic device (CPLD), a discrete gate or transistor logic, discrete hardware components, or any combination thereof designed to perform the functions described herein. Processors can exploit nano-scale architectures such as, but not limited to, molecular and quantum-dot based transistors, switches and gates, in order to optimize space usage or enhance performance of user equipment. A processor may also be implemented as a combination of computing processing units. One or more processors can be utilized in supporting a virtualized computing environment. The virtualized computing environment may support one or more virtual machines representing computers, servers, or other computing devices. In such virtualized virtual machines, components such as processors and storage devices may be virtualized or logically represented. In an aspect, when a processor executes instructions to perform “operations”, this could include the processor performing the operations directly and/or facilitating, directing, or cooperating with another device or component to perform the operations
In the subject specification, terms such as “data store,” data storage,” “database,” “cache,” and substantially any other information storage component relevant to operation and functionality of a component, refer to “memory components,” or entities embodied in a “memory” or components comprising the memory. It is noted that the memory components, or computer-readable storage media, described herein can be either volatile memory or nonvolatile memory, or can include both volatile and nonvolatile memory. By way of illustration, and not limitation, nonvolatile memory can include read only memory (ROM), programmable ROM (PROM), electrically programmable ROM (EPROM), electrically erasable ROM (EEPROM), or flash memory. Volatile memory can include random access memory (RAM), which acts as external cache memory. By way of illustration and not limitation, RAM is available in many forms such as synchronous RAM (SRAM), dynamic RAM (DRAM), synchronous DRAM (SDRAM), double data rate SDRAM (DDR SDRAM), enhanced SDRAM (ESDRAM), Synchlink DRAM (SLDRAM), and direct Rambus RAM (DRRAM). Additionally, the disclosed memory components of systems or methods herein are intended to comprise, without being limited to comprising, these and any other suitable types of memory.
The illustrated aspects of the disclosure can be practiced in distributed computing environments where certain tasks are performed by remote processing devices that are linked through a communications network. In a distributed computing environment, program modules can be located in both local and remote memory storage devices.
The systems and processes described above can be embodied within hardware, such as a single integrated circuit (IC) chip, multiple ICs, an application specific integrated circuit (ASIC), or the like. Further, the order in which some or all of the process blocks appear in each process should not be deemed limiting. Rather, it should be understood that some of the process blocks can be executed in a variety of orders that are not all of which may be explicitly illustrated herein.
As used in this application, the terms “component,” “module,” “system,” “interface,” “cluster,” “server,” “node,” or the like are generally intended to refer to a computer-related entity, either hardware, a combination of hardware and software, software, or software in execution or an entity related to an operational machine with one or more specific functionalities. For example, a component can be, but is not limited to being, a process running on a processor, a processor, an object, an executable, a thread of execution, computer-executable instruction(s), a program, and/or a computer. By way of illustration, both an application running on a controller and the controller can be a component. One or more components may reside within a process and/or thread of execution and a component may be localized on one computer and/or distributed between two or more computers. As another example, an interface can include input/output (I/O) components as well as associated processor, application, and/or API components.
Furthermore, the terms “user,” “consumer,” “client,” and the like are employed interchangeably throughout the subject specification, unless context warrants particular distinction(s) among the terms. It is noted that such terms can refer to human entities or automated components/devices supported through artificial intelligence (e.g., a capacity to make inference based on complex mathematical formalisms), which can provide simulated vision, sound recognition and so forth.
Further, the various embodiments can be implemented as a method, apparatus, or article of manufacture using standard programming and/or engineering techniques to produce software, firmware, hardware, or any combination thereof to control a computer to implement one or more aspects of the disclosed subject matter. An article of manufacture can encompass a computer program accessible from any computer-readable device or computer-readable storage/communications media. For example, computer readable storage media can include but are not limited to magnetic storage devices (e.g., hard disk, floppy disk, magnetic strips . . . ), optical disks (e.g., compact disk (CD), digital versatile disk (DVD) . . . ), smart cards, and flash memory devices (e.g., card, stick, key drive . . . ). Of course, those skilled in the art will recognize many modifications can be made to this configuration without departing from the scope or spirit of the various embodiments.
Artificial intelligence based systems, e.g., utilizing explicitly and/or implicitly trained classifiers, can be employed in connection with performing inference and/or probabilistic determinations and/or statistical-based determinations as in accordance with one or more aspects of the disclosed subject matter as described herein. For example, an artificial intelligence system can be used to dynamically perform operations as described herein.
A classifier can be a function that maps an input attribute vector, x=(x1, x2, x3, x4, xn), to a confidence that the input belongs to a class, that is, f(x)=confidence (class). Such classification can employ a probabilistic and/or statistical-based analysis (e.g., factoring into the analysis utilities and costs) to infer an action that a user desires to be automatically performed. In the case of communication systems, for example, attributes can be information received from access points, servers, components of a wireless communication network, etc., and the classes can be categories or areas of interest (e.g., levels of priorities). A support vector machine is an example of a classifier that can be employed. The support vector machine operates by finding a hypersurface in the space of possible inputs, which the hypersurface attempts to split the triggering criteria from the non-triggering events. Intuitively, this makes the classification correct for testing data that is near, but not identical to training data. Other directed and undirected model classification approaches include, e.g., naïve Bayes, Bayesian networks, decision trees, neural networks, fuzzy logic models, and probabilistic classification models providing different patterns of independence can be employed. Classification as used herein can also be inclusive of statistical regression that is utilized to develop models of priority.
In accordance with various aspects of the subject specification, artificial intelligence based systems, components, etc. can employ classifiers that are explicitly trained, e.g., via a generic training data, etc. as well as implicitly trained, e.g., via observing characteristics of communication equipment, e.g., a server, etc., receiving reports from such communication equipment, receiving operator preferences, receiving historical information, receiving extrinsic information, etc. For example, support vector machines can be configured via a learning or training phase within a classifier constructor and feature selection module. Thus, the classifier(s) can be used by an artificial intelligence system to automatically learn and perform a number of functions.
In addition, the word “example” or “exemplary” is used herein to mean serving as an example, instance, or illustration. Any aspect or design described herein as “exemplary” is not necessarily to be construed as preferred or advantageous over other aspects or designs. Rather, use of the word exemplary is intended to present concepts in a concrete fashion. As used in this application, the term “or” is intended to mean an inclusive “or” rather than an exclusive “or.” That is, unless specified otherwise, or clear from context, “X employs A or B” is intended to mean any of the natural inclusive permutations. That is, if X employs A; X employs B; or X employs both A and B, then “X employs A or B” is satisfied under any of the foregoing instances. In addition, the articles “a” and “an” as used in this application and the appended claims should generally be construed to mean “one or more” unless specified otherwise or clear from context to be directed to a singular form.
What has been described above includes examples of the present specification. It is, of course, not possible to describe every conceivable combination of components or methods for purposes of describing the present specification, but one of ordinary skill in the art may recognize that many further combinations and permutations of the present specification are possible. Accordingly, the present specification is intended to embrace all such alterations, modifications and variations that fall within the spirit and scope of the appended claims. Furthermore, to the extent that the term “includes” is used in either the detailed description or the claims, such term is intended to be inclusive in a manner similar to the term “comprising” as “comprising” is interpreted when employed as a transitional word in a claim.