MEMORY DEVICES HAVING SPECIAL MODE ACCESS
Memory devices are provided that include special operating modes accessible upon receipt of a particular message from a host. One device includes a memory array, a special mode enable register, and a controller. When the controller receives a register write command to write first data into the special mode enable register and the memory device does so, the memory device operates in a first mode. When the controller receives a register write command to write second data into the special mode enable register and the memory device does so, the memory device operates in a second mode.
This application is a continuation of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 16/151,845, filed on Oct. 4, 2018, which is a continuation of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 16/013,773, filed on Jun. 20, 2018, which is a continuation of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 14/839,173, filed on Aug. 28, 2015 now U.S. Pat. No. 10,062,420, which issued on Aug. 28, 2018, which is a divisional of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 14/231,393, filed on Mar. 31, 2014 now U.S. Pat. No. 9,122,420, which issued on Sep. 1, 2015, which is a divisional of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 13/357,533, filed on Jan. 24, 2012, now U.S. Pat. No. 8,687,422, which issued on Apr. 1, 2014, which is a divisional of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 11/873,826, filed on Oct. 17, 2007, now U.S. Pat. No. 8,102,710, which issued on Jan. 24, 2012. These are incorporated by reference herein in their entirety for all purposes.
Embodiments of the present invention relate generally to accessing and modifying settings of a NAND flash memory device, and particularly to accessing and modifying settings of a NAND flash memory device configured for interconnection via serial peripheral interface.
Generally, most NAND flash memory devices employ parallel communication between a NAND flash device and a host device across a multitude of input pins. Though effective, the quantity of pins vastly increases the amount of space a NAND flash memory device occupies on an integrated circuit (IC) chip. As an alternative to parallel communication, serial communication may reduce the number of interconnections. However, critical functionality may be reduced as the quantity of input pins decreases.
Serial peripheral interface (SPI) permits a synchronous serial data link between a master and one or more slave devices. For a synchronous serial connection to one slave device, SPI uses four wires, including chip select (CS), serial clock (SCK), master out slave in (MOSI, or SI), and master in slave out (MISO, or SO). To communicate with additional slave devices, a unique additional CS wire accompanies each device, though the additional devices may share the same SCK, SI, and SO wires. As slave devices are selected by the master one at a time, only one slave device will communicate with the master at any given moment.
The master typically enables a slave device by setting CS low. Once enabled, the slave device may communicate with the master. With data transmission synchronized to the serial clock signal (SCK), the master initiates the data frame, sending data signals on the slave in (SI) wire and receiving data on the slave out (SO) wire. Because both transmitting and receiving take place simultaneously, SPI communication may be referred to as full duplex.
Devices which have been configured to communicate using SPI include EEPROM and NOR flash memory, two forms of nonvolatile memory devices. SPI EEPROM allows ICs with as few as eight pins, while conventional EEPROM may require 32 pins or more. SPI NOR flash memory similarly allows ICs with substantially fewer pins than conventional NOR memory.
NOR flash memory may be considered well suited to SPI. Because NOR flash memory provides full address and data buses, NOR may offer random access to any memory location. Accordingly, with a serial communication protocol such as SPI, NOR may rather easily output a desired point of data.
On the other hand, NOR flash may generally prove less desirable than other memory formats, such as NAND flash, in many applications. NAND flash memory employs shorter erase times while occupying less die space than NOR flash. Additionally, NAND flash memory cells may endure a greater number of write and erase cycles than NOR flash, often by a factor of ten or more.
Due in part to the nature of NAND memory which reads out page by page, rather than providing random access to any memory location, NAND has been historically considered unfit for use with SPI. Moreover, because much standard NAND functionality depends on enabling various input pins at certain times, attempts to combine the two may require an unwieldy translation from SPI to standard NAND, and/or may fail to provide many useful features that may be desired.
Embodiments of the present invention may be directed to one or more of the problems set forth above.
The master 12 may enable the controller 14 by setting chip select signal CS 16 from high to low. After enabling the controller 14, master 12 may send a clock signal SCK 18 and a corresponding data signal SI 20. Each bit transmitted by SI 20 (and SO 22) may be synchronous to either a rising or falling edge of clock signal SCK 18. For illustrative purposes, memory device 10 inputs data on SI 20 latched on a rising clock edge and outputs data on SO 22 released on a falling edge. Accordingly, the first rising edge of clock signal SCK 18 corresponds to the first bit of SI 20, and subsequent rising clock edges of SCK 18 correspond to subsequent bits of SI 20. In the same way, each bit output on SO 22 transitions on a falling edge of clock signal SCK 18.
Communication between master 12 and controller 14 generally begins when master 12 sets chip select CS 16 low. Master 12 subsequently sends clock signal SCK 18 and starts to send a message via SI 20. As discussed below, a message may generally comprise a one-byte command, followed by a memory address of one or more whole bytes, often further followed by data of one or more whole bytes. Controller 14 may respond by sending a synchronous message via SO 22. Due to the nature of SPI, controller 14 may continually output garbage data through SO 22 until an appropriate time when master 12 expects a response.
Master 12 may send a write register command or a read register command in a message to controller 14. The write register command or read register command causes controller 14 to access volatile memory registers 24. Data transfer to and from controller 14 and registers 24 occurs across a bus 26 controlled by control wire 28. Possible memory registers 24 may include, for example, a status register to indicate device operation status and/or a special mode enable register such as a block writing lock (BWL) register 25A to prevent certain portions of memory from being written to, a one time programmable (OTP) enable register 25B to enable reading from or writing to an OTP portion of memory, and/or a parameter page (PP) enable register 25C to enable reading from or writing to a parameter page of memory.
Controller 14 may also access registers 24 when performing internal operations. Additionally, when a particular enable bit or flag is set for a given register, controller 14 may alter operations to enter an alternative operational mode, as discussed below.
Access to registers 24 may permit a user to control many functional aspects of memory device 10, such as output buffer drive strength, desired number of clock cycles of latency for outputting data, address cycle format to require whole bytes or to use a minimum number of addresses, and/or whether to enable or disable error correcting codes (ECC). Certain registers may hold, for example, error status, which may be reset upon the issuance of a register write command, while other registers may enable a user to control timing based on varying SCK 18 frequencies. Finally, for flexibility, a register may be configured to enable memory device 10 to switch between SPI NAND and NAND user modes and interfaces.
To perform an operation on nonvolatile NAND flash memory at a particular memory address, controller 14 may send the memory address signal across bus 30 to row and column decoders (not depicted). Controller 14 may control the activation of the row and column decoders using control wire 32. Depending on the operation, the controller may, for example, load data bytes into cache register 34 through bus 36, controlling cache register 34 with control wire 38. NAND memory array 40 receives data one page at a time through data register 42, which works in conjunction with cache register 34.
Communication method 44 of
Once controller 14 is enabled, step 50 begins. Controller 14 reads the first eight bits sent across SI 20 into a state machine in controller 14 circuitry, though alternative embodiments may read in more than eight bits. Decision block 52 illustrates that if the state machine fails to recognize the eight bits as a valid command, the controller returns to listening for a CS 16 enable signal at step 46 and decision block 48, waiting to become re-enabled when master 12 again sets CS 16 from high to low.
If the state machine recognizes the first eight bits of SI 20 as a valid command in decision block 52, the controller 14 continues to read in subsequent data from SI 20. In step 54, controller 14 next reads in a predetermined length of bytes signifying an address, which may vary depending on the command identified by the state machine. In one embodiment, dummy bits may be transmitted as a header to the address to allow for proper byte alignment. For example, a 17 bit address may include a 7 bit dummy header, such that the entire address length conforms to a whole number of bytes. If the command requires data, the controller may next read in a predetermined length of bytes signifying data in optional step 56. A controller 14 may be configured to recognize a number of SPI NAND commands, such as page read, read status, random data read, program load, program random data input, program execute, random data input, etc.
In step 62, master 12 first transmits an eight bit register write command signal, 1Fh in hexadecimal format, to controller 14, though alternative embodiments may use a command signal of any predetermined length that a state machine of controller 14 may accommodate. Immediately after master 12 sends the command signal, step 64 begins and master 12 sends a register address signal indicating the address of the memory register to which to write. Though the present embodiment sends a register address signal of one byte, alternative embodiments may employ a register address of any size, but typically a whole number of bytes. To the extent a register address may comprise a number of bits not a multiple of eight, dummy bits may be sent to fill spaces, which controller 14 may simply ignore as “don'"'"'t care” bits.
Proceeding to step 66 immediately after sending the register address signal, master 12 next sends a one-byte data signal comprising the data to write to the register. Though the registers 24 of SPI NAND memory device 10 each comprise only one byte of data, alternative embodiments may employ registers 24 comprising a greater whole numbers of data bytes. Once master 12 has sent the data, master 12 thereafter terminates the communication sequence by setting CS 16 high in step 68.
Register write timing diagram 70 of
The first rising edge 80 of clock signal SCK 18, which includes rising edges 80 shown in
In step 96, master 12 transmits a one-byte address signal representing the address of a memory register from which to read. As above, though the present embodiment sends a register address signal of one byte, alternative embodiments may employ a register address of any size, but typically a whole number of bytes. To the extent a register address may comprise a number of bits not a multiple of eight, dummy bits may be sent to fill spaces, which controller 14 may simply ignore as “don'"'"'t care” bits.
Controller 14 immediately returns the register data from the requested address via SO 22, and in step 98 master 12 subsequently receives the register data. Though the registers 24 of SPI NAND memory device 10 each comprise only one byte of data, alternative embodiments may employ registers 24 including a greater whole number of data bytes. Once master 12 has received the register data, master 12 thereafter terminates the communication sequence by setting CS 16 high.
Immediately following the register read command signal 114, represented in hexadecimal format as 0Fh, master 12 sends a one-byte register address signal 116 (having bits shown in
Rather than introduce additional commands exclusively for performing parameter page operations, the method of accessing a parameter page 124 instead prescribes the use of shared ordinary commands in a special operational mode. When a controller 14 enters a special operational mode, a master 12 may issue a shared ordinary command, such as page read, read status, or random data read, to perform a new operation to achieve a result not possible in an ordinary operational mode. Although the foregoing discussion relates primarily to an application of the method in SPI NAND memory device 10, the technique may apply generally to any NAND flash memory device where a reduced set of commands may be desired.
Referring again to
Having entered a parameter page access mode in step 126, master 12 may read parameter page contents by issuing standard commands. In step 128, master 12 issues a page read command. When a page read command is performed in an ordinary operational mode, the NAND flash memory device 10 prepares a page of memory to be read from a given address of NAND memory array 40. In a parameter page access mode, however, the page read command prepares to read the contents of the parameter page. Master 12 next polls the controller 14 for read status in step 130 by issuing a read status command. The read status command operates to align the data transmission by indicating when master 12 may begin to read data from the device. Master 12 may issue numerous read status commands before controller 14 returns data indicating master 12 may begin to read the data.
During step 132, master 12 obtains parameter page data by issuing a random data read command, causing controller 14 to output the contents of the parameter page via SO 22. To exit the parameter page access mode and return to an ordinary operational mode, in step 134, master 12 resets the parameter page access enable bit. Issuing a register write command addressed to the parameter page access register, master 12 sends a data byte in which the parameter page enable bit has been set low, and controller 14 returns to an ordinary operational mode.
In the same manner as NAND flash memory device 10, NAND flash memory device 136 includes a master 12 interconnected to controller 14 via chip select CS signal 16, clock signal SCK 18, data input signal SI 20, and data output signal SO 22. Controller 14 accesses volatile memory registers 24, which includes an OTP enable register 25B, using bus 26 and control wire 28. The OTP enable register 25B may include an OTP enable (EN) bit 27A, an OTP lock (LOCK) bit 27B, and/or an OTP protect (PROT) bit 27C. The registers 24 may also include an OTP password (OTP PW) register 29. To perform operations on the OTP block 138 in NAND memory, controller 14 may send an OTP page address via bus 30 to a row decoder and column decoder on NAND memory array 40, controlled via control wire 32. Controller 14 may send data to cache register 34 across bus 36, controlled via control wire 38. Cache register 34 may thereafter load the data into a page of OTP block 138 memory in conjunction with data register 42.
The method of accessing a block of one time programmable (OTP) memory 140 begins at step 142, when an OTP enable bit 27A in an OTP enable register 25B is set high. Master 12 may set the enable bit 27A by issuing a register write command addressed to the OTP enable register 25B, sending a data byte in which a prior-designated OTP enable bit 27A is set high. Optionally, master 12 may first perform a register read command to assess current OTP enable register 25B data, copy the current data, then issue a register write command to send the data in which only the OTP enable bit 27A has changed. Once the OTP enable bit 27A has been set high, controller 14 enters an OTP block access mode.
Optionally, OTP password protection may preclude writing to or even reading the OTP block. Controller 14 may require master 12 to enter a password of a predetermined number of bits into an OTP password register 29 in registers 24 using a register write command. Checking the entered password against a preexisting password stored in nonvolatile memory, controller 14 may allow master 12 to access OTP memory if the entered and preexisting password match.
Having entered an OTP block access mode in step 142, master 12 may subsequently perform operations on the OTP block by issuing standard commands. In step 144, master 12 may read from the OTP block using commands such as page read, read status, and read random data read. Additionally, master 12 may also write to the OTP block using commands such as program load, program random data input, program execute, page read, and random data input.
After performing a predetermined number of operations on a particular page of OTP block 138, typically one to four operations, the controller 14 may cause the page to become locked such that data may no longer be written to the page. However, as long as controller 14 remains in OTP block access mode, master 12 may perform operations to read OTP page data.
To exit OTP block access mode and return to an ordinary operational mode, step 146 prescribes resetting the OTP enable bit 27B. Issuing a register write command addressed to the OTP enable register 25B, master 12 may send a data byte in which the OTP enable bit 27A has been set low, and controller 14 may return to an ordinary operational mode.
Though completing a predetermined number of operations on a page of OTP memory may lock out additional writing to the page, a user may also lock a given page, as described below. In either case, controller 14 may lock the page by causing an OTP lock bit to be set at a designated separate lock block of memory, with the lock bit associated with the address location of the page in the OTP block. Additionally or alternatively, controller 14 may lock the page by causing an OTP lock bit to be set in a byte in a spare region located at the page.
Next step 152 provides that master 12 may next set an OTP protect bit 27C in an OTP protect register 31. As above, master 12 may issue a register write command addressed to the OTP protect register 31, sending a data byte in which a prior-designated OTP protect bit 27C is set high. Alternatively, because the OTP protect bit 27C comprises only a single bit, and a register may comprise an entire byte, the OTP protect bit 27C may reside instead in the OTP enable register 25B alongside the OTP enable bit 27A. Accordingly, steps 150 and 152 may be combined, wherein master 12 may issue only a single register write command addressed to the OTP enable register 25B, sending a data byte that sets high both the OTP enable bit 27A and OTP protect bit 27C.
Upon reaching step 154, with both the OTP enable bit 27A and OTP protect bit 27C set high, controller 14 may have entered an OTP write protect mode. To lock a particular page of OTP memory in OTP block 138, master 12 may issue a program execute command addressed to a desired unlocked page. Controller 14 may respond by causing an OTP lock bit to be set at a designated separate lock block of memory, with the lock bit associated with the address location of the page in the OTP block 138. Additionally or alternatively, controller 14 may instead cause an OTP lock bit to be set in a byte in a spare region located at the page.
To return to an ordinary operational mode in step 156, master 12 may issue a write register command to set the OTP enable bit 27A low in the same manner as step 150. In step 158, master 12 may subsequently issue an additional write register command to set the OTP protect bit 27C low in the same manner as step 152. Alternatively, if the OTP protect bit 27C and the OTP enable bit 27A both reside in a single OTP enable register 25B, steps 150 and 152 may be combined, wherein master 12 may issue only a single register write command addressed to the OTP enable register 25B, sending a data byte setting low both the OTP enable bit 27A and OTP protect bit 27C.
While the invention may be susceptible to various modifications and alternative forms, specific embodiments have been shown by way of example in the drawings and have been described in detail herein. However, it should be understood that the invention is not intended to be limited to the particular forms disclosed. Rather, the invention is to cover all modifications, equivalents, and alternatives falling within the spirit and scope of the invention as defined by the following appended claims.