Nanostructured Transparent Article with Both Hydrophobic and Antifog Properties and Methods for Making It
1. A transparent article having a face provided with a nanostructure, wherein a top part of the nanostructure has hydrophobic properties and a remaining part of the nanostructure confers antifog properties to said face of said transparent article.
A transparent article having a face provided with a nano structure, wherein a top part of the nano structure has hydrophobic properties and a remaining part of the nanostructure confers antifog properties to said face of said transparent article.
- 1. A transparent article having a face provided with a nanostructure, wherein a top part of the nanostructure has hydrophobic properties and a remaining part of the nanostructure confers antifog properties to said face of said transparent article.
The present invention relates in general to a transparent article such as an optical article, for example optical lenses and in particular ophthalmic or sun lenses as well as processes for making such a transparent article.
Antifog and antirain properties are considered antagonistic, since most of the technical solutions for imparting antifogging properties require the surface of the transparent article to be hydrophilic in order to spread water drops into a smooth film, while antirain properties require water repelling surfaces which are hydrophobic or superhydrophobic.
Conventional antifog (hydrophilic) surfaces are not an ideal solution under rain conditions, since rain drops will adhere to such surfaces, and although the drops will spread out, this takes enough time to result in optical distortion and visual impairment.
On the other hand, the use of hydrophobic or superhydrophobic surfaces under conditions where water can condensate on the surface leads to build up of tiny water droplets which result in optical distortion, and can thus interfere with clear vision. When many such droplets are present, this leads to light scattering, inducing the well-known “foggy” effect.
U.S. Pat. No. 8,709,588 relates to an optical article, preferably a lens for spectacles, comprising a substrate provided with a coating comprising silanol groups on the surface thereof and, directly contacting this coating, an anti-fog coating precursor coating, characterized in that the anti-fog coating precursor coating:
is obtained through the grafting of at least one organosilane compound possessing:
a polyoxyalkylene group, and
at least one silicon atom bearing at least one hydrolyzable group,
has a thickness lower than or equal to 5 nm,
has a static contact angle with water of more than 10° and of less than 50°.
The lens can be rendered temporarily antifog by applying a surfactant; However, the lens has no hydrophobic properties.
WO 2015/082521 describes lenses having a surface wherein a hydrophobic material and a hydrophilic material that are deposited thereon. A surfactant is applied to confer temporary antifog property to the lens.
Such solutions suffer from the low durability of the antifog properties. Especially, under rainy conditions, the surfactant is easily “washed off” the surface, and the antifog properties are lost.
For textured surfaces (which are hydrophobic or superhydrophobic surfaces having antirain properties), the above solutions are even more problematic (if not impossible), since it is extremely difficult to ensure that the surfactant would be uniformly applied to the entire surface, including the interior of the structure.
A nanostructured surface having antirain properties comprising nanopillars is disclosed, in particular in International Patent Application WO 2017/025128 while a nanostructured surface comprising nanocavities is disclosed, in particular in International Patent Application WO 2015/082948.
Thus, the aim of the invention is to provide a transparent article, for example an optical lens, having both antifog and antirain properties, in particular without the necessity of spraying and/or wiping a surfactant onto the transparent article surface to impact antifog properties.
The above goals are achieved according to the invention by providing a transparent article having a face provided with a nanostructure wherein a top part of the nanostructure has hydrophobic or superhydrophobic properties and a remaining part of the nanostructure confers antifog properties to said face of said transparent article.
The nanostructure may consist of nanopillars and/or nanocavities, the top parts of the nanopillars and/or the top parts of the nanocavities having hydrophobic or superhydrophobic properties.
Generally, the top part of either the nanopillars or the nanocavities comprises the top of the nanopillars or nanocavities and an adjacent portion extending below the top of the nanostructure.
In a preferred embodiment, the nanostructure comprises nanopillars and the adjacent portion is an annular portion extending from 1 nm up to h/5, more preferably up to h/10, wherein h is the height of the nanopillars expressed in nm, below the top.
In another preferred embodiment, the nanostructure comprises nanocavities and the adjacent portion is a ring-like band of the cavity walls adjacent to the top and extending below the top. Typically, this band extends from 1 nm to h/5, more preferably to h/10 below the top, wherein h is the depth of the cavity.
Typically, the remaining part of the nanopillars or nanocavities have hydrophilic properties. In particular, the nanopillars and nanocavities have walls and at least part of said walls is constituting the remaining part of the nanostructure and has hydrophilic properties.
In another embodiment, the nanopillars or the nanocavities have hydrophobic walls and at least part of said walls have roughened walls, roughness being lower in a top part of said walls and being greater in a bottom part of said walls, constituting the remaining part of the nanostructure. Preferably, the roughness of the walls of the nanopillars or the nanocavities is increasing from the top part to the lower part of the remaining part. Increase of the roughness may be continuous or discontinuous.
Different methods can be used for making the transparent article according to the invention.
A first method comprises the steps of:
a) Providing a substrate having a surface made of a hydrophobic or superhydrophobic material;
b) creating a nanostructure having a hydrophobic or superhydrophobic top part and a remaining part that confers antifog properties to said surface of said transparent article, including a step of selectively etching the hydrophobic or superhydrophobic surface.
In a first embodiment of said first method, step b) of said first method comprises the steps of:
b1) dispersing on the surface of the substrate nanoparticles to form an intermediate structure comprising a monolayer, preferably a close packed monolayer of nanoparticles;
b2) etching the substrate to form a nanostructure comprising nanopillars having nanoparticles on top of the hydrophobic or superhydrophobic surface of the nanopillars;
b3) overcoating the structure with a hydrophilic material; and
b4) removing the nanoparticles on top of the nanopillars to expose a hydrophobic or superhydrophobic top part of the nanopillars.
In a second embodiment of said first method, step b) comprises the steps of:
b1) contact printing a hard mask on the surface made of a hydrophobic or superhydrophobic material to transfer from the hard mask onto the surface a material acting as an etching mask;
b2) etching the substrate to form a nano-textured structure having etching mask material on top thereof;
b3) overcoating the nanostructure with a hydrophilic material; and
b4) removing the etching mask material on top of the nanostructure to expose a hydrophobic or superhydrophobic top part of the nanostructure.
In a preferred embodiment of said first method, the hydrophobic or superhydrophobic material is a hydrophobic or superhydrophobic coating deposited on a hydrophilic material and step b2) comprises etching up to exposing the hydrophilic material, and step b3) is omitted.
A second method of making an article according to the invention comprises the steps of:
a) providing with a nanostructure a substrate made of an hydrophobic or superhydrophobic organic/inorganic resin or composite resin comprising nanopillars or nanocavities; and
b) creating roughness on the surface of at least a lower part of the remaining part of said nanopillars or nanocavities.
Preferably, the roughness on the surface of the nanopillars or nanocavities increases from top to base of the nanostructure.
Examples will now be described with reference to the accompanying drawings wherein:
A material surface is considered hydrophobic when the static contact angle with water is higher than 90°. Typically, conventional hydrophobic surfaces have static contact angles with water ranging from 90° up to 120°. However, static contact angle with water may be equal to or higher than 130°, 135°, 140°.
A material surface is considered superhydrophobic when the static contact angle with water is equal to or higher than 150°.
A material surface is considered hydrophilic when the static contact angle with water is lower than 90°, preferably lower than or equal to 60°, preferably lower than or equal to 30°.
The antifogging properties may be evaluated according to three methods: the “breath test” (qualitative test which does not use any visual acuity measurement), the “hot vapor test” and the “refrigerator test”. The breath and the refrigerator tests are considered as generating a low fog stress. The hot vapor test is considered as generating a high fog stress.
A nanostructure confers antifog property if a transparent article bearing the nanostructure passes at least the breath test.
In another embodiment, a nanostructure confers antifog property if a transparent article bearing the nanostructure passes the refrigerator test.
In another embodiment, a nanostructure confers antifog property if it passes the hot vapor test.
For this test, the tester places the lens to be evaluated at a distance of about 2 cm from his mouth. The tester for 3 seconds blows his breath onto the exposed surface of the glass. The tester can visually observe the presence or the absence of a condensation haze.
Yes. Presence of fog.
No. Absence of fog: such a lens is considered as having antifogging properties at the end of the breath test, that is to say it inhibits the haze effect resulting from the fog.
Hot Vapor Test
Before the test, the glasses are placed for 24 hours in a temperature-regulated environment (20-25° C.) and under 50% humidity.
For the test, the glasses are placed for 15 seconds above a heated container comprising water at 55° C. Immediately after, a visual acuity scale located at a distance of 5 m is observed through the tested glass. The observer evaluates the visual acuity as a function of time and according to following criteria:
0. No fog, no visual distortion (visual acuity=10/10)
1. Fog and/or visual distortion allowing a visual acuity >6/10
2. Fog and/or visual distortion allowing a visual acuity <6/10
In another embodiment, the nanostructure confers antifog property if in the hot vapor test, a score of 0 or 1 is obtained. In practical terms, to obtain the score 0 or 1, a wearer having a vision of 10/10 and having placed the transparent article bearing the nanostructure in front of his eye should be able to distinguish the orientation of the “E” letters on the 6/10 line of the Snellen optotype table placed at a distance of 5 meters.
This test makes it possible to simulate the ordinary living conditions where a wearer leans his face towards a cup of tea/coffee or towards a pan filled with boiling water.
For this test, the lenses are placed in sealed boxes containing a desiccant (silica gel). The boxes in turn are placed at least for 24 h in a refrigerator at 4° C. After this time period, the boxes are withdrawn from the refrigerator and the glasses immediately tested. They are then placed in a 45-50% humidity atmosphere and at 20-25° C. A visual acuity scale located at a distance of 4 m is observed through the glass. The observer evaluates the visual acuity as a function of time and according to the same criteria as the hot vapor test (scores 0, 1 or 2).
This test makes it possible to simulate the ordinary living conditions where a wearer leaves a cold and dry place and enters a hot and damp room.
Determination of the Static Contact Angle with Water:
Water static contact angle (WSCA) measurements are made using sessile drop method. It corresponds to the contact angle between the drop and the surface when this one is horizontal. Water is deionized. A 2 μl water drop is dispensed in once on the surface using a 32 gauge needle. WSCA measurements have been performed using a “KYOWA DM 500” contact angle-meter used in combination with “FAMAS” interface software which provides an automatic detection of drop and make analysis of drop envelope with different functions: circle, ellipsoid and tangent. Ellipsoid function is used for WSCA measurement.
In the context of the present invention, the expression “nanostructured surface” relates to a surface covered with nano-sized structures. Said nano-sized structures have one dimension on the nanoscale, i.e. ranging from 1 to 1000 nm (nanometer), preferably ranging from 1 to 500 nm, more preferably ranging from 1 to less than 250 nm, even better ranging from 1 to 100 nm. The nano-sized structures can be an array of pillars, cavities or a mix of pillars and cavities. Preferably, the array is a periodic array. In a preferred embodiment, the nano-sized structure is an array of pillars.
For example, the nanostructured surface can comprise an array of pillars defined by a surface fraction (ϕs) of the pillars, a pitch (P) of the pillars and an aspect ratio (H/2R) of the pillars, wherein:
- the surface fraction (ϕs) is equal or greater to 2% and equal or less to 80%;
- the pitch (P) is equal or less to 250;
- the aspect ratio (H/2R) is equal or less to 2.4, where H is the height of the pillars and R is the radius of the pillars;
- the pitch (P), the height (H), the radius (R) of the pillars are expressed in nanometers (nm).
According to an embodiment, the pitch (P) is constant over the nanostructured surface.
According to another embodiment, the pitch varies over the nanostructured surface. The pitch (P) of the pillars has then to be understood as being the average pitch of the pillars as further defined.
According to an embodiment, the radius (R) is constant over the nanostructured surface.
According to another embodiment, the radius varies over the nanostructured surface. The radius (R) of the pillars has then to be understood as being the average radius of the pillars as further defined.
According to an embodiment, the height (H) is constant over the nanostructured surface.
According to another embodiment, the height varies over the nanostructured surface. The height (H) of the pillars has then to be understood as being the average height of the pillars as further defined.
The surface fraction (ϕs) is defined by the total pillar top side surface area determined at a pillar height defined by the entrance opening plane on a reference area divided by the surface of said reference area.
According to an embodiment, the surface fraction (ϕs) is constant over the nanostructured surface.
According to another embodiment, the surface fraction varies over the nanostructured surface. The surface fraction (ϕs) of the pillars has then to be understood as being the average surface fraction of the pillars as further defined.
According to different embodiments of an article of the present invention, that may be combined according to all technically valuable embodiments (Herafter, the pitch (P), the height (H), the radius (R) are expressed in nanometers (nm):
- the top surface of the pillars is flat or extends outward;
- the surface fraction (ϕs) is equal or greater to 10% and/or equal or less to 75%, for example equal or less to 50%;
- the aspect ratio (H/2R) is equal or less to 1.7, preferably from 0.2 to 1.7;
- according to an embodiment, the aspect ratio (H/2R) is equal or less to 0.80, preferably greater to 0.25 and/or equal or less to 0.70;
- the pitch (P) is equal or greater to 25;
- the pitch (P) is equal or greater to 100, for example equal or greater to 150 and/or equal or less to 230;
- the height (H) is equal or greater to 2 and/or equal or less to 600, for example equal or less to 300;
- the radius (R) is equal or greater to 10 and/or equal or less to 125, for example equal or less than 100;
- the array of pillars is a periodic array, for example is a hexagonal array.
Nanostructured surfaces comprising an array of pillars are also disclosed in the following publications:
- A. Tuteja, W. Choi, M. L. Ma, J. M. Mabry, S. A. Mazzella, G. C. Rutledge, G. H. McKinley and R. E. Cohen, Designing Superoleophobic Surfaces, Science, 2007, 318, 1618-1622, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massasuchetts/Air Force Research Laboratory, California, USA
- A. Ahuja, J. A. Taylor, V. Lifton, A. A. Sidorenko, T. R. Salamon, E. J. Lobaton, P. Kolodner and T. N. Krupenkin, Nanonails: A Simple Geometrical Approach to Electrically Tunable Superlyophobic Surfaces, Langmuir 2008, 24, 9-14, Bell Laboratories, Lucent Technologies, New Jersey, USA
- A. Tuteja, W. Choi, G. H. McKinley, R. E. Cohen and M. F. Rubner, Design Parameters for Superhydrophobicity and Superoleophobicity, MRS Bull., 2008, 33, 752-758, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massasuchetts/Air Force Research Laboratory, California, USA
In another preferred embodiment, the nanostructured surface comprises an array of nanocavities.
Such an array is disclosed in International Patent Application WO-2015/082948.
Briefly, said nanostructured surface comprises an array of contiguous cells defining cavities, the cavities of the cells being separated from each other by intermediate solid material walls, and opened to the environment.
In an embodiment, the cavities have an average height (H) and an average radius (R) which meet the conditions:
R≥5 nm, preferably R≥10 nm;
R≤250 nm, preferably R≤200 nm, better R≤150 nm and more preferably R≤100 nm; and
H≤R, preferably H<3R, preferably H≤1.5R and more preferably H≤0.5R.
The nanostructured surface comprises an array of juxtaposed cells defining cavities, the cavities of the cells being separated from each other by intermediate solid walls and opened to the environment.
The top-view geometry of the cavity, the sidewall shape between two consecutive cavity structures, the top wall profile, and the spatial arrangement of the structures on the substrate can vary. Different structured surfaces can be formed based on the combination of all these features.
The topside geometry of the cavity structure can be regularly, irregularly or randomly shaped. Examples of such shape include but are not limited to, square (delimited by four identical walls), rectangular (delimited by four walls and each two opposite walls are identical), triangular (i.e., delimited by three walls), hexagonal (i.e., delimited by six walls), circular or elliptical (i.e., delimited by one wall), randomly-shaped cavity, and a combination thereof.
The arrangement of the pattern can be a combination of various random or periodical cavity shapes having same or different size, symmetrically, asymmetrically arranged or randomly positioned. It can also be an alternation of random and periodical-shaped cavity structures having symmetrical or random spatial organization or arranged with a combination thereof. Examples of symmetrical spatial arrangement include, but are not limited to, square, hexagonal, octagonal, and staggered.
The width of the wall between two adjacent cavities can be constant along its height or it can vary. Thus, the profile of the wall can be straight (perpendicularly oriented to the substrate), oblique, curvy, re-entrant or overhang. For example, the shape can be columnar, conical, pyramidal, prismatic, curved, inverse trapezoidal, or a combination between columnar and rounded. The angle formed between the horizontal plane and the wall side is defined by β and is named the entrance angle. β can vary from 0° up to 110°. The top wall of the cavity can be flat, rounded or sharp.
β is defined and calculated in the same way when the nanostructures are pillars instead of nanocavities.
Figures showing 13 angle positioning can be found in WO2015082948 for nanocavities and WO2017025128 for nanopillars.
The bottom of cavity can be flat-bottomed or have a surface free of angles such as round-bottomed or cut out in several angles that are less than or equal to 90°.
The wall width of the cavity corresponds to the distance between two adjacent cavities at the highest position on the wall of the cross-section plane defining the cavity entrance opening.
The average width (d) is the average value of the wall width (as defined above) for a set of cavity patterns arranged in an area of 10 μm×10 μm of the structure surface.
The height of the cavity refers to the highest distance between a point in the cross-section plane defining the entrance opening of the cavity and its normal projection on the base plane of the cavity structure.
The average height (H) is the average value of the height of the cavity (as defined above) for a set of cavity patterns arranged in an area of 10 μm×10 μm of the structure surface.
The radius of the cavity refers to the maximum half-distance in the cavity between two diametrically opposed points of the orthogonal projection of the cavity “entrance” opening on the base plane.
The average radius (R) is the average value of the radius of the cavity (as defined above) for a set of cavity patterns arranged in an area of 10 μm×10 μm of the structure surface.
The base plane is defined as a plane orthogonal to the main axis of the cavity and including the lowest point of the cavity.
Nanostructured surfaces comprising an array of cavities are also disclosed in the following documents:
- M. C. Salvadori, M. Cattani, M. R. S. Oliveira F. S. Teixeira and I. G. Brown, “Design and fabrication of microcavity-array superhydrophobic surfaces”, J. Appl. Phys., 2010, 108, 024908, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, BraziL;
- United States Patent Application US-2010/0112286 (Bahadur et al.);
- International Patent Application (PCT) WO-2011/106196 (Mazumder et al.);
- International Patent Applications (PCT) WO-2011/094508 (Hatton et al.) and WO-2011/094344 (Hatton et al.);
- Article “Transparency and damage tolerance of patternable omniphobic lubricated surfaces based on inverse colloidal monolayers”. Nature ommunications, 4:2167, DOI:10.1038/ncomms3176, published on 31 Jul. 2013.
Referring now to
Each nanopillar comprises a top part 2a and a remaining part 2b beneath the top part 2a.
Preferably, the top part 2a typically comprises top 3 of the nanopillar and a short portion 4 adjacent to the top 3 and extending beneath top 3.
The portion of the pillar 2 below the top part 2a constitutes the remaining part 2b of the pillar.
In a preferred embodiment the top part 2a comprises a ring portion extending beneath the top 3 with a height ranging from 1 nm to h/5, preferably from 1 nm to h/10, h being the total height of the pillar. For example, height of the ring portion ranges from 2 to 20 nm, more preferably from 1 to 10 nm.
According to an embodiment of the invention, top part 2a of the pillar has hydrophobic or superhydrophobic properties whereas the remaining part 2b of the nanopillar has hydrophilic properties.
The hydrophobic or superhydrophobic top part 2a may result from the entire nanopillar structure being made of a hydrophobic or superhydrophobic material and, then, the remaining part 2b is coated with a hydrophilic material layer.
On the other hand, the hydrophobic or superhydrophobic top part 2a of the nanopillar is formed by a hydrophobic or superhydrophobic material layer deposited on top of a remaining part 2b either made of a hydrophilic material or rendered hydrophilic by coating with a hydrophilic material.
As shown in
Even under simultaneous fog and rain condition, such surface would maintain its beneficial property. Although rain drops impacting onto a nano-structure completely filled with water would not bounce off anymore, they would spread out on a liquid film. This takes significantly less time than spreading on a solid surface, thus limiting optical distortion and impairment of vision.
As shown, the nanopillars 2, preferably made of a hydrophobic material, are provided with a roughened surface whose roughness increases from top to bottom.
As the roughness increases, the hydrophobicity of the surface increases. This will lead to a movement of the condensed water towards the top of the nanopillars (
The roughness can be characterized based on SEM (scanning electron microscopy) images and using if needed image processing software. Preferably the maximum roughness is less than 20 nm, more preferably less than 10 nm, even better less than 5 nm.
The roughess might be Ra or Rq known by the man skilled in the art.
A roughness ratio factor can also be defined. The roughness ratio factor increases from rMin to rMax from to top part of the pillar or cavity to the bottom part of the structure. The roughness ratio factor is defined as the ratio of the textured surface area by its flat projected area (or planar cross sectional area). For flat surface it is equal to 1 and for rough surface it is larger than 1. rMin can vary from 1 to value lower than rMax. rMax can vary from 10 to value higher than rMin.
First, a substrate 1 made of an hydrophobic resin (for example a fluorinated resin) or being a surface coated with a hydrophobic coating 2 (for example a fluorinated resin) (
In the next step (
In the next step (
Finally, the nanoparticles 3 can be removed from the structure (
Ultrasonic treatment is another possibility. Also, a low adhesion tape can be used.
Optionally, an additional step of forming a back filling layer to improve the adhesion of nanoparticle, for example with polyvinyl acetate (PVA) coating that can then be removed by water due to its water solubility can be introduced after dispersion of the nanoparticles.
In this second embodiment, the method steps are the same as previously disclosed except that the step of deposition of the nanoparticles is replaced by contact printing a hard mask onto the hydrophobic surface (
First, a nanostructure 1 comprising nanopillars 2 is created in an organic-inorganic or composite resin substrate using anyone process known to one skilled in the art, for example nanoimprint or two-photon polymerization.
Then, the structure is exposed to reactive ion etching or any other known etching process that can lead to a roughness structure (
A nanopillar structure with an increasing roughness from top to bottom of the nanopillars is thus obtained (
As an example, a nanopillar structure was fabricated through the use of UV nanoimprint of an Ormostamp® resin substrate, with reactive ion etching (RIE) in presence of oxygen, at a power of 150 W, typically for 15 seconds to 1 minute.
Ormostamp® resin is an organic-inorganic resin. Other organic-inorganic resins can be used such as any resin of the family of Ormocer® from Microresist Technology GmbH (for example Ormocomp®).
The reactive ion etching process will preferentially etch the organic part of the organic-inorganic resin, or in the case of a composite resin, etch one component preferentially.
Formation of a roughness gradient has been observed by Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM) as shown in
According to another embodiment, a mold having a surface comprising a nanostructure with a roughness gradient according to the invention is used and a nano-structure with a rougness gradient is tranferred from the mold to the lens surface during the manufacturing process.
The transfer can be implemented so that the nanostructure with the roughness gradient is transferred on the material constituting the substrate itself or transferred using an in-mold coating process wherein a coating bearing a microstructure is transferred from the mold to the lens.
A classical imprint process can be used on an already preformed lens.
Hydrophobic and superhydrophobic materials useful in the present invention are known in the art and are typically fluoropolymers or fluorosilanes.
Such fluoropolymers or fluorosilanes include, but are not limited to, Teflon® and commercially available fluorosilanes such as Dow Corning 2604, 2624 and 2634; Daikin Optool DSX®, Shinetsu OPTRON®, heptadecafluorosilane (manufactured, for example, by GELEST), FLUOROSYL® (manufactured, for example, by CYTONIX); etc. Such coatings can be applied to the nanostructured surface of the article by dipping, vapor coating, spraying, application with a roller, and other suitable method known in the art.
Compositions containing fluorosilanes recommended for the present invention are described in U.S. Pat. No. 6,183,872. They contain fluoropolymers with organic groups carrying silicon-based groups represented by the following general formula and with a molecular weight of 5.102 to 1.105.
in which RF represents a perfluoroalkyl group; Z represents a fluoro or trifluoromethyl group; a, b, c, and e each representing, independently from each other, 0 or an integer greater than or equal to 1, provided that the sum a+b+c+d+e is not less than 1 and that the order of the repeated units between the brackets indexed under a, b, c, d and e are not limited to the one given; Y represents H or an alkyl group comprising from 1 to 4 carbon atoms; X represents an atom of hydrogen, bromine or iodine;
R1 represents an hydroxyl group or a hydrolysable group; R2 represents an atom of hydrogen or a monovalent hydrocarbon group; m represents 0, 1 or 2; n represents 1, 2 or 3; and p represents an integer equal to at least 1, preferably equal to at least 2.
Particularly preferred are perfluoropolyethers of formula:
wherein Y, R1, m and p are as defined above and a is an integer from 1 to 50.
A formulation containing a fluorosilane given by the previous formula (1) is marketed by DAIKIN INDUSTRIES with the name OPTOOL DSX®.
The document JP-2005-187936 describes fluorinated compounds of silane suitable for the present invention and particularly compounds given by the formula:
R′F is a linear chain divalent perfluoropolyether radical,
R′ is an alkyl radical in C1-C4 or a phenyl radical,
X′ is a hydrolysable group,
a′ is an integer from 0 to 2,
b′ is an integer from 1 to 5, and
m′ and n′ are integers equal to 2 or 3.
A fluorosilane compound given by the formula (2) above is marketed by SHIN-ETSU CHEMICAL CO, Ltd with the name KY-130®.
Fluorosilane compounds given by the formula (2) and methods for preparing the mare also described in the patent application EP1300433.