OPTIMIZATION OF THE SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF AIR QUALITY MEASUREMENT MEANS

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First Claim
1. A system for measuring at least one physical quantity representative of air quality in an observation zone, the system comprising:
 a mapping of the observation zone, comprising a set, denoted V, of modeled values representative of the at least one physical quantity;
means for measuring the at least one physical quantity, possessing a number N of positions or a number N of trajectories in the observation zone, the N positions or the N trajectories exhibiting a spatial distribution, denoted S_{opt}, in the observation zone; and
means for calculating the spatial distribution S_{opt}, configured to;
construct a mesh of the observation zone, the mesh comprising a number G of points;
calculate, for a given spatial distribution, denoted S, of the N positions or of the N trajectories, an estimator of the set V, denoted {circumflex over (V)}, for each of the G points of the mesh;
calculate a cost function, denoted φ
(S), representative of a difference or of a likelihood between {circumflex over (V)} and the modeled values, denoted V, of the set V extracted at the G points of the mesh; and
extract the spatial distribution S_{opt }to minimize or maximize the cost function in dependence on whether the cost function is representative of the difference or of the likelihood between {circumflex over (V)} and V.
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Abstract
A system, for measuring a physical quantity representative of air quality in an observation zone, comprises a mapping with a set (V) of modeled values representative of the physical quantity; means for measuring the physical quantity and possessing N positions or N trajectories in the observation zone to exhibit a spatial distribution (S_{opt}); and means for calculating S_{opt}. The calculating means are configured to construct a mesh comprising G points in the observation zone; calculate, for a given spatial distribution, an estimator ({circumflex over (V)}) of the set V for each of the G points in the mesh; calculate a cost function representative of the difference or of the likelihood between {circumflex over (V)} and the V values extracted at the G points; and extract the S_{opt }to minimize or maximize the cost function.
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19 Claims
 1. A system for measuring at least one physical quantity representative of air quality in an observation zone, the system comprising:
a mapping of the observation zone, comprising a set, denoted V, of modeled values representative of the at least one physical quantity; means for measuring the at least one physical quantity, possessing a number N of positions or a number N of trajectories in the observation zone, the N positions or the N trajectories exhibiting a spatial distribution, denoted S_{opt}, in the observation zone; and means for calculating the spatial distribution S_{opt}, configured to; construct a mesh of the observation zone, the mesh comprising a number G of points; calculate, for a given spatial distribution, denoted S, of the N positions or of the N trajectories, an estimator of the set V, denoted {circumflex over (V)}, for each of the G points of the mesh; calculate a cost function, denoted φ
(S), representative of a difference or of a likelihood between {circumflex over (V)} and the modeled values, denotedV , of the set V extracted at the G points of the mesh; andextract the spatial distribution S_{opt }to minimize or maximize the cost function in dependence on whether the cost function is representative of the difference or of the likelihood between {circumflex over (V)} and V . View Dependent Claims (2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 16, 17, 18, 19)
 15. A method for measuring at least one physical quantity representative of air quality in an observation zone, the method comprising the steps:
a) providing a mapping of the observation zone, the mapping comprising a set, denoted V, of modeled values representative of the at least one physical quantity; b) providing means for measuring the at least one physical quantity, possessing a number N of positions or a number N of trajectories in the observation zone, the N positions or the N trajectories exhibiting a spatial distribution, denoted S_{opt}; c) constructing a mesh of the observation zone, the mesh comprising a number G of points; d) calculating, for a given spatial distribution, denoted S, of the N positions or of the N trajectories, an estimator of the set V, denoted {circumflex over (V)}, for each of the G points of the mesh; e) calculating a cost function, denoted φ
(S), representative of a difference or of a likelihood between {circumflex over (V)} and the modeled values, denotedV , of the set V extracted at the G points of the mesh;f) extracting the spatial distribution S_{opt }to minimize or maximize the cost function in dependence on whether the cost function is representative of the difference or of the likelihood between V and V ; and
g) arranging, in the observation zone, the means for measuring the at least one physical quantity so that the N positions or the N trajectories exhibit the spatial distribution S_{opt}.
1 Specification
This application is a national phase entry under 35 U.S.C. § 371 of International Patent Application PCT/FR2018/050966, filed Apr. 17, 2018, designating the United States of America and published in French as International Patent Publication WO 2018/193205 A1 on Oct. 25, 2018, which claims the benefit under Article 8 of the Patent Cooperation Treaty to French Patent Application Serial No. 1753393, filed Apr. 19, 2017.
This disclosure relates to a system for measuring at least one physical quantity representative of the quality of the air in an observation zone.
In particular, this disclosure finds its application in the monitoring and the control of the quality of the air in urban zones.
A measurement system known from the prior art, in particular, from the document “Guidelines for Ambient Air Quality Monitoring” drawn up by the CPCB (Central Pollution Control Board) of the ministry of the environment of the government of India, dated April 2003 (hereinafter D1), comprises a set of air quality measurement stations. D1 mentions (cf. § 4.2.2) criteria for selecting the locations of the measurement stations in the observation zone. However, D1 specifies (cf. § 4.2.2.a) that it is difficult to know in advance whether the selected locations will reflect and give an account of the quality of the air in the observation zone. Hence, D1 proposes (cf. § 4.2.2.a) to perform prior measurements to verify the relevance of the locations.
Such a measurement system of the prior art is not entirely satisfactory, in particular, when one wishes to increase the spatial resolution of the measurements. The solution proposed by D1 is very tedious and expensive when the measurement stations exhibit a high spatial density in the observation zone.
This disclosure is aimed at wholly or partly remedying the aforementioned drawbacks. To this effect, the subject of the present disclosure is a system for measuring at least one physical quantity representative of the quality of the air in an observation zone, the system comprising:
 a mapping of the observation zone, comprising a set, denoted V, of modeled values representative of the physical quantity;
 means for measuring the physical quantity, possessing a number N of positions or a number N of trajectories in the observation zone, the N positions or the N trajectories being intended to exhibit a spatial distribution, denoted S_{opt}, in the observation zone; and
 means for calculating the spatial distribution S_{opt}, configured to:
construct a mesh of the observation zone, the mesh comprising a number G of points;
calculate, for a given spatial distribution, denoted S, of the N positions or of the N trajectories, an estimator of the set V, denoted {circumflex over (V)}, for each of the G points of the mesh;
calculate a cost function, denoted φ(S), representative of the difference or of the likelihood between {circumflex over (V)} and the modeled values, denoted
extract the spatial distribution S_{opt}, which minimizes or maximizes the cost function depending on whether the cost function is representative of the difference or of the likelihood between {circumflex over (V)} and
Thus, such a measurement system according to the present disclosure makes it possible to obtain measurements reflecting and giving an account of the quality of the air in the observation zone, permitting a greater spatial resolution than the prior art, while circumventing local prior measurements. Indeed, such a mapping and such calculation means allow, in conjugation, the extraction of an optimal spatial distribution of the measurement means on the basis of modeled values.
By “mapping” is meant a spatial representation of the modeled values, which can be, for example, twodimensional (2D) or threedimensional (3D).
By “representative of the physical quantity” is meant that the modeled values represent the physical quantity directly, or represent the physical quantity indirectly by correlation.
N is a natural integer number.
The “N positions” of the measurement means are defined by spatial coordinates, for example, cartesian coordinates (x, y, z).
The “N trajectories” of the measurement means are N sets of T successive positions over time. The N trajectories are defined by spatial coordinates, for example, cartesian coordinates (x, y, z), and by a temporal component (t_{i}), i lying between 1 and T.
By “spatial distribution” is meant the distribution of the N positions (or of the N trajectories) in the space of the observation zone. It is possible to speak of volumetric or density volumetric distribution in the 3D case.
By “mesh” is meant the spatial discretization of the observation zone.
By “estimator” is meant a statistical estimator where the N positions (or the N trajectories) are random variables.
By “cost function” is meant any function capable of quantifying the coherence between {circumflex over (V)} and
The measurement system according to the present disclosure can comprise one or more of the following embodiments.
According to an embodiment of the present disclosure, the calculation means are configured to calculate the estimator of the set V according to the formula:
where:
 V_{i }are the modeled values of the set V, which are extracted for the positions or for the trajectories of the measurement means exhibiting the given spatial distribution S, and
 w_{ij }is a transfer function going between s_{i }and m_{j}, where s_{i }are the positions or the trajectories of the measurement means exhibiting the given spatial distribution S, and where m_{j }are the positions of the points of the mesh in the observation zone.
Thus, an advantage afforded by the transfer function is to weight the values V_{i }taking account of the relative positions s_{i }and m_{j}, for example according to a distance or an angle arising from the relative positions s_{i }and m_{j}.
According to an embodiment of the invention, the calculation means are configured to calculate the estimator of the set V according to the formula:
 m_{j }are the positions of the points of the mesh in the observation zone,
 s_{i }are the positions or the trajectories of the measurement means exhibiting the given spatial distribution S,
 V_{i }are the modeled values of the set V, which are extracted for the positions or for the trajectories s_{i}, and
 d is a distance between a position of a point of the mesh and a position or a trajectory of the measurement means in the observation zone.
Thus, an advantage afforded by such an estimator is its simplicity of implementation for the calculations.
According to an embodiment of the present disclosure, the cost function is representative of the difference between {circumflex over (V)} and
Thus, the minimization of such a cost function makes it possible to envisage the obtaining of a spatial distribution S_{opt }best reflecting the quality of the air in the observation zone with reference to the modeled values.
According to an embodiment of the present disclosure, the cost function is representative of the difference between {circumflex over (V)} and
where
According to an embodiment of the present disclosure, the cost function is representative of the difference between {circumflex over (V)} and
where:
 S^{(i) }is an initial given spatial distribution,
 S^{(j) }is a given spatial distribution randomly modified,
 c is a parameter; and
 the calculation means are configured to iterate the random modification of the given spatial distribution S until the extraction of S_{opt}.
Thus, an advantage afforded is to obtain a robust algorithm with regard to the choice of the initial given spatial distribution, that is to say that the spatial distribution S_{opt }does not depend on the initial given spatial distribution.
According to an embodiment of the present disclosure, the cost function is representative of the likelihood between {circumflex over (V)} and
Thus, the maximization of such a cost function makes it possible to envisage the obtaining of a spatial distribution S_{opt }best reflecting the quality of the air in the observation zone with reference to the modeled values.
According to an embodiment of the present disclosure, the cost function is representative of the likelihood between {circumflex over (V)} and
where:
 S^{(i) }is an initial given spatial distribution,
 S^{(j) }is a given spatial distribution randomly modified,
 c is a parameter; and
 the calculation means are configured to iterate the random modification of the given spatial distribution S until the extraction of S_{opt}.
Thus, an advantage afforded is to obtain a robust algorithm with regard to the choice of the initial given spatial distribution, that is to say that the spatial distribution S_{opt }does not depend on the initial given spatial distribution.
According to an embodiment of the present disclosure, the measurement means are arranged in the observation zone in such a way as to possess N positions or N trajectories exhibiting the spatial distribution S_{opt}.
According to an embodiment of the present disclosure, the measurement system comprises activation means configured to activate the measurement means possessing N positions or N trajectories exhibiting the spatial distribution, which is closest to S_{opt}.
Thus, an advantage afforded is to optimize the electrical consumption of the measurement means when the latter comprise a total number N_{tot }of positions or of trajectories in the observation zone satisfying N_{tot}>N. Indeed, it is then possible to deactivate the measurement means whose positions or trajectories in the observation zone do not belong to the N positions or N trajectories exhibiting the spatial distribution, which is closest to S_{opt}.
According to an embodiment of the present disclosure, the observation zone comprises a number M of permitted positions or a number M of permitted trajectories, satisfying M>N, in which the measurement means are respectively permitted to possess positions or trajectories.
According to an embodiment of the present disclosure, the measurement means comprise at least N measurement devices each fitted to a vehicle, the vehicle preferably being a road vehicle or aerial vehicle.
Thus, an advantage afforded is to be able to use the circulation of vehicles in the observation zone as deployment of measurement devices according to various spatial distributions of positions or of trajectories.
According to an embodiment of the present disclosure, the measurement means comprise at least N measurement devices each fitted to an item of urban furniture, the urban furniture preferably being selected from the group comprising traffic lights and bus shelters.
Thus, an advantage afforded is to avoid creating dedicated locations for the measurement devices.
According to an embodiment of the present disclosure, the measurement means comprise spectroscopic sensors, preferably nondispersive infrared sensors.
Thus, an advantage afforded is their compactness with respect to conventional measurement stations, allowing a higher spatial density at lesser cost.
The subject of the present disclosure is also a method for measuring at least one physical quantity representative of the quality of the air in an observation zone, the method comprising the steps:
 a) provide a mapping of the observation zone, comprising a set, denoted V, of modeled values representative of the physical quantity;
 b) provide means for measuring the physical quantity, possessing a number N of positions or a number N of trajectories in the observation zone, the N positions or the N trajectories being intended to exhibit a spatial distribution, denoted S_{opt};
 c) construct a mesh of the observation zone, the mesh comprising a number G of points;
 d) calculate, for a given spatial distribution, denoted S, of the N positions or of the N trajectories, an estimator of the set V, denoted {circumflex over (V)}, for each of the G points of the mesh;
 e) calculate a cost function, denoted φ(S), representative of the difference or of the likelihood between V and the modeled values of the set V, which are extracted at the G points of the mesh, denoted V;
 f) extract the spatial distribution S_{opt}, which minimizes or maximizes the cost function depending on whether the cost function is representative of the difference or of the likelihood between {circumflex over (V)} and
V ; and  g) arrange the measurement means in the observation zone so that the N positions or the N trajectories exhibit the spatial distribution S_{opt}.
Other embodiments and advantages will become apparent in the detailed disclosure of various embodiments of the present disclosure, the disclosure being supplemented with examples and with reference to the attached drawings.
Elements that are identical or that ensure the same function will bear the same references for the various embodiments, for the sake of simplification.
A subject of the present disclosure is a system for measuring at least one physical quantity representative of the quality of the air in an observation zone 1, the system comprising:
 a mapping 2 of the observation zone 1, comprising a set, denoted V, of modeled values representative of the physical quantity;
 means for measuring the physical quantity, possessing a number N of positions or a number N of trajectories in the observation zone 1, the N positions or the N trajectories being intended to exhibit a spatial distribution, denoted S_{opt}, in the observation zone 1; and
 means for calculating the spatial distribution S_{opt}, configured to:
construct a mesh 3 of the observation zone 1, the mesh 3 comprising a number G of points;
calculate, for a given spatial distribution, denoted S, of the N positions or of the N trajectories, an estimator of the set V, denoted {circumflex over (V)}, for each of the G points of the mesh 3;
calculate a cost function, denoted φ(S), representative of the difference or of the likelihood between {circumflex over (V)} and the modeled values, denoted
extract the spatial distribution S_{opt}, which minimizes or maximizes the cost function depending on whether the cost function is representative of the difference or of the likelihood between {circumflex over (V)} and
By way of nonlimiting examples, the physical quantity or quantities may be concentrations of polluting molecules or concentrations of noxious particles that are harmful to the environment. It is possible to cite carbon monoxide CO, sulfur dioxide SO_{2}, nitrogen dioxide NO_{2}, particulate matter in suspension (SPM for “Suspended Particulate Matter”), respirable particulate matter in suspension (RSPM for “Respirable Suspended Particulate Matter”), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and/or ozone O_{3}.
By way of nonlimiting examples, the observation zone 1 may be an urban zone, a periurban zone, an industrial zone.
The observation zone 1 may comprise a number M of permitted positions or a number M of permitted trajectories, satisfying M>N, in which the measurement means are respectively permitted to possess positions or trajectories. M is a natural integer.
There exist in the prior art mappings 2 of observation zones 1, generally urban, that can comprise modeled values of the spatial distribution of concentrations in polluting molecules or in noxious particles. These mappings 2 arise conventionally from models developed for studying atmospheric pollution and its temporal evolution. By way of nonlimiting example, the publication by R. Berkowicz et al., “Modeling traffic pollution in streets”, National Environmental Research Institute, dated January 1997, describes a model of spatial dispersion of pollutants that is adapted to suit the specific features of urban zones. In an urban setting, the particular topography formed of streets separated by buildings justifies a specific approach, taking account of the formation of air circulation vortices in the streets, these vortices playing a determining role in the dispersion of atmospheric pollution. Such models are referred to by the terms “Street Canyon Model” or “Street Model”. The aforementioned publication describes a model for estimating pollution in an urban setting referred to by the acronym OSPM (“Operational Street Pollution Model”), that is to say an operational urban pollution model. According to this model, on the basis of the emission of a pollutant in a street, depending on the number of vehicles and an average emission per vehicle, the model takes into account the recirculation vortex formed in the street, the aerological turbulence resulting from road traffic, the ambient pollution, originating from other streets, as well as the wind circulating in the canopy, above the urban setting. The publication by R. Berkowicz “OSPM—A Parameterised Street Pollution Model”, Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 65(1), pp. 323331, 2000, also presents the assumptions on which the OSPM model is based, as well as an experimental validation of this model.
The mapping 2 of the set V of modeled values can represent the measured physical quantity directly. According to a variant, the mapping 2 of the set V of modeled values can represent the measured physical quantity indirectly, by correlation. By way of nonlimiting examples, it is possible to cite values that model sound nuisance, sunshine, wind, temperature, road traffic, electromagnetic waves (radio, mobile telephone).
The mapping 2 exhibits a greater spatial resolution than that of the mesh 3.
The measurement means comprise measurement devices. The measurement devices advantageously comprise spectroscopic sensors, preferably nondispersive infrared sensors.
According to one embodiment, the measurement means are arranged in the observation zone 1 in such a way as to possess N positions or N trajectories exhibiting the spatial distribution S_{opt}. According to a variant, the measurement system comprises activation means configured to activate the measurement means possessing N positions or N trajectories exhibiting the spatial distribution that is closest to S_{opt}. By way of example, the activation means can be controlled from a central regulating post.
According to one embodiment, the measurement means comprise at least N measurement devices each fitted to a vehicle, the vehicle preferably being a road vehicle or aerial vehicle. By way of nonlimiting examples, the road vehicle may be a car or a bus; the aerial vehicle may be a pilotless aircraft such as a drone. According to a variant, the measurement means comprise at least N measurement devices each fitted to an item of urban furniture, the urban furniture preferably being selected from the group comprising traffic lights and bus shelters.
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The calculation means are advantageously implemented by computer or by any programmable device comprising the suitable calculation instructions.
The calculation means are advantageously configured to calculate the estimator of the set V according to the formula:
where:
 V_{i }are the modeled values of the set V, which are extracted for the positions or for the trajectories of the measurement means exhibiting the given spatial distribution S, and
 w_{ij }is a transfer function going between s_{i }and m_{j}, where s_{i }are the positions or the trajectories of the measurement means exhibiting the given spatial distribution S, and where m_{j }are the positions of the points of the mesh 3 in the observation zone 1.
The transfer function makes it possible to weight the values V, taking account of the relative positions s_{i }and m_{j}, for example, according to a distance or an angle arising from the relative positions s_{i }and m_{j}.
The calculation means are advantageously configured to calculate the estimator of the set V according to the formula:
where:
 m_{j }are the positions of the points of the mesh in the observation zone,
 s_{i }are the positions or the trajectories of the measurement means exhibiting the given spatial distribution S,
 V_{i }are the modeled values of the set V, which are extracted for the positions or for the trajectories s_{i}, and
 d is a distance between a position of a point of the mesh 3 and a position or a trajectory of the measurement means in the observation zone 1.
The distance d can be a road distance or a Euclidean distance (i.e., as the crow flies).
When the cost function is representative of the difference between {circumflex over (V)} and
where
When the cost function is representative of the likelihood between {circumflex over (V)} and
When the cost function is representative of the difference between {circumflex over (V)} and
where:
 S^{(i) }is an initial given spatial distribution,
 S^{(j) }is a given spatial distribution randomly modified, and
 c is a parameter.
If one considers an iteration, denoted t, the parameter c is preferably chosen so that: c(t+1)=αc(t); α≈1.
The calculation means are configured to iterate the random modification of the given spatial distribution S until the extraction of S_{opt}. The calculation means are configured to apply a stopping criterion to the iterations. By way of example, the stopping criterion may be defined when the difference φ(S^{(j+1)})−φ(S^{(j)}) is less than a predetermined threshold.
When the cost function is representative of the likelihood between {circumflex over (V)} and
where:
 S^{(i) }is an initial given spatial distribution,
 S^{(j) }is a given spatial distribution randomly modified, and
 c is a parameter.
If one considers an iteration, denoted t, the parameter c is preferably chosen so that: c(t+1)=αc(t); α≈1.
The calculation means are configured to iterate the random modification of the given spatial distribution S until the extraction of S_{opt}. The calculation means are configured to apply a stopping criterion to the iterations. By way of example, the stopping criterion may be defined when the difference φ(S^{(j+1)})−φ(S^{(j)}) is less than a predetermined threshold.
As illustrated in
The algorithm operates in an analogous manner with N positions or N trajectories of the measurement means. In the case where the measurement means possess N trajectories in the observation zone 1, the successive positions of the N trajectories are sampled at T instants. {circumflex over (V)} and
The present disclosure is not limited to the embodiments set forth. The person skilled in the art is at liberty to consider their technically operative combinations, and to substitute equivalents for them.