ACCELERATING LARGE-SCALE IMAGE DISTRIBUTION
1. A computer-implemented method for deploying images to computing systems, comprising:
- predicting an environment for a plurality of processing nodes;
simulating image deployment to the plurality of processing nodes to determine a subset of the plurality of processing nodes for deployment; and
pre-loading one or more images to the subset of the plurality of processing nodes in advance of a deployment time.
Methods and systems for deploying images to computing systems include predicting an environment for a plurality of processing nodes. Image deployment to the plurality of processing nodes is simulated to determine a subset of the plurality of processing nodes for deployment. One or more images is pre-loaded to the subset of the plurality of processing nodes in advance of a deployment time.
- 1. A computer-implemented method for deploying images to computing systems, comprising:
predicting an environment for a plurality of processing nodes; simulating image deployment to the plurality of processing nodes to determine a subset of the plurality of processing nodes for deployment; and pre-loading one or more images to the subset of the plurality of processing nodes in advance of a deployment time.
- View Dependent Claims (2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10)
- 11. A non-transitory computer readable storage medium comprising a computer readable program for deploying images to computing systems, wherein the computer readable program when executed on a computer causes the computer to perform the steps of:
predicting an environment for a plurality of processing nodes;
- 12. An image pre-deployment system, comprising:
an environment prediction module configured to predict an environment for a plurality of processing nodes; a simulation module configured to simulate image deployment to the plurality of processing nodes to determine a subset of the plurality of processing nodes for deployment; and a pre-load module configured to pre-load one or more images to the subset of the plurality of processing nodes in advance of a deployment time.
- View Dependent Claims (13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20)
The present invention generally relates to cloud computing systems and, more particularly, to the efficient distribution of images across distributed computing networks.
Platform as a Service (PaaS) systems provide rapidly provisioned computing solutions for diverse workloads on an as-needed basis. Such PaaS systems may have a set of different processing nodes, each of which can be provisioned with a different set of images or “containers” that provide the software needed for workload execution. The PaaS systems may also include a registry system that stores, distributes, and manages those images, sending the images to processing nodes when requested.
The PaaS system may make determinations as to which processing nodes will be implemented at runtime, with the end-user having little control. This can pose a challenge to the user in provisioning during a tightly constrained window, such as a planned maintenance window, as a workload may call for the provisioning of many thousands of processing nodes. This creates a bandwidth bottleneck, consuming a large amount of the time in the window simply by transmitting the images.
A method for deploying images to computing systems includes predicting an environment for a plurality of processing nodes. Image deployment to the plurality of processing nodes is simulated to determine a subset of the plurality of processing nodes for deployment. One or more images is pre-loaded to the subset of the plurality of processing nodes in advance of a deployment time.
An image pre-deployment system includes an environment prediction module configured to predict an environment for a plurality of processing nodes. A simulation module is configured to simulate image deployment to the plurality of processing nodes to determine a subset of the plurality of processing nodes for deployment. A pre-load module is configured to pre-load one or more images to the subset of the plurality of processing nodes in advance of a deployment time.
These and other features and advantages will become apparent from the following detailed description of illustrative embodiments thereof, which is to be read in connection with the accompanying drawings.
The following description will provide details of preferred embodiments with reference to the following figures wherein:
Embodiments of the present invention accelerate image distribution to the processing nodes in a Platform as a Service (PaaS) system by predicting which processing nodes will be selected by the PaaS management system and triggering distribution of images to those processing nodes in advance of an a predetermined window. Any nodes that incorrectly download the image can simply discard it, while any nodes that should have had the image can download it with less competition for bandwidth. This preloading process substantially reduces the amount of time needed to provision processing nodes, reducing downtime and increasing the likelihood that provisioning can be completed within the predetermined window.
Referring now to
Before and during execution of the workload, the manager system 104 determines which processing nodes 106 will use which images. The manager system 104 thus distributes images to the processing nodes 106 according to its own internal logic, for example based on node and resource availability at the time of provisioning. The manager system 104 and the PaaS system 100 can handle multiple different workloads from multiple different users 102, such that the availability of particular resources will depend on what is happening in the PaaS system 100 generally.
Because the manager system 104 may need to transmit images to many different processing nodes 106, bandwidth is a significant limitation on the provisioning process. Provisioning, as the term is used herein, refers to the process by which resources in a PaaS system 100 are allocated to a user 102 and are prepared for execution. Thus, provisioning includes the determinations made by the manager system 104 as to which processing elements 106 will be used for the workload as well as the transmission of images and any configuration steps that are needed to prepare the processing nodes 106 for execution of the workload. For provisioning to be completed within a predetermined time window, such as within a planned maintenance window of, e.g., two hours, all steps of the provisioning need to be completed before the window expires.
To accelerate the provisioning process, the user 102 makes a prediction as to which processing elements 106 will be selected by the manager system 104. This prediction is based on historical data that can include usage statistics for the PaaS system 100. The user 102 then communicates with the nodes 106 to trigger a preemptive download of the images in question from the manger system 104. This pre-loading process can be executed at any time without substantially affecting the execution of any workloads on the processing nodes 106. The pre-loading should be performed sufficiently in advance to be completed before the predetermined time window, but not so far in advance that confidence in the prediction is lost.
The processing nodes 106 thus communicate with the manager system 104 to request the images specified by the user 102. After pre-loading, when the manager system 104 makes its final provisioning determinations and selects processing nodes 106 for execution of the user'"'"'s workload, the nodes 106 will proceed to cure any deficiencies in the prediction, with inaccurately included processing nodes 106 discarding the unneeded image(s) and with inaccurately omitted processing nodes 106 downloading the image(s) from the manager system 104. The processing nodes 106 selected by the manager system 104 then install the images and perform any configuration needed for the workload. Execution can then proceed, triggered by the manager system 104, by the user 102, or by any other appropriate source.
It is to be understood in advance that, although this disclosure includes a detailed description of cloud computing, implementation of the teachings recited herein are not limited to a cloud computing environment. Rather, embodiments of the present invention are capable of being implemented in conjunction with any other type of computing environment now known or later developed.
Referring now to
Block 206 trains a node environment model using the historical data. The node environment model can be used to predict which processing nodes 106 will be selected by the manager system 104 for future deployments. The term “environment” refers to the processing nodes 106 and the environment model represents a predictor for node status changes that incorporates resource consumption trends and user activity patterns. The node environment model can be implemented, for example, as any appropriate machine learning model such as a neural network. Block 206 thus trains the node environment model using a set of training data that is split into a training set and a verification set, with the training set being used to train the initial model and with the verification set being used to ascertain any errors in the predictions of the trained model.
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Block 306 gets node information from the manager system 104. This node information is information that describes the processing nodes 106, for example including how much processor capacity, memory capacity, storage capacity, and network bandwidth each processing node 106 has access to.
Using the node information and the predicted node environment, block 308 simulates the scheduling process of the manager system 104. If the scheduling process simulation is not successful at block 310, then block 312 determines that the schedule may not be feasible and informs user 102. The failure of the scheduling process simulation indicates that it was not possible to find appropriate processing nodes 106 to run the workload with the predicted resources. This condition can result from misconfiguration of the workload. Block 312 therefore lets the user make corrective changes to the configuration to avoid actual scheduling failures at deployment time.
If the scheduling simulation is successful, then block 314 uses the simulated schedule output, along with network bandwidth needs for image deployment, and determines an amount of time needed to pre-load the image(s) on processing nodes 106. Block 316 triggers the individual processing nodes 106 to then pre-load the image(s) before the deployment start time.
The present invention may be a system, a method, and/or a computer program product at any possible technical detail level of integration. The computer program product may include a computer readable storage medium (or media) having computer readable program instructions thereon for causing a processor to carry out aspects of the present invention.
The computer readable storage medium can be a tangible device that can retain and store instructions for use by an instruction execution device. The computer readable storage medium may be, for example, but is not limited to, an electronic storage device, a magnetic storage device, an optical storage device, an electromagnetic storage device, a semiconductor storage device, or any suitable combination of the foregoing. A non-exhaustive list of more specific examples of the computer readable storage medium includes the following: a portable computer diskette, a hard disk, a random access memory (RAM), a read-only memory (ROM), an erasable programmable read-only memory (EPROM or Flash memory), a static random access memory (SRAM), a portable compact disc read-only memory (CD-ROM), a digital versatile disk (DVD), a memory stick, a floppy disk, a mechanically encoded device such as punch-cards or raised structures in a groove having instructions recorded thereon, and any suitable combination of the foregoing. A computer readable storage medium, as used herein, is not to be construed as being transitory signals per se, such as radio waves or other freely propagating electromagnetic waves, electromagnetic waves propagating through a waveguide or other transmission media (e.g., light pulses passing through a fiber-optic cable), or electrical signals transmitted through a wire.
Computer readable program instructions described herein can be downloaded to respective computing/processing devices from a computer readable storage medium or to an external computer or external storage device via a network, for example, the Internet, a local area network, a wide area network and/or a wireless network. The network may comprise copper transmission cables, optical transmission fibers, wireless transmission, routers, firewalls, switches, gateway computers and/or edge servers. A network adapter card or network interface in each computing/processing device receives computer readable program instructions from the network and forwards the computer readable program instructions for storage in a computer readable storage medium within the respective computing/processing device.
Computer readable program instructions for carrying out operations of the present invention may be assembler instructions, instruction-set-architecture (ISA) instructions, machine instructions, machine dependent instructions, microcode, firmware instructions, state-setting data, or either source code or object code written in any combination of one or more programming languages, including an object oriented programming language such as SMALLTALK, C++ or the like, and conventional procedural programming languages, such as the “C” programming language or similar programming languages. The computer readable program instructions may execute entirely on the user'"'"'s computer, partly on the user'"'"'s computer, as a stand-alone software package, partly on the user'"'"'s computer and partly on a remote computer or entirely on the remote computer or server. In the latter scenario, the remote computer may be connected to the user'"'"'s computer through any type of network, including a local area network (LAN) or a wide area network (WAN), or the connection may be made to an external computer (for example, through the Internet using an Internet Service Provider). In some embodiments, electronic circuitry including, for example, programmable logic circuitry, field-programmable gate arrays (FPGA), or programmable logic arrays (PLA) may execute the computer readable program instructions by utilizing state information of the computer readable program instructions to personalize the electronic circuitry, in order to perform aspects of the present invention.
Aspects of the present invention are described herein with reference to flowchart illustrations and/or block diagrams of methods, apparatus (systems), and computer program products according to embodiments of the invention. It will be understood that each block of the flowchart illustrations and/or block diagrams, and combinations of blocks in the flowchart illustrations and/or block diagrams, can be implemented by computer readable program instructions.
These computer readable program instructions may be provided to a processor of a general purpose computer, special purpose computer, or other programmable data processing apparatus to produce a machine, such that the instructions, which execute via the processor of the computer or other programmable data processing apparatus, create means for implementing the functions/acts specified in the flowchart and/or block diagram block or blocks. These computer readable program instructions may also be stored in a computer readable storage medium that can direct a computer, a programmable data processing apparatus, and/or other devices to function in a particular manner, such that the computer readable storage medium having instructions stored therein comprises an article of manufacture including instructions which implement aspects of the function/act specified in the flowchart and/or block diagram block or blocks.
The computer readable program instructions may also be loaded onto a computer, other programmable data processing apparatus, or other device to cause a series of operational steps to be performed on the computer, other programmable apparatus or other device to produce a computer implemented process, such that the instructions which execute on the computer, other programmable apparatus, or other device implement the functions/acts specified in the flowchart and/or block diagram block or blocks.
The flowchart and block diagrams in the Figures illustrate the architecture, functionality, and operation of possible implementations of systems, methods, and computer program products according to various embodiments of the present invention. In this regard, each block in the flowchart or block diagrams may represent a module, segment, or portion of instructions, which comprises one or more executable instructions for implementing the specified logical function(s). In some alternative implementations, the functions noted in the blocks may occur out of the order noted in the figures. For example, two blocks shown in succession may, in fact, be executed substantially concurrently, or the blocks may sometimes be executed in the reverse order, depending upon the functionality involved. It will also be noted that each block of the block diagrams and/or flowchart illustration, and combinations of blocks in the block diagrams and/or flowchart illustration, can be implemented by special purpose hardware-based systems that perform the specified functions or acts or carry out combinations of special purpose hardware and computer instructions.
Reference in the specification to “one embodiment” or “an embodiment” of the present invention, as well as other variations thereof, means that a particular feature, structure, characteristic, and so forth described in connection with the embodiment is included in at least one embodiment of the present invention. Thus, the appearances of the phrase “in one embodiment” or “in an embodiment”, as well any other variations, appearing in various places throughout the specification are not necessarily all referring to the same embodiment.
It is to be appreciated that the use of any of the following “/”, “and/or”, and “at least one of”, for example, in the cases of “A/B”, “A and/or B” and “at least one of A and B”, is intended to encompass the selection of the first listed option (A) only, or the selection of the second listed option (B) only, or the selection of both options (A and B). As a further example, in the cases of “A, B, and/or C” and “at least one of A, B, and C”, such phrasing is intended to encompass the selection of the first listed option (A) only, or the selection of the second listed option (B) only, or the selection of the third listed option (C) only, or the selection of the first and the second listed options (A and B) only, or the selection of the first and third listed options (A and C) only, or the selection of the second and third listed options (B and C) only, or the selection of all three options (A and B and C). This may be extended, as readily apparent by one of ordinary skill in this and related arts, for as many items listed.
Referring now to
An environment prediction module 408 collects scheduler-related metrics and historical data to train a node environment model and uses that model, along with short-term metrics, to predict the processing node environment at a given deployment time. A simulation module 410 collects processing node information and uses the predicted node environment as well as any other factors (such as bandwidth availability and needs) to simulate a deployment according to a user'"'"'s request. The simulation provides a timetable for the deployment that pre-load module 412 uses to time the pre-loading of the image(s) at the processing nodes 106, providing instructions to the processing nodes 106 to trigger the download in advance of the deployment time.
Referring now to
A first storage device 522 and a second storage device 524 are operatively coupled to system bus 502 by the I/O adapter 520. The storage devices 522 and 524 can be any of a disk storage device (e.g., a magnetic or optical disk storage device), a solid state magnetic device, and so forth. The storage devices 522 and 524 can be the same type of storage device or different types of storage devices.
A speaker 532 is operatively coupled to system bus 502 by the sound adapter 530. A transceiver 542 is operatively coupled to system bus 502 by network adapter 540. A display device 562 is operatively coupled to system bus 502 by display adapter 560.
A first user input device 552, a second user input device 554, and a third user input device 556 are operatively coupled to system bus 502 by user interface adapter 550. The user input devices 552, 554, and 556 can be any of a keyboard, a mouse, a keypad, an image capture device, a motion sensing device, a microphone, a device incorporating the functionality of at least two of the preceding devices, and so forth. Of course, other types of input devices can also be used, while maintaining the spirit of the present principles. The user input devices 552, 554, and 556 can be the same type of user input device or different types of user input devices. The user input devices 552, 554, and 556 are used to input and output information to and from system 500.
Of course, the processing system 500 may also include other elements (not shown), as readily contemplated by one of skill in the art, as well as omit certain elements. For example, various other input devices and/or output devices can be included in processing system 500, depending upon the particular implementation of the same, as readily understood by one of ordinary skill in the art. For example, various types of wireless and/or wired input and/or output devices can be used. Moreover, additional processors, controllers, memories, and so forth, in various configurations can also be utilized as readily appreciated by one of ordinary skill in the art. These and other variations of the processing system 500 are readily contemplated by one of ordinary skill in the art given the teachings of the present principles provided herein.
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Hardware and software layer 60 includes hardware and software components. Examples of hardware components include: mainframes 61; RISC (Reduced Instruction Set Computer) architecture based servers 62; servers 63; blade servers 64; storage devices 65; and networks and networking components 66. In some embodiments, software components include network application server software 67 and database software 68.
Virtualization layer 70 provides an abstraction layer from which the following examples of virtual entities may be provided: virtual servers 71; virtual storage 72; virtual networks 73, including virtual private networks; virtual applications and operating systems 74; and virtual clients 75.
In one example, management layer 80 may provide the functions described below. Resource provisioning 81 provides dynamic procurement of computing resources and other resources that are utilized to perform tasks within the cloud computing environment. Metering and Pricing 82 provide cost tracking as resources are utilized within the cloud computing environment, and billing or invoicing for consumption of these resources. In one example, these resources may comprise application software licenses. Security provides identity verification for cloud consumers and tasks, as well as protection for data and other resources. User portal 83 provides access to the cloud computing environment for consumers and system administrators. Service level management 84 provides cloud computing resource allocation and management such that required service levels are met. Service Level Agreement (SLA) planning and fulfillment 85 provide pre-arrangement for, and procurement of, cloud computing resources for which a future requirement is anticipated in accordance with an SLA.
Workloads layer 90 provides examples of functionality for which the cloud computing environment may be utilized. Examples of workloads and functions which may be provided from this layer include: mapping and navigation 91; software development and lifecycle management 92; virtual classroom education delivery 93; data analytics processing 94; transaction processing 95; and image pre-loading 96.
Having described preferred embodiments of accelerating large-scale image distribution (which are intended to be illustrative and not limiting), it is noted that modifications and variations can be made by persons skilled in the art in light of the above teachings. It is therefore to be understood that changes may be made in the particular embodiments disclosed which are within the scope of the invention as outlined by the appended claims. Having thus described aspects of the invention, with the details and particularity required by the patent laws, what is claimed and desired protected by Letters Patent is set forth in the appended claims.