LOG EVENT MANAGEMENT MECHANISM
1. A non-transitory computer-readable medium having stored thereon instructions that, when executed by one or more processors, are configurable to cause the one or more processors to:
- transmit one or more messages to a computing device, wherein each of the one or more messages comprises a unique identifier (ID);
generate a comparison checksum for each of the one or more messages, wherein each comparison checksum is associated with a unique ID corresponding to a message from which the comparison checksum was generated;
perform an encryption on each comparison checksum and associated unique ID to generate encryption data including the encrypted checksum and associated unique ID; and
transmit the encryption data to the computing device.
Techniques and structures to facilitate management of log event messages, including transmitting one or more messages, each having a unique identifier (ID), to a computing device, generating a comparison checksum for each of the one or more messages, wherein each comparison checksum is associated with a unique ID corresponding to a message from which the comparison checksum was generated, performing an encryption on each comparison checksum and associated unique ID to generate encryption data and transmitting the encryption data to the computing device.
- 1. A non-transitory computer-readable medium having stored thereon instructions that, when executed by one or more processors, are configurable to cause the one or more processors to:
transmit one or more messages to a computing device, wherein each of the one or more messages comprises a unique identifier (ID); generate a comparison checksum for each of the one or more messages, wherein each comparison checksum is associated with a unique ID corresponding to a message from which the comparison checksum was generated; perform an encryption on each comparison checksum and associated unique ID to generate encryption data including the encrypted checksum and associated unique ID; and transmit the encryption data to the computing device.
- View Dependent Claims (2, 3, 4, 5)
- 6. A non-transitory computer-readable medium having stored thereon instructions that, when executed by one or more processors, are configurable to cause the one or more processors to:
receive one or more messages at a computing device, wherein each of the one or more messages comprises a unique identifier (ID); generate a first message checksum for a first of the one or more messages, wherein the first message and the first message checksum are associated with a first unique ID; receive encryption data from the computing device; perform a decryption of the encryption data to extract one or more comparison checksums; and compare a first of the one or more comparison checksums having the first unique ID to the first message checksum to determine whether there is a match between the first message checksum and the first comparison checksum.
- View Dependent Claims (7, 8, 9, 10)
- 11. A computing device comprising:
at least one physical memory device to store a log emitter; and one or more processors coupled with the at least one physical memory device, the one or more processors configurable to execute the log emitter to transmit one or more messages to a computing device, generate a comparison checksum for each of the one or more messages, perform an encryption on each comparison checksum and an associated unique identifier (ID) to generate encryption data including the encrypted checksum and associated unique ID and transmit the encryption data to the computing device, wherein each of the one or more messages comprises a unique ID and each comparison checksum is associated with a unique ID corresponding to a message from which the comparison checksum was generated.
- View Dependent Claims (12, 13, 14, 15)
- 16. A computing device comprising:
at least one physical memory device to store a log collector; and one or more processors coupled with the at least one physical memory device, the one or more processors configurable to execute the log collector to receive one or more messages at a computing device, generate a first message checksum for a first of the one or more messages, receive encryption data from the computing device, perform a decryption of the encryption data to extract one or more comparison checksums including the encrypted checksum and associated unique ID and compare a first of the one or more comparison checksums having a first unique identifier (ID) to the first message checksum to determine whether there is a match between the first message checksum and the first comparison checksum, wherein each of the one or more messages comprises a unique ID and the first message and the first message checksum are associated with the first unique ID;
- View Dependent Claims (17, 18, 19, 20)
One or more implementations relate generally to network security and, more specifically, to managing the content of event messages.
An event log is a basic resource that helps provide information about network traffic, usage and other conditions, which stores data for retrieval by security professionals or automated security systems to assist network administrators manage various aspects, such as security, performance and transparency. Accordingly, an event log is a “log book” that can capture many different types of information (e.g., logon sessions to a network, account lockouts, failed passwords, etc.), as well as record application events (e.g., application errors, closures, etc.). However, messages in an event log may be manipulated (either accidentally or manually) by unauthorized users and/or malware.
In the following drawings like reference numbers are used to refer to like elements. Although the following figures depict various examples, one or more implementations are not limited to the examples depicted in the figures.
In the following description, numerous specific details are set forth. However, embodiments of the invention may be practiced without these specific details. In other instances, well-known structures and techniques have not been shown in detail in order not to obscure the understanding of this description.
Methods and systems are provided to facilitate management of log event messages. In embodiments, a log event message is assigned unique identifier (ID) prior to transmission to a computing device. In further embodiments a comparison checksum is generated for the log event message, and is associated with a unique ID corresponding to the log event message from. In yet further embodiments, an encryption on each comparison checksum and associated unique ID is performed to generate encryption data prior to transmitting the encryption data to the computing device.
In other embodiments, the log event message is received at the computing device where a message checksum is generated and associated with the associated unique ID. Subsequently, the encryption data is received from the computing device and is decrypted to extract one or more comparison checksums. A comparison checksum is then compared to the message checksum based on the Unique ID to detect whether the log event message has been modified.
It is contemplated that embodiments and their implementations are not merely limited to multi-tenant database system (“MTDBS”) and can be used in other environments, such as a client-server system, a mobile device, a personal computer (“PC”), a web services environment, etc. However, for the sake of brevity and clarity, throughout this document, embodiments are described with respect to a multi-tenant database system, such as Salesforce.com®, which is to be regarded as an example of an on-demand services environment. Other on-demand services environments include Salesforce® Exact Target Marketing Cloud™.
As used herein, a term multi-tenant database system refers to those systems in which various elements of hardware and software of the database system may be shared by one or more customers. For example, a given application server may simultaneously process requests for a great number of customers, and a given database table may store rows for a potentially much greater number of customers. As used herein, the term query plan refers to a set of steps used to access information in a database system.
Embodiments are described with reference to an embodiment in which techniques for facilitating management of data in an on-demand services environment are implemented in a system having an application server providing a front end for an on-demand database service capable of supporting multiple tenants, embodiments are not limited to multi-tenant databases nor deployment on application servers. Embodiments may be practiced using other database architectures, i.e., ORACLE®, DB2® by IBM and the like without departing from the scope of the embodiments claimed.
In one embodiment, computing device 120 may serve as a service provider core (e.g., Salesforce.com® core) in communication with one or more database(s) 140, one or more client computers 130A-N, over one or more network(s) 135, and any number and type of dedicated nodes. Computing device 120 may include (without limitation) server computers (e.g., cloud server computers, etc.), desktop computers, cluster-based computers, set-top boxes (e.g., Internet-based cable television set-top boxes, etc.), etc. Computing device 120 includes an operating system (“OS”) 106 serving as an interface between one or more hardware/physical resources of computing device 120 and one or more client devices 130A-130N, etc. Computing device 120 further includes processor(s) 102, memory 104, input/output (“I/O”) sources 108, such as touchscreens, touch panels, touch pads, virtual or regular keyboards, virtual or regular mice, etc.
In one embodiment, host organization 101 may further employ a production environment that is communicably interfaced with client devices 130A-N through host organization 101. Client devices 130A-N may include (without limitation) customer organization-based server computers, desktop computers, laptop computers, mobile computing devices, such as smartphones, tablet computers, personal digital assistants, e-readers, media Internet devices, smart televisions, television platforms, wearable devices (e.g., glasses, watches, bracelets, smartcards, jewelry, clothing items, etc.), media players, global positioning system-based navigation systems, cable setup boxes, etc.
In one embodiment, the illustrated multi-tenant database system 150 includes database(s) 140 to store (without limitation) information, relational tables, datasets, and underlying database records having tenant and user data therein on behalf of customer organizations 121A-N (e.g., tenants of multi-tenant database system 150 or their affiliated users). In alternative embodiments, a client-server computing architecture may be utilized in place of multi-tenant database system 150, or alternatively, a computing grid, or a pool of work servers, or some combination of hosted computing architectures may be utilized to carry out the computational workload and processing that is expected of host organization 101.
The illustrated multi-tenant database system 150 is shown to include one or more of underlying hardware, software, and logic elements 145 that implement, for example, database functionality and a code execution environment within host organization 101. In accordance with one embodiment, multi-tenant database system 150 further implements databases 140 to service database queries and other data interactions with the databases 140. In one embodiment, hardware, software, and logic elements 145 of multi-tenant database system 150 and its other elements, such as a distributed file store, a query interface, etc., may be separate and distinct from customer organizations (121A-121N) which utilize the services provided by host organization 101 by communicably interfacing with host organization 101 via network(s) 135 (e.g., cloud network, the Internet, etc.). In such a way, host organization 101 may implement on-demand services, on-demand database services, cloud computing services, etc., to subscribing customer organizations 121A-121N.
In some embodiments, host organization 101 receives input and other requests from a plurality of customer organizations 121A-N over one or more networks 135; for example, incoming search queries, database queries, application programming interface (“API”) requests, interactions with displayed graphical user interfaces and displays at client devices 130A-N, or other inputs may be received from customer organizations 121A-N to be processed against multi-tenant database system 150 as queries via a query interface and stored at a distributed file store, pursuant to which results are then returned to an originator or requestor, such as a user of client devices 130A-N at any of customer organizations 121A-N.
As aforementioned, in one embodiment, each customer organization 121A-N is an entity selected from a group consisting of a separate and distinct remote organization, an organizational group within host organization 101, a business partner of host organization 101, a customer organization 121A-N that subscribes to cloud computing services provided by host organization 101, etc.
In one embodiment, requests are received at, or submitted to, a web server within host organization 101. Host organization 101 may receive a variety of requests for processing by host organization 101 and its multi-tenant database system 150. For example, incoming requests received at the web server may specify which services from host organization 101 are to be provided, such as query requests, search request, status requests, database transactions, graphical user interface requests and interactions, processing requests to retrieve, update, or store data on behalf of one of customer organizations 121A-N, code execution requests, and so forth. Further, the web-server at host organization 101 may be responsible for receiving requests from various customer organizations 121A-N via network(s) 135 on behalf of the query interface and for providing a web-based interface or other graphical displays to one or more end-user client devices 130A-N or machines originating such data requests.
Further, host organization 101 may implement a request interface via the web server or as a stand-alone interface to receive requests packets or other requests from the client devices 130A-N. The request interface may further support the return of response packets or other replies and responses in an outgoing direction from host organization 101 to one or more client devices 130A-N.
It is to be noted that terms like “node”, “computing node”, “server”, “server device”, “cloud computer”, “cloud server”, “cloud server computer”, “machine”, “host machine”, “device”, “computing device”, “computer”, “computing system”, “multi-tenant on-demand data system”, “multi-tenant database system” and the like, may be used interchangeably throughout this document. It is to be further noted that terms like “code”, “software code”, “application”, “software application”, “program”, “software program”, “package”, “software code”, “code”, and “software package” may be used interchangeably throughout this document. Moreover, terms like “job”, “input”, “request”, and “message” may be used interchangeably throughout this document.
Encryption module 330 encrypts each comparison checksum and UUID pair in the batch to generate encrypted data for transmission to a log collector 215 at another computing device. In one embodiment, encryption module 330 applies a Salt algorithm to the batch of checksum and UUID pairs. In a further embodiment, encryption module 330 may also perform symmetric key encryption on the batch in which the symmetric key and Salt are encrypted with a public key associated with the log collector 215 to which the encrypted message data is to be transmitted. However other embodiments may feature an implementation of different cryptographic algorithms by encryption module 330.
Method 400 begins at processing block 410, where a UUID is assigned to each of one or more log event messages deposited at log emitter 212. As shown in
Checksum generator 620 performs the checksum algorithm to calculate checksums to generate a message checksum corresponding to each log event message, which is stored with the log event message and associated UUID (e.g., in embodiments in which UUIDs are implemented). At some time later log collector 215 receives the encrypted data from log emitter 212. As discussed above, the encrypted data is received from log emitter 212 via a separate channel from the received log event messages. Decryption logic 630 decrypts the encrypted batch of data to extract the comparison checksum and UUID pairs.
Compare logic 640 compares the comparison checksums with the stored message checksums. In one embodiment, compare logic 640 receives an extracted comparison checksum and uses the associated UUID to retrieve the message checksum having the same UUID. Subsequently, compare logic 640 performs the comparison between the message checksum and the comparison checksum to determine whether there is a match. Report module 650 tracks and generates a report of the result of each performed checksum comparison. As a result, a user may determine whether one or more log event message have been modified sometime after transmission from log emitter 212.
Method 700 begins at processing block 710, where a log event message is received and stored with the associated UUID at log collector 215. At processing block 720, a message checksum is calculated and stored with the associated UUID.
The exemplary computer system 900 includes a processor 902, a main memory 504 (e.g., read-only memory (ROM), flash memory, dynamic random access memory (DRAM) such as synchronous DRAM (SDRAM) or Rambus DRAM (RDRAM), etc., static memory such as flash memory, static random access memory (SRAM), volatile but high-data rate RAM, etc.), and a secondary memory 918 (e.g., a persistent storage device including hard disk drives and persistent multi-tenant data base implementations), which communicate with each other via a bus 930. Main memory 904 includes emitted execution data 924 (e.g., data emitted by a logging framework) and one or more trace preferences 923 which operate in conjunction with processing logic 926 and processor 902 to perform the methodologies discussed herein.
Processor 902 represents one or more general-purpose processing devices such as a microprocessor, central processing unit, or the like. More particularly, the processor 902 may be a complex instruction set computing (CISC) microprocessor, reduced instruction set computing (RISC) microprocessor, very long instruction word (VLIW) microprocessor, processor implementing other instruction sets, or processors implementing a combination of instruction sets. Processor 902 may also be one or more special-purpose processing devices such as an application specific integrated circuit (ASIC), a field programmable gate array (FPGA), a digital signal processor (DSP), network processor, or the like. Processor 902 is configured to execute the processing logic 926 for performing the operations as described with reference to
The computer system 900 may further include a network interface card 908. The computer system 900 also may include a user interface 910 (such as a video display unit, a liquid crystal display (LCD), or a cathode ray tube (CRT)), an alphanumeric input device 912 (e.g., a keyboard), a cursor control device 914 (e.g., a mouse), and a signal generation device 916 (e.g., an integrated speaker). The computer system 900 may further include peripheral device 936 (e.g., wireless or wired communication devices, memory devices, storage devices, audio processing devices, video processing devices, etc. The computer system 900 may further include a Hardware based API logging framework 934 capable of executing incoming requests for services and emitting execution data responsive to the fulfillment of such incoming requests.
The secondary memory 918 may include a machine-readable storage medium (or more specifically a machine-accessible storage medium) 931 on which is stored one or more sets of instructions (e.g., software 922) embodying any one or more of the methodologies as described with reference to
Portions of various embodiments may be provided as a computer program product, which may include a computer-readable medium having stored thereon computer program instructions, which may be used to program a computer (or other electronic devices) to perform a process according to the embodiments. The machine-readable medium may include, but is not limited to, floppy diskettes, optical disks, compact disk read-only memory (CD-ROM), and magneto-optical disks, ROM, RAM, erasable programmable read-only memory (EPROM), electrically EPROM (EEPROM), magnet or optical cards, flash memory, or other type of media/machine-readable medium suitable for storing electronic instructions.
The techniques shown in the figures can be implemented using code and data stored and executed on one or more electronic devices (e.g., an end station, a network element). Such electronic devices store and communicate (internally and/or with other electronic devices over a network) code and data using computer-readable media, such as non-transitory computer-readable storage media (e.g., magnetic disks; optical disks; random access memory; read only memory; flash memory devices; phase-change memory) and transitory computer-readable transmission media (e.g., electrical, optical, acoustical or other form of propagated signals such as carrier waves, infrared signals, digital signals). In addition, such electronic devices typically include a set of one or more processors coupled to one or more other components, such as one or more storage devices (non-transitory machine-readable storage media), user input/output devices (e.g., a keyboard, a touchscreen, and/or a display), and network connections. The coupling of the set of processors and other components is typically through one or more busses and bridges (also termed as bus controllers). Thus, the storage device of a given electronic device typically stores code and/or data for execution on the set of one or more processors of that electronic device. Of course, one or more parts of an embodiment may be implemented using different combinations of software, firmware, and/or hardware.
Environment 1010 is an environment in which an on-demand database service exists. User system 1012 may be any machine or system that is used by a user to access a database user system. For example, any of user systems 1012 can be a handheld computing device, a mobile phone, a laptop computer, a workstation, and/or a network of computing devices. As illustrated in herein
An on-demand database service, such as system 1016, is a database system that is made available to outside users that do not need to necessarily be concerned with building and/or maintaining the database system, but instead may be available for their use when the users need the database system (e.g., on the demand of the users). Some on-demand database services may store information from one or more tenants stored into tables of a common database image to form a multi-tenant database system (MTS). Accordingly, “on-demand database service 1016” and “system 1016” will be used interchangeably herein. A database image may include one or more database objects. A relational database management system (RDMS) or the equivalent may execute storage and retrieval of information against the database object(s). Application platform 1018 may be a framework that allows the applications of system 1016 to run, such as the hardware and/or software, e.g., the operating system. In an embodiment, on-demand database service 1016 may include an application platform 1018 that enables creation, managing and executing one or more applications developed by the provider of the on-demand database service, users accessing the on-demand database service via user systems 1012, or third party application developers accessing the on-demand database service via user systems 1012.
The users of user systems 1012 may differ in their respective capacities, and the capacity of a particular user system 1012 might be entirely determined by permissions (permission levels) for the current user. For example, where a salesperson is using a particular user system 1012 to interact with system 1016, that user system has the capacities allotted to that salesperson. However, while an administrator is using that user system to interact with system 1016, that user system has the capacities allotted to that administrator. In systems with a hierarchical role model, users at one permission level may have access to applications, data, and database information accessible by a lower permission level user, but may not have access to certain applications, database information, and data accessible by a user at a higher permission level. Thus, different users will have different capabilities with regard to accessing and modifying application and database information, depending on a user'"'"'s security or permission level.
Network 1014 is any network or combination of networks of devices that communicate with one another. For example, network 1014 can be any one or any combination of a LAN (local area network), WAN (wide area network), telephone network, wireless network, point-to-point network, star network, token ring network, hub network, or other appropriate configuration. As the most common type of computer network in current use is a TCP/IP (Transfer Control Protocol and Internet Protocol) network, such as the global internetwork of networks often referred to as the “Internet” with a capital “I,” that network will be used in many of the examples herein. However, it should be understood that the networks that one or more implementations might use are not so limited, although TCP/IP is a frequently implemented protocol.
User systems 1012 might communicate with system 1016 using TCP/IP and, at a higher network level, use other common Internet protocols to communicate, such as HTTP, FTP, AFS, WAP, etc. In an example where HTTP is used, user system 1012 might include an HTTP client commonly referred to as a “browser” for sending and receiving HTTP messages to and from an HTTP server at system 1016. Such an HTTP server might be implemented as the sole network interface between system 1016 and network 1014, but other techniques might be used as well or instead. In some implementations, the interface between system 1016 and network 1014 includes load-sharing functionality, such as round-robin HTTP request distributors to balance loads and distribute incoming HTTP requests evenly over a plurality of servers. At least as for the users that are accessing that server, each of the plurality of servers has access to the MTS'"'"' data; however, other alternative configurations may be used instead.
In one embodiment, system 1016, shown in
One arrangement for elements of system 1016 is shown in
Several elements in the system shown in
According to one embodiment, each system 1016 is configured to provide webpages, forms, applications, data and media content to user (client) systems 1012 to support the access by user systems 1012 as tenants of system 1016. As such, system 1016 provides security mechanisms to keep each tenant'"'"'s data separate unless the data is shared. If more than one MTS is used, they may be located in close proximity to one another (e.g., in a server farm located in a single building or campus), or they may be distributed at locations remote from one another (e.g., one or more servers located in city A and one or more servers located in city B). As used herein, each MTS could include one or more logically and/or physically connected servers distributed locally or across one or more geographic locations. Additionally, the term “server” is meant to include a computer system, including processing hardware and process space(s), and an associated storage system and database application (e.g., OODBMS or RDBMS) as is well known in the art. It should also be understood that “server system” and “server” are often used interchangeably herein. Similarly, the database object described herein can be implemented as single databases, a distributed database, a collection of distributed databases, a database with redundant online or offline backups or other redundancies, etc., and might include a distributed database or storage network and associated processing intelligence.
User system 1012, network 1014, system 1016, tenant data storage 1022, and system data storage 1024 were discussed above in
Application platform 1018 includes an application setup mechanism 1138 that supports application developers'"'"' creation and management of applications, which may be saved as metadata into tenant data storage 1022 by save routines 1136 for execution by subscribers as one or more tenant process spaces 1104 managed by tenant management process 1110 for example. Invocations to such applications may be coded using PL/SOQL 1134 that provides a programming language style interface extension to API 1132. A detailed description of some PL/SOQL language embodiments is discussed in commonly owned U.S. Pat. No. 7,730,478 entitled, “Method and System for Allowing Access to Developed Applicants via a Multi-Tenant Database On-Demand Database Service”, issued Jun. 1, 2010 to Craig Weissman, which is incorporated in its entirety herein for all purposes. Invocations to applications may be detected by one or more system processes, which manage retrieving application metadata 1116 for the subscriber making the invocation and executing the metadata as an application in a virtual machine.
Each application server 1100 may be communicably coupled to database systems, e.g., having access to system data 1025 and tenant data 1023, via a different network connection. For example, one application server 11001 might be coupled via the network 1014 (e.g., the Internet), another application server 1100N−1 might be coupled via a direct network link, and another application server 1100N might be coupled by yet a different network connection. Transfer Control Protocol and Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) are typical protocols for communicating between application servers 1100 and the database system. However, it will be apparent to one skilled in the art that other transport protocols may be used to optimize the system depending on the network interconnect used.
In certain embodiments, each application server 1100 is configured to handle requests for any user associated with any organization that is a tenant. Because it is desirable to be able to add and remove application servers from the server pool at any time for any reason, there is preferably no server affinity for a user and/or organization to a specific application server 1100. In one embodiment, therefore, an interface system implementing a load balancing function (e.g., an F5 Big-IP load balancer) is communicably coupled between the application servers 1100 and the user systems 1012 to distribute requests to the application servers 1100. In one embodiment, the load balancer uses a least connections algorithm to route user requests to the application servers 1100. Other examples of load balancing algorithms, such as round robin and observed response time, also can be used. For example, in certain embodiments, three consecutive requests from the same user could hit three different application servers 1100, and three requests from different users could hit the same application server 1100. In this manner, system 1016 is multi-tenant, wherein system 1016 handles storage of, and access to, different objects, data and applications across disparate users and organizations.
As an example of storage, one tenant might be a company that employs a sales force where each salesperson uses system 1016 to manage their sales process. Thus, a user might maintain contact data, leads data, customer follow-up data, performance data, goals and progress data, etc., all applicable to that user'"'"'s personal sales process (e.g., in tenant data storage 1022). In an example of a MTS arrangement, since all of the data and the applications to access, view, modify, report, transmit, calculate, etc., can be maintained and accessed by a user system having nothing more than network access, the user can manage his or her sales efforts and cycles from any of many different user systems. For example, if a salesperson is visiting a customer and the customer has Internet access in their lobby, the salesperson can obtain critical updates as to that customer while waiting for the customer to arrive in the lobby.
While each user'"'"'s data might be separate from other users'"'"' data regardless of the employers of each user, some data might be organization-wide data shared or accessible by a plurality of users or all of the users for a given organization that is a tenant. Thus, there might be some data structures managed by system 1016 that are allocated at the tenant level while other data structures might be managed at the user level. Because an MTS might support multiple tenants including possible competitors, the MTS should have security protocols that keep data, applications, and application use separate. Also, because many tenants may opt for access to an MTS rather than maintain their own system, redundancy, up-time, and backup are additional functions that may be implemented in the MTS. In addition to user-specific data and tenant specific data, system 1016 might also maintain system level data usable by multiple tenants or other data. Such system level data might include industry reports, news, postings, and the like that are sharable among tenants.
In certain embodiments, user systems 1012 (which may be client systems) communicate with application servers 1100 to request and update system-level and tenant-level data from system 1016 that may require sending one or more queries to tenant data storage 1022 and/or system data storage 1024. System 1016 (e.g., an application server 1100 in system 1016) automatically generates one or more SQL statements (e.g., one or more SQL queries) that are designed to access the desired information. System data storage 1024 may generate query plans to access the requested data from the database.
Each database can generally be viewed as a collection of objects, such as a set of logical tables, containing data fitted into predefined categories. A “table” is one representation of a data object, and may be used herein to simplify the conceptual description of objects and custom objects. It should be understood that “table” and “object” may be used interchangeably herein. Each table generally contains one or more data categories logically arranged as columns or fields in a viewable schema. Each row or record of a table contains an instance of data for each category defined by the fields. For example, a CRM database may include a table that describes a customer with fields for basic contact information such as name, address, phone number, fax number, etc. Another table might describe a purchase order, including fields for information such as customer, product, sale price, date, etc. In some multi-tenant database systems, standard entity tables might be provided for use by all tenants. For CRM database applications, such standard entities might include tables for Account, Contact, Lead, and Opportunity data, each containing pre-defined fields. It should be understood that the word “entity” may also be used interchangeably herein with “object” and “table”.
In some multi-tenant database systems, tenants may be allowed to create and store custom objects, or they may be allowed to customize standard entities or objects, for example by creating custom fields for standard objects, including custom index fields. U.S. patent application Ser. No. 10/817,161, filed Apr. 2, 2004, entitled “Custom Entities and Fields in a Multi-Tenant Database System”, and which is hereby incorporated herein by reference, teaches systems and methods for creating custom objects as well as customizing standard objects in a multi-tenant database system. In certain embodiments, for example, all custom entity data rows are stored in a single multi-tenant physical table, which may contain multiple logical tables per organization. It is transparent to customers that their multiple “tables” are in fact stored in one large table or that their data may be stored in the same table as the data of other customers.
Any of the above embodiments may be used alone or together with one another in any combination. Embodiments encompassed within this specification may also include embodiments that are only partially mentioned or alluded to or are not mentioned or alluded to at all in this brief summary or in the abstract. Although various embodiments may have been motivated by various deficiencies with the prior art, which may be discussed or alluded to in one or more places in the specification, the embodiments do not necessarily address any of these deficiencies. In other words, different embodiments may address different deficiencies that may be discussed in the specification. Some embodiments may only partially address some deficiencies or just one deficiency that may be discussed in the specification, and some embodiments may not address any of these deficiencies.
While one or more implementations have been described by way of example and in terms of the specific embodiments, it is to be understood that one or more implementations are not limited to the disclosed embodiments. To the contrary, it is intended to cover various modifications and similar arrangements as would be apparent to those skilled in the art. Therefore, the scope of the appended claims should be accorded the broadest interpretation so as to encompass all such modifications and similar arrangements. It is to be understood that the above description is intended to be illustrative, and not restrictive.