CROSS-NETWORK GENOMIC DATA USER INTERFACE
1. A method comprising:
- receiving, from one or more select network servers, a plurality of network pages having variant values of genetic variations, each of the genetic variations being uniquely identified on the one or more select network servers by a variant identifier;
identifying, in a genetic variation structured data file of a user, user variant values based on variant identifiers in the received plurality of network pages;
determining that a portion of the user variant values in the genetic variation structured data file matches the variant values in at least one of the plurality of network pages;
generating a user interface displaying data from an additional network page that is linked to the at least one of the plurality of network pages having matching variant values; and
causing, on a client device, presentation of the user interface
A genomic update system can generate a user interface from network pages based on variant data in one or more of the network pages matching user variant data. Some of the network pages may be in an elevated or trusted class and linking pages may link to those network pages. Content from the linking pages can be included with one or more visualizations in the user interface for interaction by a user via a user device, such as a handheld mobile device.
- 1. A method comprising:
receiving, from one or more select network servers, a plurality of network pages having variant values of genetic variations, each of the genetic variations being uniquely identified on the one or more select network servers by a variant identifier; identifying, in a genetic variation structured data file of a user, user variant values based on variant identifiers in the received plurality of network pages; determining that a portion of the user variant values in the genetic variation structured data file matches the variant values in at least one of the plurality of network pages; generating a user interface displaying data from an additional network page that is linked to the at least one of the plurality of network pages having matching variant values; and causing, on a client device, presentation of the user interface
- View Dependent Claims (2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18)
- 19. A system comprising:
one or more processors of a client device; and a memory storing instructions that, when executed by the one or more processors, cause the system to perform operations comprising; causing, on a client device, presentation of the user interface.
- 20. A machine-readable storage device embodying instructions that, when executed by a device, cause the device to perform operations comprising:
causing, on a client device, presentation of the user interface.
The present disclosure generally relates to special-purpose machines and improvements to such special-purpose machines, and to the technologies by which such special-purpose machines become improved compared to other special-purpose machines for generating a user interface comprising cross-network genomic data.
Users now have access to genomic tests and services that were recently available only through leading research organizations and clinical laboratories. The decreasing cost of genome sequencing has been one factor in increasing the availability of such direct-to-user genomic services. Such genomic services can now quickly complete laboratory analysis of a user'"'"'s genome (e.g., deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)), and give the user access to the newly generated genetic data (e.g., variant call format (VCF) file). These breakthrough advances have created several technological challenges due to the size, complexity, and nature of genetic data. For instance, while a given user can now have their genome sequenced, the resulting sequence data (e.g., sequence alignment/map (SAM) file) can often exceed hundreds of gigabytes of text data, which can be difficult to store and analyze even in a compressed format, let alone via mobile client device. Additionally, the sequenced data is very complex and understood by few users. Furthermore, access to the genetic data should be controlled in a secure way to ensure privacy of the user'"'"'s genetic data.
The inventive subject matter is more fully appreciated in connection with the following detailed description taken in conjunction with the accompanying drawings, in which:
Like reference numerals refer to corresponding parts throughout the several views of the drawings.
The description that follows discusses systems, methods, techniques, instruction sequences, and computing machine program products that illustrate examples of the present subject matter. For the purposes of explanation, numerous specific details are set forth in order to provide an understanding of various example embodiments of the present subject matter. It will be evident, however, to those skilled in the art, that example embodiments of the present subject matter may be practiced without these specific details.
As discussed, there are several difficulties in managing a user'"'"'s genetic data. To this end, a genomic update system can generate a user interface that displays content structured from different network servers based on the user'"'"'s genetic data. The content included in the user interface can depend on how the user'"'"'s genetic data matches genetic data in a root page from a trusted network site. A trusted network site is a site trusted for accurate scientific data (e.g., a network site publishing peer reviewed articles). The root page may link to additional network pages on different sites, which can be included for display in the user interface. In some example embodiments, the user data can match the variant data in the root page in different ways (e.g., exact match, statistical match), as discussed in further detail below. In some example embodiments, a visualization (e.g., a chart, a graph, a table) that has been pre-associated with match type is included in the user interface for display to the user. For example, if an exact match occurs a first type of visualization (e.g., a checkbox) is included in the user interface; whereas if a statistical match occurs a second and different type of visualization is included in the user interface. The root page may be hosted or originate from a trusted class of network sites. Pages from the trusted class of network sites (e.g., www.nature.com) may hyperlink to secondary pages from other network sites (e.g., a webpage article on www.wallstreetjournal.com that references the page on www.nature.com).
In some example embodiments, content from the secondary pages is automatically parsed and included in the user interface with the user'"'"'s genetic data, and one or more visualizations. In some example embodiments, the secondary pages may be of an elevated class of network sites, that are trusted but less so than the trusted class. For example, the elevated class may only include webpage articles published on newspaper websites. In some example embodiments, additional classes are created based on pages of the additional classes linking to the root or secondary pages. In some of those example embodiments, based on the seriousness or categorical selections made from a user, page content from different classes is included in user interface. For example, if the genetic variation is in a “fun” category (i.e., not life threatening, such as eye color), and further if the user data matches the genetic variation data in the root page, then page content from secondary or tertiary class (e.g., an article from a blog) can be included in the user interface. In contrast, if the genetic variation is more serious (e.g., heart-health related) only page content from the secondary or root pages is included in the user interface, according to some example embodiments.
Attention is now directed to
In the embodiment of
In the embodiment of
In other embodiments, the genomic services platform 104 may be implemented by using on-premise servers and other infrastructure rather than by using cloud-based services. Alternatively, hybrid implementations of the genomic services platform 104 including a combination of on-premise and cloud-based infrastructure are also within the scope of the present disclosure.
Referring again to
Through a series of API calls 148 to an API endpoint, e.g., Helix™ Application Program Interface (HAPI), a user'"'"'s application can invoke certain tasks at the application server 146 to be performed by the application server 146 or in association with other entities within the genomic services platform 104. Typically, tasks using this API will relate to updating user data stored in the user database 147 and may include aspects such as querying data, adding or deleting data, and obtaining metadata about the data. Such applications offered through the portal established by the application server 146 may be the same as, or different from, the applications offered through the partner application providers 120.
Partner application providers 120 can also interact with the application server 146 in relation to non-genomic information. Through a series of API calls 149 to an API endpoint, e.g., Helix™ Partner Application Program Interface (HPAPI), a partner application provider 120 can also invoke certain tasks at the application server 146, such as querying user data, adding or deleting user data, and obtaining metadata about the user data.
Upon completing the registration process, in one embodiment a registered user is sent a receptacle (e.g., a tube or vial) into which the user may deposit a biological sample 114 (e.g., saliva). In one embodiment, the user may receive the receptacle via mail or a package delivery service and may send the receptacle containing the biological sample 114 to the sequencing laboratory 110 using the same or a similar mode of delivery. As part of the registration process, the user may be assigned a unique identifier (such as a unique “user registration ID”, a “user ID”, a “kitID”, or another identifier described further below) that is imprinted or otherwise included on a label attached to the receptacle for the biological sample 114 sent to the user. The user ID may be in the form of a bar code for tracking progress of the user'"'"'s biological sample through the sequencing laboratory 110 and in identifying the user'"'"'s sample and related information in the bioinformatics processing network 130. The labeling associated with biological samples 114 sent to the sequencing laboratory 110 typically lacks any personal information enabling direct identification of the users associated with such samples 114.
In one embodiment, a user may register via the portal established by the application server 146 prior to ordering genomic-related applications or network services from partner application providers 120. In other embodiments, the user may access or download an application directly from a partner application provider 120 and provide registration or purchase information that is then forwarded to the platform 104 via an API endpoint, e.g., HPAPI. Upon receiving the registration information, the operator of the platform 104 may send a receptacle to the user for receiving a biological sample 114, which is subsequently sent by the user to the sequencing laboratory 110.
Attention is now directed to
Upon receiving the biological sample 114, the sequencing laboratory 110 prepares the sample 114 for sequencing (stage 230). As part of the preparation process, the sample 114 may be placed in a sample preparation cartridge to which reagents or other substances are added pursuant to the preparation protocol utilized. Such preparation of the sample 114 may include, for example, isolating or purifying the sample 114 and performing one or more of cleaving, degrading, annealing, hybridizing, denaturing, or ligating processes involving the sample 114. These processes may in some examples occur during transit of the sample 114 to the sequencing laboratory 110. Any suitable sample preparation operation known to those of ordinary skill in the art may be employed during stage 230.
Once the biological sample 114 has been prepared, it is processed by sequencing equipment 111 operative to generate observed genomic sequence reads and related quality score information (stage 234). The sequence reads generated may correspond to some or all of the user'"'"'s genome sequence including, for example, genomic DNA. cDNA, hnRNA, mRNA, rRNA, tRNA, cRNA, and other forms of spliced or modified RNA. In exemplary embodiments, the sequence reads may relate to, for example, somatic, germline, gene expression, and transcriptome sequences.
With reference to
As is discussed below, and with reference to
- 1. Read Alignment: align the observed sequence reads in a FASTQ file to a reference genome, which may be in a non-FASTQ format (e.g., FASTA) and store the alignments in a file in a format such as a Sequence Alignment Map (SAM) file 308 (stage 242,
FIG. 2), which, while compressed, can still exceed 1.4 GB with 1.4 million lines of text data. The SAM file 308 can be converted into a Binary Alignment Map (BAM) file 306 (e.g., a 7.5 GB text data file), which is a binary representation of the alignment data in the SAM file 308.
- 2. Variant Calling: compare the user'"'"'s genome to the reference genome and identify variants such as a single nucleotide polymorphisms, insertions, and deletions and store these variants in a file format such as a variant call file 310 (VCF format), or genomic variant call file 312 (GVCF format) (stage 250,
FIG. 2). The VCF format is a file format for storing DNA variation data such as single-nucleotide variants (SNVs), also called single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), and other variations, such as insertions/deletions (indels), structural variants, annotations, large structural variants, etc. Like FASTQ, SAM, and BAM files, a user'"'"'s VCF file is often a very large file (e.g., hundreds of gigabytes of text data) having millions of rows, each row having multiple columns or fields of data. Each row of a VCF file corresponds to a variant at one genomic position or region. A VCF further has multiple columns or tab-delimited fields including, for example, a position column that specifies the start of the variant, a reference allele column of the reference genome, and a nonreference allele column comprising the user'"'"'s allele value, for example.
- 3. Variant Refinement: perform additional processing and filtering to derive the final variant calls (stage 254,
FIG. 2). In some examples, a ploidy correction is performed during the variant refinement step. Ploidy, in genetics, relates to the number of chromosomes occurring in the nucleus of a cell. A chromosome is a threadlike structure of nucleic acids and protein found in the nucleus of most living cells, carrying genetic information in the form of genes. In normal somatic (body) cells, chromosomes exist in pairs. The condition is called diploidy. During meiosis, the cell produces gametes, or germ cells, each containing half the normal or somatic number of chromosomes. This condition is called haploidy. When two germ cells (e.g., egg and sperm) unite, the diploid condition is restored. Polyploidy refers to cells the nuclei of which have three or more times the number of chromosomes found in haploid cells. Some cells have an abnormal number of chromosomes that is not typical for that organism. In some examples, a ploidy correction is performed by making a sex inference using a heuristic based on the ratio of high-quality reads mapped to chromosome Y divided by those mapped to chromosome X.
- 4. Quality Control: generate a quality control (QC) report 314 with QC metric values computed on the subject'"'"'s read alignments and/or variant calls (stage 248,
- 5. Derived Statistics: In one embodiment statistics 316 may be derived based upon, for example, sequence reads and/or variant information for use in quality control and process monitoring. In some alternate examples, a ploidy correction could be performed in this stage instead by making a sex inference using a heuristic based on the ratio of high-quality reads mapped to chromosome Y divided by those mapped to chromosome X (stage 256,
FIG. 2). In some examples, derived statistics are obtained as part of the quality control stage, such that statistic derivation is not performed as a discrete, subsequent operation.
- 1. Read Alignment: align the observed sequence reads in a FASTQ file to a reference genome, which may be in a non-FASTQ format (e.g., FASTA) and store the alignments in a file in a format such as a Sequence Alignment Map (SAM) file 308 (stage 242,
For each of the observed sequence reads in the FASTQ file, the read alignment module 132 determines a corresponding location in a reference sequence (or finds that no such location can be determined) (stage 242). The read alignment module 132 may utilize a mapping algorithm to compare the sequence of a given read to that of the reference sequence and attempt to locate a potentially unique location in the reference sequence that matches the read.
The results of the sequence alignment operation may be stored in a relatively compressed format such as, for example, in a compressed BAM file 306 (stage 246) or in a file utilizing another compressed storage format. The resulting BAM file 306 may, in one example, be indexed relative to the reference sequence (e.g., a SAM file 308) and analyzed by the quality control module 142 (stage 248). In one embodiment, the variant calling module 134 is configured to process the BAM file 308 in order to identify the existence of variants such as single nucleotide variants (SNVs) relative to the reference sequence (stage 250). The results of the variant calling process may be stored within, for example, one or more VCF files or in other variant call file formats. In one embodiment, the variant calling module 134 produces two variant data files, although in alternative implementations only a single variant data file may be produced. The first variant data file (e.g., GVCF 312) provides general information about all sites in the genome, which include both sites with and without variants (reference calls); the second variant data file (e.g., VCF 310) does not provide information for reference calls. The second variant data file (VCF) provides finalized posterior genotype likelihoods for variants (i.e., for each site at which a variant occurs, it gives the probability that the genotype it assigned to the sample at the site is incorrect). The first variant data file includes genotype likelihoods for variants, but they are not finalized as they may be based on incomplete or low-quality information or genotypes. The sequencing and alignment calling process can create many technical artifacts that can lead to inaccurate results. Using various quality metrics computed for the variants, quality filtering is performed on the second variant data file to remove such artifacts. After filtering, the second variant data file is merged with the first variant data file.
In one embodiment, variant refinement (stage 254) is performed with respect to variant and reference calls produced during stage 250 in order to generate a final variant call output of observed variants. As is discussed below, additional variant calls not directly determined by observed results of the sequencing process may be added during a subsequent variant imputation processing step. In some embodiments, for each sample 114 processed during stage 254, the variant refinement module 138 merges the two variant data files generated by the variant calling module 134 for the sample 114 into a single variant data file, merges records in the file that represent adjacent reference calls, merges records in the file that represent overlapping variant calls or reference calls, performs ploidy correction using derived statistics (stage 256), and performs variant filtering. By merging the two files produced by the variant calling module 134, the variant refinement module 138 produces a variant data file with reference calls from the first file and variants calls with posterior genotype likelihoods from the second file. In one embodiment, the variant data file will contain two types of records that can be merged: records representing adjacent reference calls and records representing overlapping variant calls or reference calls.
In some examples, the variant data file containing the refined variant calls produced by the variant refinement module 138 is stored within a genomic data storage 150 before variant imputation and may be encrypted using conventional techniques (stage 258). In one embodiment, the genomic data storage 150 is implemented using cloud-based storage such as, for example, Amazon Simple Storage Service (S3), which is available through Amazon Web Services™ (AWS). In general, S3 provides persistent storage for HTTP access to store and retrieve data.
In some examples, haplotype reference data is utilized in the variant imputation operation of stage 262 (
In some example embodiments, when a user interacts with an application 112 obtained from a partner application provider 120, the application 112 may make requests to the partner application provider 120 which require the partner application provider 120 to access genomic information stored by the platform 104 (stage 274). Upon receiving such a request, the partner application provider 120 may issue a request for the relevant information through a genomics interface 160 of the platform 104 comprised of a network interface and a genomics API (stage 278). Referring again to
The various system APIs discussed herein (more specifically, the example API'"'"'s described herein as HAPI, HPAPI, and HGAPI), allow a partner application provider 120 to integrate genetics into its applications, products, or services. The genomic services platform 104 supports multiple application providers. The APIs are designed to use consistent resource-oriented URLs as well as HTTP response codes to indicate errors. They also support built-in HTTP features, such as HTTP verbs, for compatibility with the majority of standard HTTP clients. All responses are returned as JSON messages.
Using the APIs, a partner can in some examples access two services based on development needs. Each service has both staging and production endpoints. The two hosted, dedicated services can be invoked to notify a partner application provider of user events and to give the partner access to the relevant genetic information that enables DNA-related features. The first service, for example accessible at the endpoint HPAPI, utilizes the user database 147 and can notify a partner about a user'"'"'s status, including aspects such as where the user'"'"'s biological sample 114 is in the sequencing process, if they have registered their DNA collection kit, and whether or not they have consented to share their genetic and personal information with the partner'"'"'s application.
In some examples, the partner API (HPAPI) acts as an interface between the system 100 or platform 104 infrastructure and partner application provider 120 infrastructure. This service can provide certain non-genomic data a partner may need to enable their app to query genomic data and return results back to a user. In other aspects, the partner API service specifically notifies partners about one or more of the following events: a user has purchased an app and is granting permission for that app to access their genomic data, a user has submitted a saliva sample and that sample is being processed in the lab, a user'"'"'s sample has completed sequencing and QC (Quality Control) and the genomic data is available to query, a user'"'"'s genomic data has been updated due to an upgrade or a change in the bioinformatics processing network 130, a user has withdrawn consent and/or has funded or removed an app.
Some embodiments of a sample service within the system 100 store and serve sample statuses. With reference to the identifier definitions provided further above, an example sample service can perform, for example, the following functions: translation of inbound accessioning events from partner application providers 120 that contain a kitId and a user ID to a sampleId, translation of outbound (lab 110) sample status (e.g., BaseSpace sample status) with a sampleId to be identified with a kitId and a user ID, storage of sample statuses for retrieval, and publishing message queues to HPAPI or directly to partners on sample status updates.
In one example of an account update provided by the first service, a user can agree to share his or her relevant genomic and personal information with a partner application, verify an email address, and register a kit. The registration step can be important as a user purchasing a kit might not be the one submitting it. At the time of purchase, a kit will be sent in the mail and eventually a user will register that kit. Since the purchaser may be a different person than the sample provider, the user who delivers genetic data via the spit tube in a kit is not confirmed until that user registers the kit as their own.
The second service, for example accessible at the endpoint HGAPI, can be used to request the relevant genetic information that enables the partner'"'"'s DNA-relevant features in its application. Accessing a user'"'"'s variants (or markers), for example, is typically a primary use of this service. In some examples, a “no-call” is issued when the genomic services platform 104 is unable to make a call that met a minimum quality threshold due to lack of coverage or poor fit of the probabilistic variant calling model. A no-call is characterized by the presence of a specific entry, such as “−1”, in the genotype array. In some examples, a “reference” call is issued when the genomic services platform 104 observes, in sufficient quantity and with sufficient quality, only bases matching the reference sequence. A reference call is characterized by the presence of only “0” entries in the genotype array. In some examples, a “variant” call is issued when the genomic services platform 104 observes, in sufficient quantity and with sufficient quality, bases not matching the reference sequence. A variant call is characterized by the presence of any element in the genotype array greater than 0, representing the presence of an alternative allele present in alternate bases. If the record is not a no-call or a reference call, then it is a variant call.
In some examples, an access token (e.g., OAuth access token) is needed any time a partner application calls a system API to read a user'"'"'s information. When a partner requests an OAuth access token, it is required to define token parameters, such as grant type and scope. A partner will need credential pairs to continue, which can be generated by performing appropriate credentialing steps. All API requests are made over HTTPS. Calls made over plain HTTP will fail. API requests without authentication will also fail.
In some example embodiments, a request for relevant information from a partner application provider 120 includes a unique ID (“PAC ID” or user ID) that identifies a binary tuple of the form (app, user), where app is a value identifying one of the applications 112 for the partner application provider 120, and user is a value identifying the particular end-user interacting with the application 112 corresponding to the app. In some examples, the PAC ID may comprise a three-part tuple in the form of (partner, app, user) with corresponding values identifying a partner application provider 120, an application 112, and a user. Other combinations of values are possible, such as (partner, app). Irrespective of which PAC ID is used, an objective of a PAC ID is to allow a partner application provider 120 to refer to a user without knowing the actual “value” of the user and to maintain anonymity and privacy in health records. Upon receiving the request including the PAC ID ( ), the genomic interface 160 may present it to the variant storage module 154.
In one embodiment, the variant storage module 154 operates on a server-less framework in a cloud environment, such as Amazon Web Services (AWS Lambda). The AWS Lambda system allows the variant storage module 154 to run code without provisioning or managing servers. The variant storage module 154 accrues costs only for the compute time it consumes when running its functions. There is no charge when the code is not running. This can be important because call volume demands tend to be highly variable. In some examples, the variant storage module 154 receives in excess of one thousand requests per minute for information. The server-less arrangement is highly scalable and minimizes running costs for the variant storage module 154, and indirectly for partners and users. Using AWS Lambda, the variant storage module 154 can run code for virtually any type of partner or user application or backend service with very minimal or zero administration.
In some examples, the variant storage module 154 performs automated tests. The tests are run for any code change that must pass the tests before being deployed to production. For a given PAC ID, the variant storage module 154 may create and output a file and send to HGAPI an expected result that may be investigated if incorrect. In another example, a test (BED) file downloaded from the mapping service 164 is checked for conformity with an expected result. Other automated tests include checking that a request without a user ID (e.g., PAC ID) or app ID, or having a bad PAC ID or app ID, fails. Some data files used within the system 100 may be in a binary variant call format (BCF, or a BAM file described elsewhere herein), and each user may have an associated BCF. Given a BCF, further automated testing may check that filtering by a given region returns correct or expected test intervals, or does not contain a given interval. Other testing may check, again given a BCF file, that an open boundary condition is correctly handled, or that overlapping regions are correctly handled, or that compared to a converted VCF, certain results are expected. Other automated tests may include checking that a (BED) file can be opened correctly, or that if it cannot be opened correctly, an error message is thrown. Other testing may check for attempts to open non-existent (BED) files, or to check connectivity with the mapping service 164 such that given an invalid App ID and/or PAC ID, no (BED) file is returned. Other tests include reference block trimming, for example checking that a returned interval is always a subset of the applicable sequence region, or that a reference block that overlaps multiple regions returns correctly each restricted overlapping region. In some examples, the data used for automated tests is dummy data that mimics what real data will look like in production. In other examples, the test data is derived from real biological samples (cell lines) and modified to be used for testing.
For example, upon a request for user genomic data from a partner application provider 120 being received via genomic interface 160, the variant storage module 154 then retrieves all the variants pertaining to a user'"'"'s genome and filters these based upon the PAC ID and the appropriate DNA window specified in the (BED) file 168. The fetched variants are then returned via a secure connection to the requesting partner application provider 120, and potentially stored by the requesting partner application provider 120 in an optional genomic datastore 121. This enables the partner application provider 120 to deliver corresponding variant data to the application 112 responsible for initiating the request for genomic information in a controlled and secure manner. The content of the corresponding variant data will generally be dependent upon the nature of the application 112. In this way, a user'"'"'s genetic information can be sequenced once, stored indefinitely, and then queried again, potentially many times, to provide further biogenetic information in a secure manner.
Further details regarding selective access to genomic user data are found in Application Ser. No. 62/535,779, titled “Genomic Services Platform Supporting Multiple Application Providers”, filed on Jul. 21, 2017, which is incorporated by reference in its entirety.
Attention is kindly directed to
A user that has their genetic data sequenced and stored in the genomic data storage 150 can compare their user variant values 625 to the variant values 620 of the variant identifier 605 to determine whether the user'"'"'s variant values 625 match the variant values 620 of the genetic variation identified by the variant identifier 605. As discussed in further detail below, the user'"'"'s variant values 625 need not exactly match the variant values 620 for the user to still exhibit the phenotype identified by the genetic variation of the variant identifier 605. For example, a study discussing the genetic variation of variant identifier 605 may explain that if the user contains a single variant value 620 of “G” (e.g.: “A/G”) the user may have an increased likelihood (ex: 45%) of expressing the phenotype of the genetic variation, and a significant likelihood (ex: 90%) if the user contains two copies of the variant value “G” (e.g., “G/G”). However, even if the user'"'"'s variant values 625 do not exactly match the variant values 620 (e.g., “T/G″”), there still may be a significant statistical likelihood (e.g., around 45%) that the user will express the phenotype of the genetic variation.
Continuing the example with reference to
As mentioned above, the root pages are trusted in that they are published to servers that have been pre-selected as scientifically trustworthy (e.g., Nature.com). Additional classes of pages hosted on other servers can be included in hierarchy 500. Further, content from those additional classes of pages can be included in a display if those pages have one or more links that point back to a root page. For example, with reference to
For example, “PAGE 3” of root pages 510 may have links to all three secondary pages 535, which may be pages of an elevated class (e.g., pages from newspaper websites). In some example embodiments, the secondary pages 535 are identified via spidering hyperlinks of a public network (e.g., the Internet) to determine which public network pages link to a given root page. Further, in some example embodiments, each root page 510 is parsed to extract link information to one or more secondary pages 535. For example, “PAGE 3” can be HTML parsed or “scraped” to identified network links to “LINKED PAGE 1”, “LINKED PAGE 2”, and “LINKED PAGE 3”. In some example embodiments, if genetic data 515 from “PAGE 3” matches the user data 530, then one or more items of content from secondary pages 535 is included in the user interface 540 for display with a visualization, such as first visualization 520 (“VIZ 1”).
Further, in some example embodiments, content from tertiary pages 545 that link to the secondary pages 535 can also be included in the user interface 540 if the user data 530 matches the genetic data 515 included in a root page 510, and further if a age in the tertiary class links to a page in the secondary class that in turn links to a root page. For example, if genetic data 515 from “PAGE 3” (in root pages 510) matches the user data 530, and if “PAGE 3” links to “LINKED PAGE 3” which further links to “FURTHER PAGE 3” (e.g., a blog, vlog, tabloid webpage, etc.) then one or more items of content from the “FURTHER PAGE 3” is included in the user interface 540 for display.
As illustrated, the genomic update system 700 comprises a database engine 705, a site engine 710, a correlation engine 715, a content engine 720, an interface engine 725, and a trait engine. The database engine 705 is configured to access a database of genomic data, so such as a database storing genome wide association study (GWAS) data. In some example embodiments, the database that the database engine 705 accesses is stored internally in the genomic services platform 104 (e.g., in a partition of genomic data storage 150).
In other example embodiments, the database that the database engine 705 accesses is an external database that is programmatically accessible over a network using an API. In those example embodiments, the database engine 705 is configured to periodically poll or query for new updates to the external genomic database. For example, the database engine 705 can be configured to query the database for updates from sites that have been preselected as trusted sites (e.g., Nature.com, PLoS.com, sub-domains thereof, etc.), secondary sites, tertiary sites and so on, as discussed above with reference to
The site engine 710 manages accessing the network pages identified by the database engine 705 from the genomic database, according to some example embodiments. In particular, for example, the site engine 710 may access or otherwise download the pages identified by the database engine 705 and extract data from the network pages. In some example embodiments, the site engine 710 is configured to extract one or more items of variant data (e.g., variant values 620, variant identifier 605, descriptive data that describes the genetic variation, etc.) of genetic variations described in the network pages. Further, in some example embodiments, the site engine 710 is configured to parse the network pages to extract network link data (e.g., hyperlinks) to pages that reference or mention a given network page, as described in further detail below.
The correlation engine 715 is configured to compare the variant values of the genetic variation reported in a given network page to the user'"'"'s variant values to determine whether they match or otherwise correspond (e.g., statistically match). In some example embodiments, the correlation engine 715 determines whether the user'"'"'s variant values exactly match the reported variant values, or statistically match the reported variant values.
The content engine 720 is configured to access and load additional network pages or content that is linked to the network pages, as discussed in further detail below. In some example embodiments, the content engine 720 can generate a summary or selection of a linked additional network page for inclusion in the user interface for display on the client device. Further, in some example embodiments, the content engine 720 is configured to identify a preselected visualization that has been pre-associated with the type of match identified by the correlation engine 715.
The interface engine 725 is configured to transmit network page data (e.g., pages of pre-selected servers), additional network page data (e.g., additional pages linked to the network pages), summarizing data (e.g., genetic variation data of the user), and or other data to a client device for display on a display screen of the client device. Further, in some example embodiments, in addition to the data values for display, the interface engine 725 transmits user interface markup language (e.g., HTML layout data, CSS data) for display within the client device (e.g., a web browser). In other example embodiments, the interface engine 725 transmits only the data values and not display/layout data, and the client device has native functionality for displaying the content in a user interface of an app, such as application 112 (
The trait engine 730 is configured to manage correlations between network services (e.g., an application provided by the provider application provider 120) and pages published to a network site (e.g., a nature.com article). For example, when a newly published network page is identified, the trait engine 730 can identify one or more network services based on content in the network page and transmit a user interface displaying links to the network services to a client device.
The network interface engine 805 is configured to programmatically interact with the interface engine 725 of genomic update system 700. For example, the network interface engine 805 of the client device application 112 may receive genomic data of the user including network page data, visualizations, and/or content to display. The network interface engine 805 can be implemented as an API that programmatically receives raw data (e.g., no display/layout data) from the genomic update system 700 and transfers the data to the user interface engine 800 for display. Further, some example embodiments, the network interface engine 805 receives the raw data with display data (e.g., browser markup language) for display on the client device (e.g., a laptop'"'"'s web-browser).
At operation 915, the site engine 710 accesses the network pages from the database results. For example, the database engine 705 may return a database update that indicates that one of the preselected servers has published a new network page describing a genetic variation breakthrough. In those example embodiments, the site engine 710 identifies a hyperlink to the network page hosted on the preselected server and downloads or otherwise accesses the network page for extraction of genetic variation data and network link data, as described in further detail below.
At operation 920, the correlation engine 715 compares the variant value data of the downloaded network page to the user'"'"'s variant values from the genomic data storage 150 to determine whether the user'"'"'s variant values match or otherwise satisfy the variant values reported in the network page, as described in further detail below.
At operation 925, the content engine 720 determines or otherwise identifies pages linked to the network page. For example, the network page that is downloaded from the preselected server may include one or more hyperlinks to websites that host pages that discuss or otherwise mentioned the network page from the preselected server. The content engine 720 may use HTML scraping or parsing to extract the link information and load the pages that are linked to the network page of the preselected server. Some example embodiments, the content engine 720 is configured to extract one or more portions of text (e.g., an abstract, an introduction paragraph) from the additional pages for display or inclusion in a genomic update user interface on the client device, as discussed in further detail below.
At operation 930, the user interface engine 800 generates a user interface comprising the network page data from the preselected servers, content from the additional pages that link to the network page that are not hosted from the preselected servers, one or more visualizations, and genetic data, as discussed in further detail below. At operation 935, the user interface engine 800 displays a user interface on the display device (e.g., a touchscreen display of a smartphone) of the client device 108.
At operation 1010, the site engine 710 identifies variant data in the loaded page. For example, at operation 1010, the site engine 710 performs a keyword search for genetic variation identifiers (e.g., an RSID of SNP variation). In some example embodiments at operation 1010, the site engine 710 searches a loaded page for the variant identifier data by searching for an alphanumeric data in a pre-specified format. For example, at operation 1010, the site engine 710 may search loaded page for an alphanumeric term comprising two letters (e.g., “rs”) followed by at least one integer. Further, at operation 1010, the site engine 710 identifies the underlying variant values of the identify genetic information. At operation 1015, the site engine 710 stores the extracted variant data in a database such as genomic data storage 150. At operation 1020, the site engine 710 determines whether there are additional network pages of preselected servers that were identified otherwise returned as query results from a database (e.g., a GWAS database). If there are additional pages for parsing, the method 1000 loops to operation 1005 for parsing of additional pages. After the pages in the return set have been parsed, the subroutine terminates or otherwise returns to the method 900 of
At operation 1110, the correlation engine 715 identifies the variant value data of a root page of a preselected server. For example, at operation 1110, the correlation engine 715 identifies variant values 620 (
On the other hand, at operation 1115, when the user variant values match variant values of a root page, the correlation engine 715 adds the root page data (e.g., address, variant data, etc.) to the return set at operation 1125. At operation 1130 the correlation engine 715 determines whether there are additional root pages for analysis. If there are additional root pages for analysis, the method 1100 loops to operation 1120 in which the next root page is loaded for comparison to the user'"'"'s variant values. In this way, the method 1100 loops through all the network pages until all root pages that have variant values that match a user'"'"'s variant values have been added to the return set.
At operation 1225, the content engine 720 stores the linked pages or portions of the linked pages in the display set. For example, at operation 1225 the content engine 720 may store the content of a given link page, such as the first paragraph for use as a summary or introduction for an item of content in a user interface. At operation 1230, the content engine 720 determines whether there are additional root pages for link identification and content parsing. If there are additional root pages for processing, the method 1200 continues to operation 1220 in which the next additional root page in the return set is process. If there are no additional root pages for processing, the method 1200 terminates or otherwise stores data for return to method 900.
At operation 1305, the content engine 720 identifies the return set, which comprises one or more root pages, and the display set, which comprises pages that link to one or more of the root pages. At operation 1310, the content engine 720 determines whether each of the root pages is associated with a linked page. If a given root page does not have an associated linked page (e.g., the root page does not link to a linked page, or no published webpage links or references the given root page), the content engine 720 falls back and, in operation 1320, stores the root page for inclusion in the user interface. In this way, if a given genetic variation does not have additional linked pages (e.g., an easier to read newspaper webpage article, blog page), the user interface can at least include data content from the root page as a fallback mechanism.
In contrast, at operation 1310 if a given root page is linked or otherwise associated with one or more link pages, the content engine 720 stores the linked pages for inclusion in the user interface at operation 1315. In some example embodiments, even if a root page is associated with a linked page, the root page is nonetheless included in the user interface at operation 1320. Further, in other example embodiments, if a root page is associated with a linked page, the method 1300 skips to operation 1325 and the root page is not included in the user interface display to the end user.
At operation 1325, the content engine 720 determines how the user variant values match the variant values described in the root page. For example, if the user variant values exactly match the variant values described in every page, a first type of visualization (e.g., a checkbox) may be included in the user interface for display with the genetic variation data in the linked page. As an additional example, if the user variant values do not exactly match the variant values in the root page but nonetheless a significant portion of the population reports exhibiting the phenotype described by the variant values in the root page, the match type is nonetheless considered statistically significant, and a different visualization communicating the uncertainty or likelihood of phenotype expression can be included in the visualization user interface at operation 1330.
In response to the request, at operation 1415, the database engine 705 queries a genome database (e.g., a GWAS database). As discussed above, in some example embodiments, the database query by the database engine 705 is an internal database that comprises only root pages from preselected servers in a trusted class. In those example embodiments, the query can request any update to the internal databases. Further, as discussed above, in some example embodiments, the database engine 705 queries an external database that stores genome data for any updates of root pages that originate from servers that are in the preselected class. At operation 1420, the correlation engine 715 identifies user variant data (e.g., user variant values 625,
At operation 1440, according to some example embodiments, the user interface engine 800 filters the received items based on categorical selections from the user, or default categorical selections. For example, if the user account data indicates that the user is below a certain age, one or more items of content in a class may be filtered out. For instance, if the user is below 12 years old, a more technical scientific article in a secondary elevated class may be filtered out at operation 1440. At operation 1445, in response to the update instruction received at 1405, the user interface engine 800 displays the genomic content in a genome update user interface operating on the client device 108.
As discussed above with reference to
The trait data structure 2000 includes trait categories 2010-2035, which group similar observable traits (e.g., phenotypes). For example, trait category 2010 is a lung trait category comprising subcategory 2010A (asthma specific genetic traits), subcategory 2010B (breath holding specific genetic traits), and subcategory 2010C (photic sneeze specific genetic traits). Likewise, trait category 2020 is a blood trait category comprising subcategories 2020A-C for different blood specific genetic traits. Further, trait category 2025 is a brain trait category comprising subcategories 2025A-C for different brain specific genetic traits, and trait category 2030 is a skin trait category comprising subcategories 2030A-C for different skin specific genetic traits. Further, according to some example embodiments, trait categories can comprise ancestry or inheritance data (e.g., ancestry origins data, haplogroup data, ancient genomes data). For example, trait category 2035 is an ancestry related category including genome data of different genomes, such as genome subcategories 2035A-C.
Each of the categories in trait data structure 2000 can be associated with metadata items and content items, as illustrated in expanded category data 2050 (
The other subcategories that link to category 2010 likewise have associated items that are related to lung specific traits. For example, subcategory 2010B is a breath holding category that is associated with root page 2058 (e.g., a study hosted on pre-selected servers) describing a potential genetic predisposition for the ability to hold one'"'"'s breath for long periods of time, additional page 2060 (e.g., a blog article) that links to the root page 2058, and an associated network service 2062 (e.g., a network link to a partner application provider network site). Likewise, subcategory 2010C is a photic sneeze category describing a genetic trait or phenotype of sneezing in response to light changes. Subcategory 2010C is associated with network service 2064, and further associated with additional page 2066 (e.g., a press release webpage), which cites root page 2068 (e.g., a study).
Each of the categories can have metadata items tags that can be implemented to filter suggested network services or content items based on user selections input via category selection elements 1525. For example, if a user selects a sports category, then items from subcategory 2010A or 2010C are included in the display as those subcategories both have metadata sports tags. Further, top level categories, such as category 2010, can include metadata tags. For example, as illustrated in
In the example illustrated in
At operation 2120, the correlation engine 715 identifies user data in the network page identified at operation 2105. At operation 2125, the trait engine 730 generates a user interface that includes user data, network links to network services, and associated content, such as a brief description of the root page'"'"'s content or additional page'"'"'s content.
At operation 2220, the trait engine 730 identifies network services that are related to the trait. The network services can be related in that they while they do not provide analysis of the specific trait, they are in the same trait category. For example, at operation 2220, the trait engine 730 determines that subcategory 2010A is a child of category 2010 and that subcategory 2010B is a sibling trait category under category 2010. The trait engine 730 can then identify network service 2062 of subcategory 2010B as related. The identified related network service can be included in the user interface for display as relevant. At operation 2225, the trait engine 730 identifies related content. For example, at operation 2225, the trait engine 730 identifies additional page 2060 which is associated with the different trait subcategory (i.e., trait category 2010B). After operation 2225, method 2200 terminates and returns identified content to method 2100 in
In the example architecture of
The operating system 2414 may manage hardware resources and provide common services. The operating system 2414 may include, for example, a kernel 2428, services 2430, and drivers 2432. The kernel 2428 may act as an abstraction layer between the hardware and the other software layers. For example, the kernel 2428 may be responsible for memory management, processor management (e.g., scheduling), component management, networking, security settings, and so on. The services 2430 may provide other common services for the other software layers. The drivers 2432 may be responsible for controlling or interfacing with the underlying hardware. For instance, the drivers 2432 may include display drivers, camera drivers, Bluetooth® drivers, flash memory drivers, serial communication drivers (e.g., Universal Serial Bus (USB) drivers), Wi-Fi® drivers, audio drivers, power management drivers, and so forth depending on the hardware configuration.
The libraries 2416 may provide a common infrastructure that may be utilized by the applications 2420 and/or other components and/or layers. The libraries 2416 typically provide functionality that allows other software modules to perform tasks in an easier fashion than by interfacing directly with the underlying operating system 2414 functionality (e.g., kernel 2428, services 2430, or drivers 2432). The libraries 2416 may include system libraries 2434 (e.g., C standard library) that may provide functions such as memory allocation functions, string manipulation functions, mathematic functions, and the like. In addition, the libraries 2416 may include API libraries 2436 such as media libraries (e.g., libraries to support presentation and manipulation of various media formats such as MPEG4, H.264, MP3, AAC, AMR, JPG, PNG), graphics libraries (e.g., an OpenGL framework that may be used to render 2D and 3D graphic content on a display), database libraries (e.g., SQLite that may provide various relational database functions), web libraries (e.g., WebKit that may provide web browsing functionality), and the like. The libraries 2416 may also include a wide variety of other libraries 2438 to provide many other APIs to the applications 2420 and other software components/modules.
The frameworks 2418 (also sometimes referred to as middleware) may provide a higher-level common infrastructure that may be utilized by the applications 2420 or other software components/modules. For example, the frameworks 2418 may provide various graphic user interface (GUI) functions, high-level resource management, high-level location services, and so forth. The frameworks 2418 may provide a broad spectrum of other APIs that may be utilized by the applications 2420 and/or other software components/modules, some of which may be specific to a particular operating system or platform.
The applications 2420 include built-in applications 2440 and/or third-party applications 2442. Examples of representative built-in applications 2440 may include, but are not limited to, a home application, a contacts application, a browser application, a book reader application, a location application, a media application, a messaging application, or a game application.
The third-party applications 2442 may include any of the built-in applications 2440, as well as a broad assortment of other applications. In a specific example, the third-party applications 2442 (e.g., an application developed using the Android™ or iOS™ software development kit (SDK) by an entity other than the vendor of the particular platform) may be mobile software running on a mobile operating system such as iOS™, Android™, Windows® Phone, or other mobile operating systems. In this example, the third-party applications 2442 may invoke the API calls 2424 provided by the mobile operating system such as the operating system 2414 to facilitate functionality described herein.
The applications 2420 may utilize built-in operating system functions (e.g., kernel 2428, services 2430, or drivers 2432), libraries (e.g., system libraries 2434, API libraries 2436, and other libraries 2438), or frameworks/middleware 2418 to create user interfaces to interact with users of the system. Alternatively, or additionally, in some systems, interactions with a user may occur through a presentation layer, such as the presentation layer 2444. In these systems, the application/module “logic” can be separated from the aspects of the application/module that interact with the user.
Some software architectures utilize virtual machines. In the example of
The machine 2500 may include processors 2510, memory 2530, and I/O components 2550, which may be configured to communicate with each other such as via a bus 2502. In an example embodiment, the processors 2510 (e.g., a Central Processing Unit (CPU), a Reduced Instruction Set Computing (RISC) processor, a Complex Instruction Set Computing (CISC) processor, a Graphics Processing Unit (GPU), a Digital Signal Processor (DSP), an ASIC, a Radio-Frequency Integrated Circuit (RFIC), another processor, or any suitable combination thereof) may include, for example, a processor 2512 and a processor 2514 that may execute the instructions 2516. The term “processor” is intended to include multi-core processors that may comprise two or more independent processors (sometimes referred to as “cores”) that may execute instructions contemporaneously. Although
The memory 2530 may include a main memory 2532, a static memory 2534, and a storage unit 2536, both accessible to the processors 2510 such as via the bus 2502. The main memory 2530, the static memory 2534, and storage unit 2536 store the instructions 2516 embodying any one or more of the methodologies or functions described herein. The instructions 2516 may also reside, completely or partially, within the main memory 2532, within the static memory 2534, within the storage unit 2536, within at least one of the processors 2510 (e.g., within the processor'"'"'s cache memory), or any suitable combination thereof, during execution thereof by the machine 2500.
The I/O components 2550 may include a wide variety of components to receive input, provide output, produce output, transmit information, exchange information, capture measurements, and so on. The specific I/O components 2550 that are included in a particular machine will depend on the type of machine. For example, portable machines such as mobile phones will likely include a touch input device or other such input mechanisms, while a headless server machine will likely not include such a touch input device. It will be appreciated that the I/O components 2550 may include many other components that are not shown in
In further example embodiments, the I/O components 2550 may include biometric components 2556, motion components 2558, environmental components 2560, or position components 2562, among a wide array of other components. For example, the biometric components 2556 may include components to detect expressions (e.g., hand expressions, facial expressions, vocal expressions, body gestures, or eye tracking), measure biosignals (e.g., blood pressure, heart rate, body temperature, perspiration, or brain waves), identify a person (e.g., voice identification, retinal identification, facial identification, fingerprint identification, or electroencephalogram-based identification), and the like. The motion components 2558 may include acceleration sensor components (e.g., accelerometer), gravitation sensor components, rotation sensor components (e.g., gyroscope), and so forth. The environmental components 2560 may include, for example, illumination sensor components (e.g., photometer), temperature sensor components (e.g., one or more thermometers that detect ambient temperature), humidity sensor components, pressure sensor components (e.g., barometer), acoustic sensor components (e.g., one or more microphones that detect background noise), proximity sensor components (e.g., infrared sensors that detect nearby objects), gas sensors (e.g., gas detection sensors to detection concentrations of hazardous gases for safety or to measure pollutants in the atmosphere), or other components that may provide indications, measurements, or signals corresponding to a surrounding physical environment. The position components 2562 may include location sensor components (e.g., a GPS receiver component), altitude sensor components (e.g., altimeters or barometers that detect air pressure from which altitude may be derived), orientation sensor components (e.g., magnetometers), and the like.
Communication may be implemented using a wide variety of technologies. The I/O components 2550 may include communication components 2564 operable to couple the machine 2500 to a network 2580 or devices 2570 via a coupling 2582 and a coupling 2572, respectively. For example, the communication components 2564 may include a network interface component or another suitable device to interface with the network 2580. In further examples, the communication components 2564 may include wired communication components, wireless communication components, cellular communication components, Near Field Communication (NFC) components, Bluetooth® components (e.g., Bluetooth® Low Energy), Wi-Fi® components, and other communication components to provide communication via other modalities. The devices 2570 may be another machine or any of a wide variety of peripheral devices (e.g., a peripheral device coupled via a USB).
Moreover, the communication components 2564 may detect identifiers or include components operable to detect identifiers. For example, the communication components 2564 may include Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) tag reader components, NFC smart tag detection components, optical reader components (e.g., an optical sensor to detect one-dimensional bar codes such as Universal Product Code (UPC) bar code, multi-dimensional bar codes such as Quick Response (QR) code, Aztec code, Data Matrix, Dataglyph, MaxiCode, PDF417, Ultra Code, UCC RSS-2D bar code, and other optical codes), or acoustic detection components (e.g., microphones to identify tagged audio signals). In addition, a variety of information may be derived via the communication components 2564, such as location via Internet Protocol (IP) geolocation, location via Wi-Fi® signal triangulation, location via detecting an NFC beacon signal that may indicate a particular location, and so forth.
The various memories (i.e., 2530, 2532, 2534, and/or memory of the processor(s) 2510) and/or storage unit 2536 may store one or more sets of instructions and data structures (e.g., software) embodying or utilized by any one or more of the methodologies or functions described herein. These instructions (e.g., the instructions 2516), when executed by processor(s) 2510, cause various operations to implement the disclosed embodiments.
As used herein, the terms “machine-storage medium,” “device-storage medium,” “computer-storage medium” mean the same thing and may be used interchangeably in this disclosure. The terms refer to a single or multiple storage devices and/or media (e.g., a centralized or distributed database, and/or associated caches and servers) that store executable instructions and/or data. The terms shall accordingly be taken to include, but not be limited to, solid-state memories, and optical and magnetic media, including memory internal or external to processors. Specific examples of machine-storage media, computer-storage media and/or device-storage media include non-volatile memory, including by way of example semiconductor memory devices, e.g., erasable programmable read-only memory (EPROM), electrically erasable programmable read-only memory (EEPROM), FPGA, and flash memory devices; magnetic disks such as internal hard disks and removable disks; magneto-optical disks; and CD-ROM and DVD-ROM disks. The terms “machine-storage media,” “computer-storage media,” and “device-storage media” specifically exclude carrier waves, modulated data signals, and other such media, at least some of which are covered under the term “signal medium” discussed below.
In various example embodiments, one or more portions of the network 2580 may be an ad hoc network, an intranet, an extranet, a VPN, a LAN, a WLAN, a WAN, a WWAN, a MAN, the Internet, a portion of the Internet, a portion of the PSTN, a plain old telephone service (POTS) network, a cellular telephone network, a wireless network, a Wi-Fi® network, another type of network, or a combination of two or more such networks. For example, the network 2580 or a portion of the network 2580 may include a wireless or cellular network, and the coupling 2582 may be a Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) connection, a Global System for Mobile communications (GSM) connection, or another type of cellular or wireless coupling. In this example, the coupling 2582 may implement any of a variety of types of data transfer technology, such as Single Carrier Radio Transmission Technology (1×RTT), Evolution-Data Optimized (EVDO) technology, General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) technology, Enhanced Data rates for GSM Evolution (EDGE) technology, third Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) including 3G, fourth generation wireless (4G) networks, Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS), High Speed Packet Access (HSPA), Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access (WiMAX), Long Term Evolution (LTE) standard, others defined by various standard-setting organizations, other long range protocols, or other data transfer technology.
The instructions 2516 may be transmitted or received over the network 2580 using a transmission medium via a network interface device (e.g., a network interface component included in the communication components 2564) and utilizing any one of a number of well-known transfer protocols (e.g., hypertext transfer protocol (HTTP)). Similarly, the instructions 2516 may be transmitted or received using a transmission medium via the coupling 2572 (e.g., a peer-to-peer coupling) to the devices 2570. The terms “transmission medium” and “signal medium” mean the same thing and may be used interchangeably in this disclosure. The terms “transmission medium” and “signal medium” shall be taken to include any intangible medium that is capable of storing, encoding, or carrying the instructions 2516 for execution by the machine 2500, and includes digital or analog communications signals or other intangible media to facilitate communication of such software. Hence, the terms “transmission medium” and “signal medium” shall be taken to include any form of modulated data signal, carrier wave, and so forth. The term “modulated data signal” means a signal that has one or more of its characteristics set or changed in such a matter as to encode information in the signal.
The terms “machine-readable medium,” “computer-readable medium” and “device-readable medium” mean the same thing and may be used interchangeably in this disclosure. The terms are defined to include both machine-storage media and transmission media. Thus, the terms include both storage devices/media and carrier waves/modulated data signals.