APPARATUS & METHOD FOR LAPAROSCOPIC SKILLS TRAINING
1. A system comprising:
- an endoscope comprising a viewing barrel and an inner barrel, the inner barrel being slidably retained within the viewing barrel;
a video camera connected to the endoscope, the video camera configured to generate a digital image;
a video electronic module connected to the endoscope, the module configured to receive the digital image from the video camera; and
a display operatively coupled to the video electronic module, the display configured to present the digital image from the video camera.
A laparoscopic trainer platform assembly includes: a training platform; a base, configured to accommodate at least one target array; the target array including a planar surface upon which are disposed a plurality of protruding targets oriented at various angles on the base; a left side support for supporting the training platform on the base; and a right side support for supporting the training platform on the base.
- 1. A system comprising:
an endoscope comprising a viewing barrel and an inner barrel, the inner barrel being slidably retained within the viewing barrel; a video camera connected to the endoscope, the video camera configured to generate a digital image; a video electronic module connected to the endoscope, the module configured to receive the digital image from the video camera; and a display operatively coupled to the video electronic module, the display configured to present the digital image from the video camera.
- View Dependent Claims (2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23)
This application is continuation of U.S. application Ser. No. 15/933,541, filed Mar. 23, 2018, which is a continuation of U.S. application Ser. No. 13/217,238, filed Aug. 24, 2011, and granted as U.S. Pat. No. 9,959,785, which claims the benefit of U.S. Provisional Patent Application No. 61/376,621 filed on Aug. 24, 2010. Each of these applications is herein incorporated by reference in its entirety.
This disclosure relates to a system for surgeon training and, in particular, to an apparatus and method for training a surgeon in the fundamentals of laparoscopic surgery.
The procedure of laparoscopic surgery has been in general use for over a decade. However, it has been noted that cognitive and psychomotor skills required to perform laparoscopic surgery may be inadequate among some practitioners, resulting in patient discomfort from, for example, bile duct injuries. Accordingly, there is a need for a certifying examination by which a practitioner may be assessed for applicable cognitive knowledge, technical skills, and clinical judgment.
In one aspect of the present disclosure, a laparoscopic skills training system comprises: a trainer platform assembly including a training platform; a base, the base configured to accommodate at least one target array; the target array including a planar surface upon which are disposed a plurality of protruding targets oriented at a plurality of angles on the base; a left side support for supporting the training platform on the base; and a right side support for supporting the training platform on the base.
In another aspect of the present disclosure, the laparoscopic skills training system may further comprise: an accessory kit including one or more of a suture block for a Penrose Drain, an appendage, a dexterity peg board, a plurality of single-circle gauze pads, and a plurality of double-circle gauze pads.
The laparoscopic skills training system may be used in conjunction with the performance of a number of different skill sets, including: assessing competence in use of an endoscope; assessing grasper dexterity using a peg board; evaluation of extracorporeal knot or intracorporeal knot tying in a “Penrose drain”; practice in placement of a pre-tied ligating loop or reusable endoloop around an organ appendage; precision cutting of a circular piece of gauze from a gauze pad; and practice in insertion of a catheter into a cannulation tube.
The foregoing aspects, uses, and advantages of the present disclosure will be more fully appreciated as the same becomes better understood from the following detailed description of the present disclosure when viewed in conjunction with the accompanying drawings, in which:
There are shown in
Emplacement of the training platform 21, the base 23, the left side support 25, and the right side support 27 as shown define a working volume 29 for performing training skills, as described in greater detail below. In an exemplary embodiment, the left side support 25 and the right side support 27 are removably attached to the training platform 21 and the base 23 such that these components can be disassembled for compact storage or transport.
The platform 21 provides a generally planar platform surface 40, here shown supporting a simulated skin 19, configured so as to enable a user to practice one or more tasks in a predefined skill set. The platform 21 may include one or more openings, configured so as to provide at least an endoscope opening 17, extending through the simulated skin 19 and the planar surface 40.
The endoscope opening 17 is sized and positioned to accommodate a standard endoscope (not shown) or a training endoscope 30. The standard endoscope or training endoscope 30 may be used in conjunction with a thirty-degree target array 50, as described in greater detail below. The platform surface 40 may further include a left port 41 and a right port 43, each sized and positioned to accommodate a grasper (not shown) for use as described in greater detail below.
The components and operation of the training endoscope 30 may be described with reference to
As best shown in
In a first mode of operation, camera navigation skills are developed, the optical axis of the video camera 63 is generally aligned with the barrel axis 39, i.e., “zero degree axis.” In a second mode of operation, best shown in
An elastic member 47, disposed within the inner barrel 61, is configured and attached to the video camera 63 such that the video camera 63 is urged to rotate and to position itself against the skewed barrel end 37 of the viewing barrel 35 when the inner barrel 61 has moved rearward within the viewing barrel 35. If the latching button 71 is subsequently depressed, allowing the inner barrel 61 to move forward within the viewing barrel 35, the video camera 63 returns to the first mode of operation and the camera optical axis is again aligned with the barrel axis 39, or zero degree axis, as best shown in
In an alternative embodiment, the angle of the video camera 63 can be varied continuously, in addition to using detents for viewing at zero degrees or thirty degrees. In the alternative embodiment, position indicators (not shown) may be provided on the inner barrel 61 such that the sliding movement of the inner barrel within the viewing barrel 35 can be adjusted so as to position the video camera 63 at varying angles, according to which position indicator on the inner barrel remains visible at the end of the viewing barrel 35.
As best shown in
As best seen in
The training endoscope 30 is placed into the first mode of operation. The user conducts a first skill set by maneuvering the training endoscope 30 so as to successively acquire each of the targets 85 by the video camera 63 and superimpose each target 85 within the electronically-generated cross hairs 15 on the display device 11. Preferably, the series of acquisitions is performed within a predetermined amount of time. The predetermined time may be set by the user, via the switch 67, and a countdown time value may be displayed on the display device 11 (see
As best seen in
Additional skill sets may be performed using any of a plurality of Laparoscopic Surgery Training (LST) simulation components provided in an accessory kit 100, shown in
In an exemplary embodiment, the LST foam organ 103 may comprise two layers of a foam material, heat sealed at the perimeter of the foam organ 103 (with three appendages) so as to give the foam organ 103 a “puffy” configuration. It can be appreciated by one skilled in the art that the single circle and the double circle can be imprinted onto the respective gauze pads 107 and 109 by any practical means such as, for example, silk screening or stamping with ink.
For example, in a third skill set, shown in
In an exemplary embodiment, the user may use the graspers 111, 113 to manipulate a plurality of triangular rings 121 among a plurality of pegs 123 on the LST dexterity peg board 105. The LST dexterity peg board 105 may be removably fastened to the base 23 using the hook and pile fastening pair secured to the underside of the LST dexterity peg board 105 and to the surface of the base 23. In an exemplary embodiment, the triangular rings 121 may be fabricated by an extrusion process, or any other comparable fabrication process known in the relevant art.
The third skill set includes the process of transferring the plurality of triangular rings 121 from a first group of pegs 123 to a second group of pegs 123. A triangular ring 121 is grasped by the grasper 111, lifted from the corresponding peg 123, transferred to the grasper 113 in midair, and placed over another peg 123. Once all triangular rings 121 have been so transferred, the process may be repeated in reverse. In an exemplary embodiment, performance of the third skill set may be timed by using the video electronic module 60 with an elapsed or remaining time display provided on the display device 11.
In a fourth skill set, shown in
The LST Penrose drain 131 may include a hook-and-pile fastener 137 for removable attachment to a corresponding hook-and-pile fastener 139 on the base 23. In an exemplary embodiment, the LST Penrose drain 131 may be fabricated by molding and may include the longitudinal slit 135 as part of the molding process. The two marks provided on the LST Penrose drain 131 are preferably produced by ink, or similar material, applied to the surface of the LST Penrose drain 131 by any method known in the art, including via manual application. A pair of protrusions (not shown) on the LST Penrose drain 131 may serve as guides in the application of the ink or similar material to the LST Penrose drain 131 to produce the two marks.
In a fifth skill set, shown in
In a sixth skill set, shown in
A seventh skill set, shown in
In an eighth skill set, the user may perform a cannulation task by first emplacing in the base 23 a LST cannulation fixture 170, shown in
The catheter 180 may be provided with a metal pin (not shown) at the entry end to assist in guiding the catheter 180 into the cannulation tube opening 179. Moreover, the catheter 180 may include circumferential lines (not shown), in black ink for example, to indicate to the practitioner of the eighth skill set the depth to which the catheter 180 has entered the cannulation tube 171 via the cannulation tube opening 179.
The LST catheter 180 may alternatively include a marking string 185 (with marks) placed inside a catheter outer tube 183, as shown in
It is to be understood that the description herein is exemplary of the disclosure only and is intended to provide an overview for the understanding of the nature and character of the disclosure as it is defined by the claims. The accompanying drawings are included to provide a further understanding of various features and embodiments of the method and apparatus of the disclosure which, together with their description serve to explain the principles and operation of the disclosure.
Thus, as stated above, while the disclosure has been described with reference to particular embodiments, it will be understood that the present disclosure is by no means limited to the particular constructions and methods herein disclosed and/or shown in the drawings, but also comprises any modifications or equivalents within the scope of the claims. Further, the purpose of the Abstract is to enable the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office, the public generally, and in particular practitioners in the art who are not familiar with patent or legal terms or phraseology, to determine from a cursory inspection the nature and essence of the technical disclosure of the application. Accordingly, the Abstract is not intended to define nor limit the claims in any way.