SOLAR CELL WITH THREE LAYERS AND FORWARD BIASING VOLTAGE
1. A photovoltaic cell comprising layers of a “
type and “
type layers, whereby the “
type layer is a non-doped layer, having no electrical charge.
Solar cells efficiency is improved, in a first approach, wherein the anode'"'"'s “top contact” is relocated to the middle of a three-layer solar cell wafer, permitting maximum sunlight photons to excite free electrons in the anode and p-n junction, without causing obstruction or reflection of sunlight therein. In another embodiment, a rechargeable battery of at least 0.1v is used, to create forward biasing of electrons in a solar cell, having an impurity level that is less than 99.999999%. The anode and cathode of a silicon base solar cell is doped with more than one element, other than phosphorous and boron, to increase its performance and decrease its manufacturing cost.
- 1. A photovoltaic cell comprising layers of a “
type and “
type layers, whereby the “
type layer is a non-doped layer, having no electrical charge.
- View Dependent Claims (2, 3, 4, 5)
- 6. In combination, a photovoltaic cell and a rechargeable battery in a circuit, the battery having a voltage selected so as to promote forward biasing of excited electrons in a p-n junction of the photovoltaic cell.
This application claims priority from and the benefit of provisional application Ser. No. 62/753,062 filed on Oct. 30, 2018, the entire contents of which are incorporated herein by reference, for all purposes.
The present invention relates to mono-crystalline and polycrystalline silicon wafer solar cells, having a “P” and “N” doped layers. More specifically, it relates to solar cells having a new “Z” non doped layer forming a middle layer; and a bottom layer and a top layer, forming a cathode and an anode respectively.
Conventional photovoltaic (PV) wafers are assembled with a top layer, forming the anode, and a bottom layer, forming the cathode when doped with phosphorous and boron respectively.
It is well appreciated that the anode, top layer, impedes the maximum exposure of sunlight into the solar wafer when a top contact is placed above said layer, limiting the maximum efficiency of the solar cell.
Manufacturers have sought to address this obstruction of sunlight into the solar cell by implementing novel technologies such as devising “transparent” top contact as described in United States Patent Publication No. 2009/0277500 and U.S. Pat. No. 8,980,677, which are invariably applicable to silicon solar cells. The “transparent” top contact with nearly invisible electrode, will inadvertently reduce the surface area of the anode, even though it permits more sunlight to enter the solar cell when exposed to photons, causing a paradoxical effect, whereby excited electrons are not conducted efficiently.
An object of the disclosure is to improve the efficiency of a silicon wafer PV cell by maximizing the exposure of the top layer to sunlight.
A PV silicon wafer without an exposed “top contact” (over the anode) layer will clearly offer more benefit, compared to its counterpart, with a “top contact”, as more sunlight is allowed to enter a solar cell having no “top contact” which will result in a greater photoelectric effect and electron conduction (emf).
It is estimated that greater than 10%-30% of a conventional silicon PV cell surface area is covered by the anode (top contact). As such, the efficiency level can therefore be improved by at least 10%, by reconfiguring the anode (“top contact”) to be totally void of obstruction
Thus, the present disclosure is directed to a silicon wafer or PV cell, with semiconductor property, having a valence of four electrons, which includes silicon, carbon and other elements within group four, such as germanium.
A silicon wafer that has not been doped with boron or phosphorous or other elements as will be discussed, will have the property of an insulator, and therefore can be positioned in the center (middle) of a traditional solar cell to create a new and improved solar cell. Accordingly, to conserve on manufacturing cost of a more efficient solar cell matrix, the third non-doped layer will prove beneficial to Si (silicon) wafer type of solar cells. The non-doped “Z” layer may comprise of silicon, carbon or any other group four element, that does not conduct electrons readily when purified and having no electrical charge. A similar non-doped configuration can also be applied in thin film solar cells, without departing from the scope of the invention.
In an alternate embodiment, a rechargeable battery of a voltage less than the voltage of the electric field formed by a PV semiconductor, fabricated from a group 4 element, is used to create “forward biasing” of electrons therein, acting as an electron pump in the process.
Further, to improve the performance of “low purity” silicon cells, selective elements with conductive and electron affinity properties such as gold and iodine are added to the anode and cathode to improve the performance of a solar cell, creating an electric field between the anode and cathode of at least 0.2 v, to permit the flow of electrons freely, with or without the aid of a battery, when exposed to sunlight.
A conventional solar wafer of silicon type consists primarily of a top conducting anode layer, and a bottom conducting cathode layer, whereby the bottom layer has a significantly larger surface area when compared to the minute surface area of the anode, whereas the anode is constructed as such to permit maximum sunlight to enter the solar cell between its spaces There is a trade off to make the “top contact” surface area as small possible to fulfill said purpose.
Moreover, excited electrons must travel upward into relatively widely spaced apart anode “top contact” for electrons uptake to take place to be available for use in a circuit.
A new and improved solar cell having three layers is described, to allow maximum sunlight to enter the solar cell, to excite free electrons. The anode (top contact) is relocated from the top surface of the solar cell, and positioned above the middle layer. The middle layer is made from non-doped silicon based element, labeled as “Z”, in
A p-n junction is created when either an extra segment of the “P” doped layer or “N” doped layer forms part of the middle layer (see
A “p-n” junction with a doped boron and a doped phosphorous layers of a silicon based solar cell will have a voltage potential of ˜0.6 v, when fused together to form an electric field.
A new “p-n” junction in the middle of the three layer solar cell is created when the middle layer doped segment, is an extension of either the top “n” or bottom layer “p” layer.
In the forgoing disclosure of an improved solar cell matrix, which is designed to increase the absorption (photons) of sunlight from the top n-layer, anode, having no “top contact;” conductor material, the new “top contact” is repositioned to the middle of the solar cell 5 and 5A,—which is positioned between the bottom of the “n” type anode 1 and 1A, and above the non-doped Z-layer, 6 and 6A, as in
The extended “p” doped segment depicted in
The non-conducting “Z” segment serves the purpose of creating an insulated layer between the “p” doped layer and the “n” doped layer, so that the “top contact” 5 (or 5A), having a contact structure well known in the art, can form a circuit with bottom contact 4 or 4A, of
The non-conducting layer may comprise a highly purified non-doped group 4 element such as carbon, silicon or germanium.
A solar cell having three layers as described will permit close to 100% of sunlight to enter the solar cell (not factoring reflection or refraction caused by factors other than the top contact), to excite free electrons situated in the anode and p-n junction, in order to carry an electric charge. Moreover, the excited electrons will have a larger surface area of “top contact” to conduct electricity, situated above the non conducting “Z” layer, allowing for maximum number of excited electrons to be conducted from the anode, thereby increasing the efficiency of a new and improved solar cell.
In another solar cell embodiment, designed to reduce the manufacturing cost and production process of a silicon wafer, a forward biasing (diode) stacked PV is created, using a two layer or three layer silicon wafer design, whereby the silicon is not highly pure to the order of 99.999999% In
A silicon ingot of purity between 98 and 99.9% can be achieved using simple metallurgy process of melting silicon dioxide (quartz), using an arc furnace. The “high grade” ingot is not pure enough to create a natural p-n junction electric field of at least 0.6 volts.
To increase the solar cell p-n junction formation of at least 0.2 volts and efficiency level—without utilizing complex and costly manufacturing process, the anode and or cathode of the solar cell is preferably doped with two dopants instead of one.
In addition to phosphorous, which is commonly used in the industry to create the “n” type layer, anode, small quantity of pure gold (which is non-corrosive), silver or copper, both preferably coated with gold, is added to the anode. The addition of a highly electrically conductive metal, such as gold or copper, all having one valence electron, will make the anode more conductive to the photovoltaic effect, and create a p-n junction of at least 0.2 volts in a new amalgamated solar cell.
A group seven element, such as iodine, with seven (7) valence electrons may be used to dope the cathode layer, in addition to boron, to create a more conductive solar cell positive end, as iodine has a strong affinity for a single electron.
When electrons flow towards the cathode upon exposure of the completely exposed anode “n” type to the sun, the rechargeable battery will forward bias the electrons, acting as an electron pump and will be recharged by using a resistor (not shown), in series with the battery, to recharge said battery. The rechargeable battery may have a voltage output of 0.1 volt or greater, but preferably below the value of the electric field of the p-n junction of the photovoltaic cell.