Hybrid Power Supply Circuit, Use of a Hybrid Power Supply Circuit and Method for Producing a Hybrid Power Supply Circuit
A hybrid power supply circuit, a method using a hybrid power supply circuit and method for producing a hybrid power supply circuit are disclosed. In an embodiment a hybrid power-supply circuit includes a first energy-storage device and a second energy-storage device, wherein the first and second energy-storage devices are combined in a module and electrically interconnected, and wherein the first energy-storage device is a solid-state accumulator.
- 1-10. -10. (canceled)
- 11. A hybrid power-supply circuit comprising:
a first energy-storage device; and a second energy-storage device, wherein the first and second energy-storage devices are combined in a module and electrically interconnected, and wherein the first energy-storage device is a solid-state accumulator.
- View Dependent Claims (12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21)
- 22. A method for producing a hybrid power-supply circuit, the method comprising:
combining of a capacitor and a solid-state accumulator in a compact module.
- View Dependent Claims (23)
This patent application is a national phase filing under section 371 of PCT/EP2018/064073, filed May 29, 2018, which claims the priority of German patent application 102017111942.6, filed May 31, 2017, each of which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety.
The invention relates to a hybrid power supply for electrical circuits that have specific requirements as regards a power-source.
Modern electrical components are intended to have dimensions that are as small as possible, and to make ever more electrical functions available. For this purpose they need power-sources that make a supply voltage available that is as stable as possible, that withstand a large number of cycles without degradation, and that have short reaction-times to charge pulses and discharge pulses.
There is the possibility of supplying electrical devices with electrical energy by means of batteries or accumulators. Batteries or accumulators are well suited for applications with continuous load-current operation. Batteries are problematic in the case of applications with a pulsed additional load and/or an irregular charge cycle.
In the so-called Internet of Things (IoT) a large number of different electrical devices are intended to communicate with one another, preferentially via radio links. A continuous communication in this case is not necessary. Especially in devices in which sensors are running continuously and a communication with an external environment is to take place at regular or irregular intervals, the use of batteries is problematic. If the batteries are designed in such a way that the continuous load can be dealt with well, a power supply becomes problematic in the case of additional load. If a battery is designed in such a way that it can also handle additional loads, for most of the time it is oversized.
Embodiments provide a power-supply circuit that meets the aforementioned specifications.
In various embodiments a hybrid power-supply circuit comprises a first energy-storage device and a second energy-storage device. The first and second energy-storage devices have been combined in a module and electrically interconnected. The first energy-storage device is a solid-state accumulator.
The combination of two different energy-storage devices, one of which is a solid-state accumulator, allows electrical devices to be operated with a continuous permanent load and, at the same time, allows a power supply to be made available having a sufficient power for brief power surges, for example pulsed additional loads.
The use of a solid-state accumulator as first energy-storage device, which can be substantially responsible for a continuous permanent load, affords a lot of advantages: solid-state accumulators can be produced in almost any shape. Solid-state accumulators have a high energy density and can therefore be made available with small dimensions. Such accumulators are relatively insensitive to damage and the loss of an electrolyte, since no liquid electrolyte is present. Solid-state accumulators may additionally consist of materials that are compatible with production processes for other circuit components.
The hybrid power-supply circuit described herein represents an improvement, especially in comparison with conventional hybrid systems consisting of batteries or conventional accumulators, on the one hand, and capacitors, on the other hand.
It is consequently correspondingly possible that the second energy-storage device is a capacitor. The second energy-storage device may have been selected from a ceramic capacitor, a multilayer capacitor, a multilayer ceramic capacitor and a double-layer capacitor.
Such capacitors likewise have a high energy density and permit the ongoing trend toward the miniaturization of electrical devices to be continued.
Solid-state accumulators constitute a voltage-stable power-source. Capacitors are distinguished by a high cycle strength and fast reaction to charge pulses and discharge pulses.
The described hybrid power-supply circuit is maintenance-neutral—that is to say, it has no more maintenance than conventional hybrid power-supply circuits. Rather, it makes a smaller form of construction possible, and the operational life and reliability are improved by reason of the elimination of a liquid electrolyte.
It is possible that the power-supply circuit additionally exhibits an ASIC chip (ASIC=application-specific integrated circuit) for controlling or regulating a charging process or discharging process.
Such ASICs may have been optimized in terms of particular parameters, for example energy efficiency, for a particular application. Such a circuit makes it possible to protect the accumulator against a deep discharge or against an overstressing in the course of charging.
The circuit in the ASIC chip is electrically coupled with the first energy-storage device and with the second energy-storage device.
The first energy-storage device and the second energy-storage device are likewise electrically coupled with one another. It is conceivable that the two energy-storage devices have been interconnected in series or—preferentially—in parallel.
In this case, both energy-storage devices may have been interconnected with a first terminal and with a second terminal, via which the hybrid power-supply circuit can be charged and via which the power-supply circuit can deliver electrical energy to a circuit environment.
It is possible that the first energy-storage device has been realized as a first SMD component (SMD=surface-mounted device). The second energy-storage device has been realized as a second SMD component. The first and second SMD components have been arranged one above the other or side by side and interconnected with one another. Alternatively, it is possible that the first energy-storage device and the second energy-storage device have been produced monolithically together as a multilayer system in a multilayer process.
A multilayer system has a plurality of layers of different materials arranged one above the other. In this case, dielectric layers and electrically conducting layers may alternate.
A capacitive element, for instance, may exhibit a plurality of electrode layers in metallization planes with dielectric layers arranged in between. Adjacent electrode layers arranged one above the other have been interconnected in an alternating manner with, in each instance, one of two terminal electrodes.
Analogously thereto, a solid-state accumulator may likewise exhibit stratified layers, arranged one above the other, consisting of structured electrode layers and electrolytic layers arranged in between.
Production processes for multilayer systems, for example HTCC layer stack (HTCC=high-temperature co-fired ceramics) or LTCC multilayer systems (LTCC=low-temperature co-fired ceramics) are produced by corresponding known and readily manageable multilayer processes.
It is possible to find a set of materials with which, on the one hand, a multilayer capacitor and, on the other hand, a solid-state accumulator can be produced. In this case, the materials have preferentially been selected in such a way that they are compatible with methods for producing such multilayer components.
It has accordingly been discovered that multilayer ceramic substrates can be produced that include both capacitors and solid-state accumulators. As a result, extreme energy densities and power densities can be obtained.
But the stacked arrangement of SMD components in the form of capacitors and solid-state accumulators also allow an extremely high energy density and power density.
It is preferred if the solid-state accumulator is suitable for reflow. That is to say, the solid-state accumulator is thermally so stable that it withstands the temperatures in the course of passing through a reflow soldering process without suffering damage.
It is possible, for example as an alternative to an element realized in a multilayer structure, or in addition thereto, that the second energy-storage device is a normal ceramic capacitor, a capacitor of the MegaCap type (designation of the company TDK), a capacitor of the CeraLink type, in particular of the Ultrabar type (designations of the company EPCOS), or a capacitor of a different UltraCap type or SuperCap type, or a ceramic capacitor with specially high capacitance density.
It is possible that the power-supply circuit further includes a varistor and/or a diode, for example a Zener diode, for limiting a voltage to a minimum value (for example, when discharging) or a maximum value (for example, when charging).
A varistor is a circuit element having an electrical resistance that depends on the applied voltage. The electrical resistance drops with increasing applied voltage.
The varistor has preferentially been connected parallel to the first energy-storage device and/or parallel to the second energy-storage device.
If use is made of a Zener diode, the latter likewise helps for the purpose of limiting the voltage, and/or as protection against overloading.
It is correspondingly possible that the first energy-storage device and the second energy-storage device have been interconnected directly—for example, soldered to one another.
The first and second energy-storage devices may have been arranged one above the other or side by side.
It is correspondingly also possible that the solid-state accumulator consists of materials that are compatible with a co-firing process, for example for producing an HTCC multilayer component or LTCC multilayer component.
The solid electrolyte of the solid-state accumulator may have been selected from the following compounds:
The material of the electrodes of the solid-state accumulator may have been selected from the following materials: LiVOPO4 and Li3V2(PO4)3.
It is possible to use the power-supply circuit in an electrical component that additionally exhibits an RF transmitter, an RF receiver and/or an RF transceiver.
Corresponding antennas and front-end circuits may likewise be present.
In various embodiments a method for producing a hybrid power-supply circuit comprises the combining of a capacitor with a solid-state accumulator in a compact module.
In this connection it is possible that a layer system for the capacitor and a layer system for the solid-state accumulator are merged in a multilayer process to form a monolithic module.
In other words: the capacitor and the solid-state accumulator are produced together using processing steps for multilayer processes, so that a compact monolithically integrated module is obtained.
Electrical devices with a hybrid power-supply system of such a type, or the hybrid power-supply system of such a device, can be charged by diverse power-sources. These include photovoltaic charging systems and piezoelectric generators. Such and other charging systems differ, for example, from a charging device that is fed from a supply network by virtue of a highly variable charging power. The hybrid power-supply system is easily able to accommodate the associated irregular charging current without thermal or other problems.
The solid-state accumulator may consist of materials that are insensitive to a deep discharge, where appropriate down to 0 V. Apart from that, an ASIC can prevent a deep discharge or an overstressing when charging.
The hybrid power-supply system may include additional circuit elements, for example additional passive circuit elements or additional active circuit elements. A watchdog function may have been implemented in an ASIC chip, in order to optimize the charging of the battery, particularly in the case of irregular charge pulses.
Important functional principles and details of preferred embodiments are elucidated in greater detail in the schematic figures:
The first energy-storage device ES1 is a solid-state accumulator. The second energy-storage device ES2 is preferentially a capacitor.
Both the first energy-storage device ES1 and the second energy-storage device ES2 may preferentially exhibit as multilayer component with electrode layers as structured elements in metallization layers and with dielectric layers or electrolytic layers arranged in between in the case of the accumulator.
Particularly when the two energy-storage devices have been realized as planar components, it is advantageous to arrange the two components one above the other.
In this way, both the first energy-storage device ES1 and the second energy-storage device ES2 can be manufactured as individual components with SMD capability. Subsequently they can be arranged one above the other and soldered together and thereby interconnected in an electrically conducting manner and firmly connected mechanically.
Brief voltage spikes or charge spikes can be easily intercepted by the second energy-storage device ES2.
The ASIC may have been embedded in an ASIC chip and designed to have an energy consumption that is as low as possible—that is to say, to operate in as energy-efficient a manner as possible.
Alternatively, it is also possible that the first and/or the second energy-storage device or further circuit elements has/have been arranged on the upper side of the carrier substrate TS and interconnected.
By way of carrier substrate in this case, in particular a ceramic multilayer substrate, for example an LTCC substrate or an HTCC substrate, may enter into consideration.
The external circuit may include, for instance, a transceiver RXTX and an antenna ANT, in order to communicate with an external radio environment.
The hybrid power-supply circuit is not restricted to the details of the embodiments that are shown; it may exhibit further circuit elements, such as further energy-storage devices, further integrated circuits and further switches, as well as further terminals.