METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR FOCUSED DATA COMMUNICATIONS
1. A wireless communication system comprising:
- a first subset of a plurality of antenna elements, wherein the first subset form a plurality of directional lobes that are monitored for a new client device;
a second subset of the plurality of antenna elements;
an array controller that is communicatively coupled to the plurality of antenna elements;
wherein the array controller;
detects, using the first subset of the plurality of antenna elements, a first signal from the new client device,determines a first location of the new client device in three-dimensional space based on a reverse timing, wherein the reverse timing is a difference between a time when the first signal is received by a first antenna element and a second antenna element of the first subset of the plurality of antenna elements,tunes the second subset of the plurality of antenna elements to generate constructive interference of an electromagnetic wave at the first location; and
transmits, using the second subset of the plurality of antenna elements, the electromagnetic wave to the new client device.
A method and apparatus for focused communication is disclosed. The method includes a base transmitter array in communication with at least one client device at the same frequency. The base transmitter array provides a focused data communication to the client device.
- 1. A wireless communication system comprising:
a first subset of a plurality of antenna elements, wherein the first subset form a plurality of directional lobes that are monitored for a new client device; a second subset of the plurality of antenna elements; an array controller that is communicatively coupled to the plurality of antenna elements; wherein the array controller; detects, using the first subset of the plurality of antenna elements, a first signal from the new client device, determines a first location of the new client device in three-dimensional space based on a reverse timing, wherein the reverse timing is a difference between a time when the first signal is received by a first antenna element and a second antenna element of the first subset of the plurality of antenna elements, tunes the second subset of the plurality of antenna elements to generate constructive interference of an electromagnetic wave at the first location; and transmits, using the second subset of the plurality of antenna elements, the electromagnetic wave to the new client device.
- View Dependent Claims (2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7)
This Application is a continuation of U.S. application Ser. No. 15/649,187, filed Jul. 13, 2017, which is a continuation of U.S. application Ser. No. 15/153,361, filed May 12, 2016, which issued as U.S. Pat. No. 9,736,815 on Aug. 15, 2017, which is a continuation of U.S. application Ser. No. 14/186,344 filed Feb. 21, 2014, which issued as U.S. Pat. No. 9,351,281 on May 24, 2016, which claims the benefit of U.S. Provisional Patent Application No. 61/768,004, filed Feb. 22, 2013, all of which the contents are incorporated herein by reference as if fully set forth.
The present invention relates generally to data communications.
As the world becomes more and more dependent on access to data from mobile devices, there is an increasing need to provide data services to clients requesting them. Cellular systems, global positioning systems (GPS) and wireless communication systems, (e.g., IEEE 802 systems), are faced with limitations regarding, for example, bandwidth, range, and capacity. Some solutions to this are to add infrastructure and/or to utilize pointed range techniques. However, these methods can be costly and ineffective.
Thus, a method and apparatus for focusing data communications is desired.
A method and apparatus for focused communication is disclosed. The method includes a base transmitter array in communication with at least one client device. The base transmitter array provides a focused data communication to the client device.
These and other features of the invention will become readily apparent upon further review of the following specification and drawings.
Similar reference characters denote corresponding features consistently throughout the attached drawings.
t(n)=p(n)/c, Equation (1)
where c=the speed of light.
In order for the data transmission signals from each antenna element 121 to arrive at the client device 110 at the same time, each antenna element 121 starts its transmission at:
time=max(t(n))−t(n). Equation (2)
Since each signal to client C1, C2, and C3 is separated, the client devices 110 may share the same frequency or channel, thus allowing an increase in the utilization of each frequency band or communication channel. Additionally, the signal of each client device 110 should be below, or much lower than, the noise level of the signal intended to another client device 110. For example, signals not intended for C1 cancel one another, resulting in a clear transmission of the signal intended for C1 at client device C1.
In order to transmit simultaneous signals to multiple clients 110 on the same frequency, each antenna element 121 utilizes the time offset received from each client 110 relative to every other antenna element 121 in the base transmitter array 120. Accordingly, each antenna element 121 may then sum the encoded signals and transmit a juxtaposed sum of all the client 110 signals to the clients 110, resulting in separate spatially isolated data communication signals that the intended client 110 may receive and decode clearly. For example, at an intended focus location, the signals (each having a strength “s”), add up linearly, causing a linear increase in the client device'"'"'s 110 antenna, whereby the total signal is N times s. However, at non-intended focus locations, the signals are received at haphazard times without a cohesive phase, resulting in a signal that has a strength of: (s0+s1+s2+s3+s4+s5+s6+ . . . +sN)/N, which is much weaker than the intended focus signal
Also, since the same, or a single, frequency may be shared and utilized to transmit data from the base transmitter array 120 to multiple clients 110, it is therefore possible to expand the capacity of the data communication systems, (e.g., 100, 200 and 300). For example, by utilizing multiple frequencies, where groups of client devices 110 share a first frequency, groups of client devices 110 share a second frequency, and so on, many more client devices 110 may be provided services by the base transmitter array 120.
Each antenna element 121 of the base transmitter array 120 receives the data communications from the at least one client device 110 with a different time offset than every other antenna element 121. For example, referring back to
The offset determination may be performed by summing of the totality of the antennas of the antenna elements 121. In this manner, each antenna element 121 is comparing itself to the consensus, and when an antenna is getting away from the consensus, it starts to get back in line with a new offset, which it discovers by testing its output against the consensus, or testing its modified time offset consensus against the consensus without the modification, and choosing whether to keep the modification or stay the same. This may be performed by the antenna elements 121 whether the client device 110 is in motion or not.
Once the time offset is computed, each antenna element 121 of the base transmitter 120 is tuned based on the time offset for each client device 110 (step 430). For example, each antenna element 121 may time offset its transmission signal to the client device 110 in the reverse order of the received time offset from the client device 110.
In step 440, each antenna element 121 of the base transmitter 120 transmits data to the at least one client device 110 based upon the determined time offset at that antenna element.
Since the client devices 110 may be in motion, a determination is made as to whether the at least one client device 110 has moved (step 450). For example, in
Data enters on an input line to the network switch 530, while carrier and time synch information are input into the client carrier component 510 and phase and time detection component 560. The carrier information may be common signal carrier information shared with all antenna elements 121, such as a lower frequency for use by a phase locked loop (PLL) to target the frequency of any desired channel. The time synch signal may be a clock that allows resolution of events to a sub-wave level, (e.g., 10 ns for a 2.4 GHz signal, or 4 ns for a 900 MHz signal).
The network switch 530 outputs a message signal to the message encoding components 520, which also receive inputs from respective client carrier components 510. The network switch 530 also provides the client information table 590 information to the client carrier components 510 and message encoding components 520. The summer 540 receives the signals from the message encoding components 520 along with the appropriate time offset for each client device 110 and outputs an outgoing signal to the MUX/DEMUX 570 for transmission by the antenna 580. If the input received by the summer 540 is a digital signal, the summer may be a digital signal adder and convert the summation to analogue, while if the input to the summer 540 is an analog signal, the summer 540 performs the summation in the analog domain.
The MUX/DEMUX 570 also receives incoming transmissions from the antenna 580 and forwards the incoming signal sans the outgoing signal, to the incoming signal A/D encoder 550 and phase and time detection component 560. The MUX/DEMUX 570 may be utilized to operate to allow multiple client devices 110 to transmit to the antenna element 121, while transmitting data from the antenna element 121 to other client devices 110.
The incoming signal A/D encoder 550 outputs a digital signal to the network switch 530, and the phase and time detection component outputs a signal to the incoming signal A/D encoder 550. The phase and time detection component 560 may detect or establish new client devices 110, for example utilizing an encoded beacon signal from a client device 110.
In operation, where each antenna element 121 has established its phase and time offsets necessary to send out a signal, each data packet for transmission is tagged with the client identification so that it may be encoded with the appropriate phase and time offsets.
The array controller 600 receives signals from a client device 110 in the conceptual component 610 for a particular client device 110. This signal may be received indirectly via the A/D encoder 550 of each antenna element processor 500. The signal from each antenna element 121 may then be added to the signals from all other antenna elements 121 utilizing “reverse timing” of the client device 110 time offset used to transmit. The reverse timing may be computed in accordance with the following equation:
Reverse Timing=(MaxClientTimeOffset)−ClientTimeOffset, Equation (3)
where the reverse timing is effectively a number between 0 and the ClientTimeOffset for each client, and MaxTimeOffset is the difference in time from the earliest antenna element 121 receiving a signal to the latest antenna element 121 receiving the same signal.
Since each client device 110 is silent for some of the time, there may be little crosstalk between signals and the data lines may be silent. Where more than one client device 110 is in the same location for the most part, (e.g., “hot spot”), where the time offsets are so similar to one another that their signals are received superimposed, it may be difficult to differentiate between one client device 110 and another. In these cases, time division multiple access (TDMA) and/or code division multiple access (CDMA) transmission techniques may be utilized. A client device 110 may also deactivate collision detection mechanisms in order to transmit to the base transmitter 120 without waiting for other client devices 110 to cease their transmissions, in order to enable full two-way bandwidth capabilities with each client device 110.
The network switch 640 receives data, (e.g., data packets from/to client devices 110), from a thick data pipe from an external central network and communicates data back and forth to each conceptual component 610, which includes a message decoder 611, a summer 612 and a plurality of time shifters 613. Data proceeds to the antenna elements 121 from the conceptual components 610 via the D/D 620, data network switch 650 and the connector 660 for a respective antenna element 121. Additionally, the system clock 630 provides the carrier and time synch signals for each antenna element 121. Outgoing data to clients is provided by the network switch 640 to the data network switch 650.
When the base transmitter array 821 is operational, it may detect new clients within its service domain and establish time offsets for communication. When a client device 110 is powered on, it attempts to communicate with the base transmitter array 820. Accordingly, the base transmitter array 820 may tune specific antenna elements 821 to specific directions. For example, in
In the layout shown in
Since the directional lobes are monitoring for new client devices 110 not yet known, once a new client device 110 is detected, the remainder of the antenna elements 821 may be provided with information to quickly correct their respective time and phase offsets so that the newly detected client devices 110 receive their focused spatially directed data signal.
Due to the signals being highly focused, battery life of the client device 110 may be increased as the client device 110 may utilize less power for communication with the base transmitter array 120/420/820/920. Additionally, the coverage area 930 may be greater than in a conventional communication system for the same power, since focused signals may travel farther, and since the array is able to tune to a particular client device 110, as opposed to sending signal power out in multiple directions.
By utilizing a focused data communication system, such as using the base transmitter 1020, (shown on a conventional cellular tower), high quality signals may be provided to client devices 110 at locations G, B, or A.
The methods and devices described above may operate at the physical communication layer stack. However, it should be noted that any stack may be utilized to carry out functionality as needed for any of the methods and devices described above.
It is to be understood that the present invention is not limited to the embodiments described above, but encompasses any and all embodiments within the scope of the following claims. For example, the client device described above may refer to a cellular phone, PDA, or any other wireless device that may be utilized for data communication. Additionally, for example, the size of the base transmitter array may be on the order of the (number of clients)2.5, however any size may be utilized. Additionally, although the client device 110 is shown, for purposes of example, as having only a single antenna, it should be noted that client devices may include more than one antenna.
Also, it should be noted that the base transmitter array may be a large set of antennas configured in a three-dimensional (3D) arrangement, where each antenna is capable transmitting one or more data encoded signals, whereby the transmitted signal is the sum of the encoded signals to be transmitted. As described above, each signal may be added with a specific time offset that is different for each antenna element. One example arrangement to arrange the antenna elements of the base transmitter array is to utilize the example of 3D quasi-crystal arrangement.
Additionally, although the features and elements of the present application are described in the example embodiments in particular combinations, each feature or element can be used alone (without the other features and elements of the example embodiments) or in various combinations with or without other features and elements of the present application.