Kinetic energy dissipation system for dissipating kinetic shock energy
1. An energy dissipation system for dissipating kinetic Shock energy including;
- an aluminum tubular member, said tubular member extending longitudnially along an axis from a first end portion to a second end portion, said tubular member having a longitudinal legnth selected at between 5 and 50 cm and a radial diameter of about 4 to 10 cm,at least one hardened cutter/deflector plate disposed adjacent to said first end portion, each cutter/deflector plate including three to five cutting blade members wherein on the occurrence of said shock energy, said cutting blades being movable longitudinally relative to said tubular member towards said second end portion, wherein longitudinal movement of the cutting blades through the tubular member cuts and/or deforms said tubular member to assist in absorbing said kinetic energy.
An energy dissipation assembly is provided for mounting between a fixed support and moveable support. The assembly includes a sacrificial deformation tube, a hardened cutter/deflector assembly and, optionally, a connecting cable to maintain the cutter/deflector assembly in juxtaposed coaxial alignment with an end deformation tube. The cutter/deflector assembly has a generally flattened disc shaped profile and includes a central hub, a circular support ring and one or more cutting blades. The support ring is concentrically about the hub and has an inner diameter greater than the outer tube diameter. On the occurrence of a shock force, the cutter/deflector assembly moves axial to cut/deform the deformation tube to dissipate force energy.
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- 1. An energy dissipation system for dissipating kinetic Shock energy including;
an aluminum tubular member, said tubular member extending longitudnially along an axis from a first end portion to a second end portion, said tubular member having a longitudinal legnth selected at between 5 and 50 cm and a radial diameter of about 4 to 10 cm, at least one hardened cutter/deflector plate disposed adjacent to said first end portion, each cutter/deflector plate including three to five cutting blade members wherein on the occurrence of said shock energy, said cutting blades being movable longitudinally relative to said tubular member towards said second end portion, wherein longitudinal movement of the cutting blades through the tubular member cuts and/or deforms said tubular member to assist in absorbing said kinetic energy.
- View Dependent Claims (2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9)
This application claims the benefit of 35 U.S.C. §119(e) to U.S. Provisional Patent Application Ser. No. 61/282,047, filed Dec. 8, 2009.
The present invention relates to a device used to dissipate and/or absorb energy, and more preferably, an apparatus which may be incorporated into a vehicle, a crash barrier, or other device or structure to linearly dissipate the kinetic energy of a shock or impact force.
Shock absorbers for absorbing and dissipating the kinetic energy of impact or shock force are well known. Conventionally destructive shock forces are dissipated by energy absorbing devices such as springs, rubber buffers or hydraulic fluids. Conventional spring and/or elastomeric shock absorbers suffer a disadvantage, however, in that they typically do not dissipate energy at a uniform rate. Conventional shock absorbers deform through the elastic limit of the deforming material resulting in varying rates at which the energy is absorbed. Also the rate of energy dissipation changes with the speed of the crash limiting their predictability. Where hydraulic cylinders are used to control discharge fluids, such as in shock absorbers, fluid is compressed and then released through a controlled outlet/bypass which dissipates the energy. However, on compression the energy transmitted through these devices increases at a geometric rate relative to speed of collapse of the cylinder thus passing the peak energy through the device and dissipating the lower levels of energy at the beginning and end of the crash. Further, heretofore, conventional shock absorbers have achieved mixed results in absorbing and/or dissipating high shock forces, such as those produced by falling elevators, traffic accidents or improvised explosive devices (IEDs).
The applicant has appreciated that a simplified energy dissipation system may be achieved by providing a cutting member and a sacrificial deformation plate or member which on an impact is cut and/or deformed by the cutting member. In a most simplified form, the deformation member is a cylindrical or circular tube of mean diameter (D) and thickness (t) which experiences a stable progressive folding deformation as an efficient energy absorbing member.
Jensen et al. ‘Transition between progressive and global buckling of aluminium extrusions’, Structures Under Shock and Impact VII, Southampton, WIT Press, 2002, 267-277; and “Experimental investigations on the behavior of short to long square aluminium tubes subjected to axial loading”, International Journal of Impact Engineering, 2004 30 973-1003), the disclosures of which are incorporated herein by reference, numerically and experimentally investigated the transition of square aluminum alloy tubes extrusions and found that the energy absorption was dependent on the collapse mode. In particular, total energy absorption decreases when the impact velocity due to inertia forces increased to prevent the global bending of the tube and the early transition from progressive to global bending. An increasing relationship was observed between the L/b and the b/t ratios in the quasi-static tests and impact tests with a velocity of less than 13 m/s, (where b is the width of the extrusion). An inverse relationship was found when the impact velocity was 20 m/s. Thus, the overall response is found to be highly dependent on the location of the first lobes.
Karagiozova and Alves ‘Transition from progressive buckling to global bending of circular shells under axial impact—Part I: Experimental and numerical observations’, International Journal of Solids and Structures, 2004 41 1565-1580, the disclosure of which is incorporated herein by reference, experimental tests on the bending of circular tubes showing that the critical length (Lcr) is influenced by the impact velocity. Numerically, it was observed that circular extrusions made of ductile alloys with a high yield stress and low strain hardening characteristics had a better energy absorption performance than extrusions with a low yield stress and high strain hardening characteristics.
Earlier studies show that given a certain material and particular D/t ratio, and Lcr exists under quasi-static loading. However, for a dynamic loading condition, the collapse mode of an extrusion depends not depend only on material properties, boundary conditions and extrusion geometries, but also on the impact velocity. Furthermore, geometrical imperfections may play a more important role in the dynamic crush conditions.
Galib and Limam Experimental and numerical investigation of static and dynamic axial crushing of circular aluminium tubes'"'"', Thin-Walled Struct, 2004 42 1103-1137, the disclosure of which is incorporated herein by reference, describe the crushing of circular aluminum extrusions subjected to variable impact mass and impact velocity values. The progressive folding deformation modes of circular extrusions under both dynamic and static loading are generally the same with the main difference related to the first part of the impact, where a dynamic force is approximately 40-60% higher than a static one. Following this initial high peak force, crush forces oscillated significantly during the formation of the lobes in both loading conditions. The mean dynamic crush forces were about 10% higher than the corresponding values in the quasi-static tests, which indicated the strain rate insensitivity property of this type of material.
With the attempts to control and stabilize the collapse mode and improve the energy absorption capability of the extrusions under axial loading conditions, geometrical discontinuities, due to the easy implementation, are commonly used to initiate a specific collapse mode and improve energy absorption.
Abah et al. “Effects of cutouts on static and dynamic behavior of square aluminium extrusions”, In: Jones, N., Talaslidis, D. G., Brebbia, C. A., and Manolis, G. D., Editors, Structures Under Shock and Impact V, Computational Mechanics, Southampton, UK, 1998, 133-152, the disclosure of which is incorporated herein by reference, describe the effects of circular cutouts at the four edges of square aluminum extrusions, whereby up to 50% reduction of the peak forces was observed depending on the size of the cutout and loading condition, however, the mean crush load remained relatively constant for both loading conditions.
Arnold and Altenhof “Experimental observations on the crush characteristics of AA6061-T4 and T6 structural square tubes with and without circular discontinuities”, Int J Crashworthiness, 2004 9 (1) 829-854), and Cheng and Altenhof “Experimental investigations on the crush behavior of AA6061-T6 aluminium square tubes with different types of through-hole discontinuities”, Thin-Walled Struct, 2006 44 (4) 441-454, the disclosures of which are incorporated herein by reference, describe deformation results for square extrusions with circular discontinuity, or circular, slotted and elliptical holes under quasi-static axial loading. Arnold and Altenhof and Chen and Altenhof, supra, show that a significant reduction of the initial peak crush load and higher crush force efficiency (CFE) of the extrusions. Furthermore, energy absorption capacity may be improved by altering the deformation mode within the extrusion, through the implementation of the geometrical discontinuities within the tubular member.
While control of the collapse mode of the extrusions is reliable under the quasi-static axial loading through the implementation of initiators, the initiation of the desired deformation mode under impact loading becomes more complicated and may lead to a very poor energy absorption mode since the collapse mode greatly depends on the impact velocities. The applicant has appreciated that this collapse mode dependency of extrusions can be eliminated when for example a cylindrical tubular member is configured to experience a splitting or cutting deformation mode. Reddy and Reid “Axial splitting of circular metal tubes”, Int J Mech Sci, 1986 28 (2) 111-13), the disclosure of which is incorporated herein by reference, describe the splitting of mild steel and aluminium circular tubes under both quasi-static and dynamic axial loading conditions using a mandrel type of die. Crack formations were observed for all tests with or without pre-slits on extrusions. The cracked extrusions then generated strips which curled afterwards. A peak load was observed along with the formation of the splitting mode and a steady crush force was also observed during the steady state splitting process. Such a mode of deformation illustrated a stroke efficiency greater than 90%, although it is not as efficient as a tube undergoing axial crush or inversion.
Huang et al. [11-12] (Huang, X., Lu, G and Yu, T. X, ‘Energy absorption in splitting square metal tubes’, Thin-Walled Struct, 2002 40 (2) 153-165 and ‘On the axial splitting and curling of circular metal tubes’, Int J Mech Sci, 2002 44 (11) 2369-2391), the disclosure of which is incorporated herein by reference, investigated the quasi-static axial splitting behaviour of circular and square mild steel and aluminium tubes using a conical die. Three stable energy dissipation mechanisms were reported, namely, a ‘near tip’ tearing and splitting of the tube, a ‘far-field’ plastic bending and stretching of curls, and a dissipation mechanism associated with friction due to the interaction of the tube with the die.
Jin et al. “An experimental investigation into the cutting deformation mode of AA6061-T6 round extrusions”, Thin-Walled Struct, 2006 44 (7) 773-786, the disclosure of which is incorporated herein by reference, describes cutting deformation of cylindrical aluminum (AA6061-T6) extrusions under a quasi-static loading condition using a cutter. The cutting deformation mode of the circular extrusion was observed to be very stable and controllable. An extremely high crush force efficiency of 95% and a constant steady-state cutting force were reported, which led to ideal energy absorption characteristics. The cutting process was identified as clean cut due to the observed Load/displacement response.
Majumder et al. ‘Quasi-static axial cutting of AA6061-T4 and T6 round extrusions’, IMechE Part L: J. Materials: Design and Applications, 2008 222 183-195, the disclosure of which is incorporated herein by reference, describes cutting deformation behaviour of circular AA6061-T6 and T4 extrusions under quasi-static loading conditions with two different extrusion wall thicknesses (t) of 3.175 mm and 1.587 mm using cutters described in Jin, supra. It was observed that T6 temper extrusions with both wall thicknesses and T4 temper extrusion with t=3.175 mm exhibited a clean cut, while T4 temper extrusion with t=1.587 mm showed braided cut. The steady state force reduced approximately 50% when the extrusion wall thickness reduced 50% for both temper extrusions. The cutting deformations were observed to be very stable and repeatable.
Jin and Altenhof ‘Experimental observations of AA6061-T6 round extrusions under a cutting deformation mode with a deflector’, Int. J. Crashworthiness, 2008 13 (2) 127-138, the disclosure of which is incorporated herein by reference, further describes cutting deformation behaviour of circular AA6061-T6 extrusion with the presence of curved and straight deflectors. In particular, it is shown that the CFE decreased from 95% to 81% and 68% with the presence of the curved deflector and straight deflector respectively. A constant cutting force was observed after the extrusion petalled sidewalls contacted the deflector and bent outwards. The cutting deformations with the deflector appeared to be stable and controllable.
Jin et al. “Axial cutting of AA6061-T6 circular extrusions under impact using single- and dual-cutter configurations'"'"', In Press: International Journal of Impact Engineering, 2009, doi:10.1016/j.ijimpeng.2009.01.003, the disclosure of which is incorporated hereby reference further describes energy absorption behaviour of circular AA6061-T6 extrusions under dynamic and quasi-static loadings using single- or dual-cutter and a deflector assembly. It was observed that the total energy absorption of the extrusion experienced by the single cutting deformation was typically less compared to the progressive folding deformation, but much greater than the global bending deformation. The total energy absorption of the extrusions experienced by the dual stage cutting mode surpassed the progressive folding mode. Dual stage cutting is typically a superposition of two single stage cutting processes with a displacement delay, on the increased force due to the second series of cuts, approximately equal to the cutter thickness.
The present invention relates to an assembly for the absorption and/or dissipation of energy, such as a shock force produced by a vehicle crash, elevator failure, or for example explosions caused by explosive forces caused by the detonation of a mine, improvised explosive devices and the like. In this regard, the assembly is provided with a deformable energy dissipating member, tube, plate, or rod; and a cutter/deflector assembly which on the occurrence of the shock force is driven into and/or through the energy dissipating member to effect its deformation, to dissipate and/or absorb the energy forces thereby.
One object of the present invention is to provide a simplified shock absorber or energy dissipation device which may be easily and economically constructed, and which is suitable for dissipating kinetic energy forces, including, without restriction, high energy shock forces such as those produced by vehicle collisions, IEDs, falling elevators and the like.
Another object of the invention is to provide an energy dissipation device which may be easily and inexpensively manufactured.
A further object of the invention is provide a shock absorber or energy dissipation device which may be easily tuned or customized to absorb or dissipate a mechanical shock of a preselected magnitude.
In one embodiment, the invention provides an energy dissipation system or absorber for the dissipation of kinetic energy from a shock or impact force by the resistive force of one or more cutting blades cutting longitudinally into a sacrificial rigid-walled structure. In one possible construction, the sacrificial structure may be provided as curved or solid plate, or as a solid, or polygonally-shaped tube, but most preferably is formed as a deformable cylindrical tube. The applicant has appreciated that the resistive force of the cutter is constant relative to the wall thickness of the sacrificial walled member and that energy absorbed by the distance the cutter moves through the sacrificial member is not affected by the cutter speed.
In another simplified construction, the invention provides a single use emergency energy absorber system for use in conjunction with a blast or crash protection device for absorbing or dissipating shock kinetic energy. The device may include a sacrificial deformation member, which in the event of a blast force or collision, deforms to absorb the energy of the collision/blast.
In a preferred construction, the invention is able to limit the peak energy that is transmitted through the device by the use of a cylindrical sacrificial deformation tube, regardless of the speed of the crash or input shock force to a predetermined value. Further the device can be designed to vary the amount of non-dissipated energy is transmitted through the device, based on a predetermined energy curve value, by varying the length and/or wall thickness of the tube and/or the number of cutting blades used on the cutter to effect tube deformations.
In one aspect, the present invention resides in an assembly for dissipating kinetic energy, the assembly comprising: a generally rigid deformable member; a cutting/deflector assembly having at least one cutting blade member, said cutting assembly being displaceable relative to said deformable member to move said at least one blade member at least partially through said deformable member and wherein movement of the at least on butting blade through said deformable member cuts and/or deforms said deformable member to assist in dissipating said kinetic energy.
In another aspect, the present invention an energy dissipation system for dissipating kinetic shock energy including: an aluminum tubular member, said tubular member extending longitudinally along an axis from a first end portion to a second end portion, said tubular member having a longitudinal length selected at between 5 and 50 cm and a radial diameter of about 4 to 10 cm, at least one hardened cutter/deflector plate disposed adjacent to said first end portion, each cutter/deflector plate including three to five cutting blade members wherein on the occurrence of said shock energy, said cutting blades being movable longitudinally relative to said tubular member towards said second end portion, wherein longitudinal movement of the cutting blades through the tubular member cuts and/or deforms said tubular member to assist in absorbing said kinetic energy.
In yet another aspect, the present invention provides for a method and system for the control of load/displacement response of an energy absorption device for the best protection of important structures, apparatus, occupants or other properties.
Reference may now be had to the following detail description, taken together with the accompanying drawings, in which:
Reference is made to
In a most preferred construction, the deformation tube 12 is formed as a circular or cylindrical aluminum or aluminum alloy extrusion having a cylindrical sidewall 20 which extends axially along a longitudinal axis A1-A1 from a first tube end 22 to a second tube 24. The deformation tube 12 preferably has a diameter of between about 3 and 25 cm, and more preferably about 4 to 10 cm and longitudinal length which most preferably is selected at between about 5 to 50 cm, and more preferably about 25 to 35 cm. It is to be appreciated, however, that depending upon the application, deformation tubes with longer or shorter lengths and/or different radius may be adopted. In a simplified construction, the tube sidewall 20 has a radially thickness (t) selected at between about 2 and 15 mm, and more preferably between about 3 to 5 mm. The final thickness (t) of the sidewall 20 will, however, depend on the shock forces to be absorbed.
In the embodiment shown, the deformation tube 12 is mounted directly to the fixed support 6 by weldments 26, so as to be seated thereagainst. In a most preferred construction, the deformable tube 12 is oriented with its longitudinal axis A1-A1 generally normal to the orientation of the fixed support 6. While weldments 26 provide a simplified assembly, in alternate constructions, the deformation tube 12 could be secured in position relative to the support 6 by way of mounting collars, straps, or mechanical fasteners.
Where the dissipation assembly 10 is provided as a preassembly, the connecting cable 16 is used to maintain the relative positioning of the cutter/deflector plate 14 in the desired orientation with the tube end 24.
The cutter/deflector plate 14 is shown best in
It is to be appreciated that the hub 30 is dimensioned so as not to substantially interfere with the longitudinal movement of the cutter/deflector assembly, relative to the deformation tube 12. The hub 30 is provided with an axially disposed through bore 35 which is sized to receive the connecting cable 16 therein to facilitate position of the hub 30 and support ring 32 in concentric alignment with the tube axis A1-A1. The cutting blades 34a,34b,34c,34d extend radially from the bore 35 spanning between the hub 30 and the support ring 32.
Each of the cutting blades 34 is most preferably provided with a chamfered edge portion 38. The chamfered edge portion 38 of the blades 34a,34b,34c,34d are preferably flattened along their topmost edge to define a flattened cutting face 36. The cutting face 36 is positioned for concurrent engaging contact with the end 24 of the deformable tube sidewall 20 when the cutter/deflector assembly 14 is positioned in coaxially alignment therewith.
In use of the energy dissipation assembly 10, the cutter/deflector assembly 14 may be free floating relative to the moveable support 8, or may be directly secured thereto by weldments, mechanical fasteners or the like. Most preferably, the moveable support 8 is provided with either an aperture or pocket 44 (
On the occurrence of an impact or shock force on the moveable support 8 in an impact direction of arrow 100, the cutter/deflector assembly 14 is displaced together with the support 8 so as to move axially relative to the deformation tube 12, in a direction towards the fixed support 6. As the cutter/deflector assembly 14 moves, the cutting blades 34a,34b,34c,34d engage and cut-through and deform the sidewall 20. As the sacrificial tube 12 is cut, the cutting and pettaling deformation of the deformation tube sidewall 20 advantageously acts to dissipate and/or absorb the shock force energy, limiting the transmission of impact forces therealong to the fixed support 6.
Reference may be had to
As shown, the exterior floor pan 54 most preferably is provided with pockets 44 associated with the cutter/deflector plate 14 of each assembly 10a,10b. The pockets 44 are sized to at least partially receive therein part of the deformation tubes 12 as the associated tube sidewalls 20 are cut or petalled during the dissipation of impact forces.
The applicant has appreciated that providing an LAV 50 having the floor pan configuration shown advantageously may provide enhanced protection to the vehicle occupants against blast forces from improvised explosive devices (IEDs), land mines and the like.
Reference is made to
It is to be appreciated that while
In an alternate construction shown in
In the development of the energy dissipation assembly 10, deformation studies were undertaken using a test cylindrical tube extrusion.
Reference is made to
When the tube length (L) is greater than a critical length (Lcr), which identifies the transition between progressive folding and global bending, the extrusion tube 12x may tend to deform in the global bending mode. Global bending is generally less preferred as it provides a more inefficient mode of energy absorption, and therefor most preferably is to be avoided in crashworthiness applications. As such, the applicants have investigated the collapse modes of extrusion tubes 12x with a view to controlling the energy absorption characteristics is a big challenge.
Earlier investigated modes of deformation for circular aluminium tubes with D/t=4−63 and L/D=0.17−8.75 have been undertaken for both quasi-static and dynamic loading conditions.
It has been shown by the inventors'"'"' earlier investigation that the cutting deformation modes of AA6061-T6 and T4 extruded cylindrical tubes are stable and controllable under both dynamic and quasi-static loading conditions. A very minor initial high peak crush load can be configured under impact loading, thereby greatly reducing the initial high decelerations which are typically observed in the case of progressive folding or global bending deformation modes. The inventors have appreciated that this outcome may be significant when occupant safety is the greatest concern, as for example, in a vehicle crash or when an armoured vehicle is subjected to an explosive force. In this regard, dynamic and quasi-static axial cutting tests were conducted on cylindrical AA6061-T6 and T4 extrusions having varied wall thickness in the axial direction. Tests were carried out using a cutter and curved deflector to investigate the load/displacement responses and energy absorption characteristics. The focus of the experimental studies was on the controllability of the load/displacement responses of the extrusions with different tempers and loading conditions.
(i) Experimental Tests
Test Specimens and Material Properties
Experimental tests were undertaken using a cylindrical or circular cross-sectional AA6061-T6 and T4 temper cylindrical extrusions 12x having the geometry shown in
Variations of the wall thickness of the tube 12x along the axial cutting direction (x direction), as illustrated in
Material properties of AA6061-T6 and T4 extrusions were determined by averaging eight tensile tests. The obtained engineering stress-strain curves of a representative T6 and T4 temper tensile specimens are illustrated in
Cutters and Deflectors
A cutter or a combination of cutter and curved profile deflector was used to generate a cutting deformation within the extrusions. The cutter and the curved deflector are consistent with those used in previous research by the applicant. The cutter was machined from AISI 4140 round bar stock followed by a two-stage heat treatment process. The hardness of the cutters after heat treatment was determined to be no less than HRC 53 thus ensuring cutting deformation within the AA6061-T6 and T4 extrusions without deformation or failure of the cutter blades.
Two tests were completed for each temper extrusion of the same geometry as shown in
The identification system of the cutting tests follows the convention α_β_γ, where ‘α’ indicates the specimen temper condition; ‘β’ represents the geometric profile of the specimen; and ‘γ’ indicates the cutting test loading condition (D for dynamic and S for quasi-static).
Dynamic Cutting Test
Dynamic axial cutting of the T6 and T4 temper extrusions was performed using a custom built droptower system 140. A schematic diagram of the dynamic cutting test setup is shown in
A prototype cutter deflector assembly 10 and the deflector 158 were fastened together using a standard ¼ inch fastener and manually placed at the top end of a test deformable cylindrical specimen or extrusion 12x with careful alignment to ensure that the centre of the cutter was coaxially aligned with the axial centreline of the cylindrical tube 12x. Prior to inserting the test extrusion 12x into the support cup 156, a pre-cut of the extrusion was made at a nearby loading frame using a hydraulic jack by pushing the cutter/deflector assembly 114 into the extrusion approximately 1 mm. This process was completed to avoid shifting or mis-alignment between the centerlines of the extrusion 12x and the cutter/deflector assembly 114 as a result of a slight shaking of the droptower system during the impact process. A second piezoelectric impact load cell (referred to as the upper load cell 160) was fastened to the top end of the deflector to measure the impact force between the impact plate 144 and the deflector 158. This load cell 160 (model # 200C50) had a capacity of 222 kN.
The mass of the steel support cup 156 was 0.42 kg and both load cells 154,160 had a mass of approximately 0.43 kg. The mass of the cutter 114 and the curved deflector 158 was 0.71 kg and 2.18 kg, respectively.
After the pre-cut of the extrusion 12x was completed the specimen kinetic energy diffusion assembly, consisting of the deformable tubular extrusion 12x, cutter/deflector assembly 114, and the upper load cell 160, was freely placed into the support cup 154.
Displacement of the impact plate 144 during the cutting process was measured using a micro-epsilon non-contact laser displacement transducer (model # optoNCDT 1607-200) with a range of 200 mm. Analog voltage output from the laser displacement transducer was measured using a National Instruments NI9215™ (4 channel, 16 bit, analog input module) and incorporated into a National Instruments CompactDAQ™ data acquisition system. The NI9215 had a capacity of simultaneously measuring at 100 kHz/channel. Output from the piezoelectric load cells 154,160 was measured using a National Instruments NI9233™ module which incorporated integrated electronic piezoelectric (IEPE) signal conditioning. The NI9233 had a capacity of simultaneously measuring at 50 kHz/channel. A laptop computer equipped with National Instruments LabVIEWSignalExpress™ data acquisition software was used to record the measurements of the laser displacement transducer and the two load cells 154,160 through the NI9215 and NI9233 modules. A consistent data sampling rate of 50 kHz was used for all impact tests. All testing was completed at room temperature.
Prior to impact testing, the dropping entity was raised to the maximum height of approximately 1514±20 mm and a pneumatic accelerator was pressurized to approximately 649.5 kPa. The combination of the pneumatic pressure and dropping height resulted in an approximate impact velocity of 7.0 m/s. Just prior to impact cutting, the data acquisition system commenced sampling of the signals from the laser displacement transducer and the two piezoelectric load cells 154,160. Acquisition of the testing data was stopped following completion of the cutting test.
Quasi-Static Cutting Test
Quasi-static axial cutting tests were performed using a hydraulic Tinius Olsen™ compression testing machine. A schematic diagram of the quasi-static cutting test setup is shown in
The load cell used to determine the axial cutting force had a range of 150 kN. The platen displacement was measured using a linear voltage differential transformer (LVDT) with a range of 150 mm. The laptop computer and the voltage measurement module NI 9215 were used to record the measurements of the displacement and quasi-static cutting force.
A data sampling rate of 1.6 KHz was used for all quasi-static tests. The specimens 12x were cut at a platen speed of approximately 2.2 mm/s at room temperature. The cutting process was terminated after a platen displacement of approximately 145 mm.
Experimental Test Results and Comparisons
Dynamic and quasi-static cutting tests were carried out with a single cutter/deflector assembly 114. For all cutting tests, the cutter blades penetrated into each of the cylindrical extrusions and chips were formed. No crack propagation was observed for any test. To evaluate the energy absorption behaviour and load/displacement characteristics of different extrusions 12x with different configurations and loading conditions, the mean crush force (Pm), total energy absorption (TEA), and specific energy absorption (SEA) were calculated.
The dynamic cutting tests typically lasted 28-42 ms, depending on the configurations.
The recorded load from the upper load cell 160 for all tests was observed to be approximately 4 kN lower than that from the lower load cell 154 at the steady state cutting stage, which was due to the deceleration of the cutter/deflector assembly 114 and the dropping entity at the steady state cutting stage. This deceleration was estimated to be approximately 7.2 g.
Although two tests were completed for each configuration, fairly consistent load/displacement profiles were observed. Furthermore, the investigation focus was to investigate the controllability of load/displacement responses of the extrusions under dynamic and quasi-static axial cutting loads through the alteration of the tubular extrusion wall thickness. The calculated crashworthiness measures for each configuration tested dynamically and quasi-statically were averaged as presented in Tables 2 and 3, respectively.
Dynamic Cutting Test Results with a Cutter and Deflector Assembly
The load/displacement responses for T6 and T4 temper tubular extrusions 12x having geometries shown in
For both geometries of tubular extrusion 12x after the third steady state stage had been reached, the cutting force oscillated slightly due to localized material fracture that occurred on the petalled sidewalls after interacting with the deflector. Material fractures appeared with greater frequency and significance on the T6 temper extrusions 12x than that on the T4 temper extrusions 12x, an occurrence which was due to the greater hardening property of the T4 temper material. The final surge of the cutting 114 force in some cases was due to the shifting of the cutter, resulting contact between the extrusion sidewalls and the cutter outer rim or inner hub.
At the second steady state cutting stage, the steady state cutting force was observed to be approximately 6.5 kN and 5.5 kN for T6 and T4 temper extrusions 12x with wall thickness of 0.25t, respectively. At the third steady state cutting stage, the steady state cutting force was observed to be approximately 13.5 kN and 12.5 kN for T6 and T4 temper extrusions 12x with wall thickness of 0.5t, respectively. The third steady state cutting force was observed to be slightly more than double that of the second steady state cutting force for same temper extrusions 12x, while the wall thickness was exactly twice as large at the third steady state cutting stage compared to the second steady state cutting stage. This difference is mostly due to the occurrence of localized material fractures at the third steady state cutting stage.
The averaged mean cutting forces for the T6 temper tubular extrusions 12x having the geometries shown in
Quasi-Static Cutting Test Results with a Cutter and Deflector Assembly
Material fractures were also observed in some tests, most typically on the T6 temper extrusions 12x that resulted in the fluctuation of the load/displacement curves. The material fractures observed here were much less extensive compared to that observed in the dynamic testing. The cutting load was observed to increase and reached its first steady state stage after an approximately 8 mm displacement. With the progress of the cutting process, the cutting load increased when the petalled tube walls made contact with the deflector 158 at approximately 30 mm displacement. Then, with the outward flaring of the petalled tube sidewalls, the cutting load dropped to some extent and reached the second steady state cutting stage after a displacement of approximately 35-42 mm. After that, for extrusions 12x having the geometry shown in
At the second steady state cutting stage, the steady state cutting force was observed to be approximately 7 kN and 6 kN for T6 and T4 temper extrusions 12x with wall thickness of 0.251, respectively. At the third steady state cutting stage, the steady state cutting force was observed to be approximately 16.5 kN and 13 kN for T6 and T4 temper extrusions 12x with wall thickness of 0.5t, respectively. Similar to the dynamic loading condition, the third steady state cutting force was observed to be slightly more than twice as large as the second steady state cutting force for same temper extrusions 12x while the wall thickness was exactly twice as large at the third steady state cutting stage compared to the second steady state cutting stage.
Table 3 shows that the averaged Pm for both T6 and T4 temper extrusions 12x having the geometry of
Comparisons Between Dynamic and Quasi-Static Cutting Test Results
Representative load/displacement profile comparisons between dynamic and quasi-static cutting tests for T6 and T4 temper extrusions 12x having the geometries of
Dynamic cutting forces were generally consistent with the observed quasi-static loads during the majority of the displacement, especially for the T4 temper extrusion 12x. At the third steady state cutting stage, the dynamic cutting force fluctuated significantly for the T6 temper extrusion due to the occurrence of material fracture, generally away from the cutting zone. Force oscillation for the T4 temper extrusions 12x at this stage was observed due to minor material fracture occurring under both loading conditions.
The ratio of dynamic to quasi-static values of Pm was observed to be 0.92 and 1.09 for extrusions 12x with geometries as shown in
For both tempered extrusions under dynamic and quasi-static loading conditions, the cutting load responses generally agreed with the variation of the extrusion wall thickness. The cutting forces were slightly more than doubled when the wall thickness was doubled from 0.25t to 0.5t under both loading conditions. Moreover, the implementation of the deflector 158 seemed to have a minor influence on the relation between the cutting force and the extrusion 12x instantaneous wall thickness (there was a slight drop of the cutting force due to the interaction between the petalled extrusion side walls and the deflector).
Cutting Test Results without a Deflector
Five geometries of extrusions with variation in wall thicknesses as shown in
Control of Load/Displacement and Energy Absorption
As described, control of the load/displacement of AA6061-T6 and T4 circular extrusions 12x can be accomplished through the variation of the sidewall thickness of the tubular extrusion 12x in the axial direction. Although the total energy absorption of an extrusion 12x experiencing a single cutting deformation mode is usually not as efficient as the same extrusion undergoing a progressive folding deformation mode, it is much more efficient than a global bending deformation mode. When a dual stage cutting mode is applied, the total energy absorption of an extrusion surpasses that of a progressive folding mode. Knowing the relationship between the mean cutting force and the extrusion wall thickness for the cutting deformation mode, and the relationship between the peak crush force and the extrusion wall thickness for the progressive folding or global bending mode, an adaptive energy absorption system axial cutting of an extrusion can be designed through the control of the desired load/displacement profiles under different axial loading conditions. Material fractures will slightly reduce the efficiency of the adaptive energy absorption system. Test examples show that the T4 temper extrusion 12x had minor material fracture but more work hardening. Thus, if desired load/displacement responses of the tubular extrusion 12x are similar under both dynamic and quasi-static loading conditions, the use of T4 material temper in the formation of the deformable tubular extrusion 12x is appropriate. However, the mean cutting force may increase slightly due to the work hardening.
The use of T6 temper material in the formation of the deformable tubular extrusion 12x is a good candidate for desired constant mean cutting force response under quasi-static loading. When dynamic loading is applied to this material, the mean cutting force will be reduced due to significant material fracture occurring on the petalled sidewalls, which will further reduce the energy absorption efficiency of the system.
Application Axial cutting tests of circular AA6061-T6 and T4 tubular extrusions 12x under both dynamic and quasi-static loading conditions were completed using the cutter/deflector assembly 114 or cutter only. Variations of sidewall thickness were implemented on the tubular extrusions 12x to investigate the capability of controlling load/displacement responses and energy absorption characteristics of both T6 and T4 temper specimens under the cutting deformation modes.
Based upon experimental observations and testing results, the applicant has appreciated that a preferred energy dissipation assembly 10 may be provided having regard to one or more of the following:
- 1. The cutting deformation modes under both dynamic and quasi-static loading conditions are stable and controllable.
- 2. Five energy dissipation mechanisms were observed for tubular extrusions under both dynamic and quasi-static cutting deformation modes, namely, cutting deformation in the vicinity of the cutter blade tip, circumferential membrane stretching of the tubular extrusion, outward bending of petalled tubular extrusion sidewalls, far-field sidewall material fracture, and friction between the cutter blade and the extrusion sidewall.
- 3. The ratio of dynamic to quasi-static values of averaged mean cutting force was observed to be 0.92 and 1.09 for tubular extrusions subjected to single stage cutting deformation.
- 4. The load/displacement responses of the tubular extrusions generally varied with the geometric change of the extrusions under both dynamic and quasi-static loadings. The observed linear relationship between the mean cutting force and the extrusion wall thickness under quasi-static loading can be used to design a desired energy absorption response. With the presence of the deflector, the mean cutting force was slightly reduced and resulted in slightly lower energy absorption. While both T6 and T4 materials are good candidates under quasi-static loading, the T4 material might be a better choice under dynamic loading because of minor or no material fracture occurrence on the petalled tube side walls. Use of the T6 temper under dynamic cutting test will result in the mean cutting force being slightly reduced with force oscillation due to material fractures.
- 5. A system can be configured as an adaptive energy absorption system with desired load/displacement profiles for extrusions having variable wall thickness.
Features for Adaptive Energy Dissipation Devices in Accordance with the Present Invention Include:
- 1. Experimental status were conducted using round aluminum tubes, however the deformation member may be any configuration or form of structure that has walled cross section, and which is able to be load bearing along its length.
- 2. The deformation member may be designed to any length provided that the active load applied by the blade(s) does not cause the member to bend along its length beyond its elastic buckling limit.
- 3. The size of the cross section may be scaled to any size based on the load/displacement requirement and energy that the system is to absorb.
- 4. The material used for the tubular deformation extrusions 12x member was aluminum, however the deformation member may be any ductile deformable material of consistent and predictable mechanical properties including, without restriction, other metals such as zinc, as well as plastics, composites and gels.
- 5. The sacrificial deformation member may be formed as a combination and/or a sequence of materials.
- 6. The wall stalk (thickness) of the deformation tube may be uniform or may be designed to vary along its length or within the cross section to meet the energy dissipation and force/displacement requirements. The cross sectional load bearing capabilities of the deformation member should exceed the maximum load placed on it by the blade(s) above that section.
- 7. The design of the deformation member should have a load bearing capacity that is greater than the maximum load applied by the blades in the system.
- 8. In extrusion testing the cutting blades were constructed of heat treated SAE 4140 steel, however blades of other hardened materials and having a higher ultimate strength than the material used in the deformation member so as to not cause deformation of the blade(s). Further, the blade material should not be brittle in nature. Blade material may be an alloyed material; a combination of materials; and/or coated material.
- 9. The number of blades 34 in the assembly 10 can be altered for the force/displacement and energy dissipation requirements.
- 10. Blades 34 may be stacked (in series) with a following blade offset to the first entry blade creating a new cut(s) in the cross section of the deformation member.
- 11. The blade 34 preferably designed to create high resistance force at it cuts through the deformation member. This may be achieved in the cross section of the blade 34 where the entry face of the blade 34 is flat and at an angle of approximately 90° to the direction of blade travel creating high compressive force at in front of this area of the blade 34. As the blade 34 enters the material of the deforming member (i.e. tube 12) it exceeds the elastic limit of the deformation member material and the material at either side of the flat face shears. The initiation of the shear is assisted by the hard angle between the flat face and the angled walls back from the face. This configuration also minimizes advanced crack propagation ahead of the cutting face of the blade 34. As the blade 34 moves further into the material of the deformation tube 12 or member the wedge angle on both sides of the blade push on the side wall material of the cut creating additional friction as it deforms the deformation member in this area while serving to increase the curve of the cut allowing the blade to continue through the material.
- 12. The resistance force of the blade 34 through the deformation tube 12 or compressive member increases with the width of the flat front face and the overall width of the blade 34.
- 13. The energy dissipation of the blade 34 travelling through the deformation tube 12 or member is only related to distance travelled irrespective of the rate of travel of the blade 12 through the material if the deforming materials are selected appropriately.
- 14. Algorithms and related software that is able to predict system load resistance given deformation material characteristics; wall stalk (thickness); blade design; and number of blades or in the case of stacked blades the number in each stack and the vertical distance between front faces of blades.
- 15. Algorithms and software that given the load force resistance required is able to determine material characteristics required for the deformation member along with wall stalk and the corresponding blade design and number required.
- 16. Algorithms and software that is able to predict the force curve with variable wall stalk in the deformation tube 12 or member and also design a deformation member with variable wall stalk to match a required force or load curve.
- 17. The energy absorption of the energy dissipation apparatus 10 is not affected by temperature changes within the range of normal inhabitable temperature extremes.
- 18. The force/displacement response is highly reproducible and for selected materials for a given application (or operating range) is independent of the rate of deformation.
- 19. The energy dissipation apparatus 10 can be designed to exhibit variable force/displacement response during deformation.
- 20. Mechanical adjustments may be made to change/adjust the force response of the device
- 21. The energy dissipation apparatus 10 can be designed with a constant force/displacement relationship selected for ideal energy dissipation in a preselected application. The magnitude of the constant force can be designed into the device.
- 22. Under high speed impact loading conditions, the energy dissipation apparatus 10 may act as a mechanical low pass filter. High frequency, large magnitude, impact forces (at the impact site at the cutter) are attenuated by the deformation process and not passed through the system to a supported end of the apparatus 10.
As used herein the following symbols and abbreviations have the following meanings