Method for estimating a quantity of a state of a battery

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First Claim
1. A battery state detecting method for estimating at least a quantity of a state of a battery, at least a state of charge (SOC) and a state of health (SOH), wherein the method comprises the steps of:
 generating reference data associated with a reference relaxation function F^{ref}(t), wherein the reference relaxation function F^{ref}(t) approximates a variation of voltage ΔV(t) obtained by measuring values of an open circuit voltage (OCV) of the battery in a standard state of the battery during a predetermined cycle, and wherein the predetermined cycle is associated with a period from a time of completion of discharge or charge of the battery to a time when a measured value of the OCV substantially becomes constant;
forming a relaxation function F^{n}(t) that approximates the variation voltage ΔV(t) based on a sum of at least a first relaxation function for a first reaction speed of the battery associated with an ion reaction and a second relaxation function for a second reaction speed of the battery associated with an electrolytic reaction; and
estimating the quantity of the state of the battery after the completion of the charge or the discharge based on the relaxation function F^{n }(t) and the reference data associated with the reference relaxation function F^{ref}(t), wherein the first relaxation function and the second relaxation function are optimized by dividing the variation voltage ΔV(t), which is approximated from the measured values of the OCV, into components corresponding to at least the first reaction speed and the second reaction speed, and SOC^{ref }and SOHi^{ref }are the SOC and an ith SOH per reaction speed in the standard state of the battery, respectively, SOC^{n }and SOHi^{n }are the SOC and a different ith SOH per reaction speed after the completion of an nth charge or discharge, respectively, g(T) is a function associated with dependency on temperature T, fi^{n }(t) is an ith relaxation function per reaction speed fi(t) included in the relaxation function F^{n}(t), and fi^{ref}(t) is an ith reference relaxation function per reaction speed fi(t) included in the reference relaxation function F^{ref}(t), and wherein the relaxation function per reaction speed fi^{n }(t) after the completion of the nth charge or discharge is expressed as;
fi^{n}(t)=f^{ref}(t)*(SOC^{n}/SOC^{ref})*(SOHi^{n}/SOHi^{ref})*g(T).
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Abstract
There is provided a battery state detecting method that detects states by evaluating depletion caused by reaction processes whose speeds are different. Voltage Vmes, current Imes and temperature Tmes of a battery are measured and inputted in Step S1 and it is judged whether or not an absolute value of the measured current Imes is smaller than a current threshold value Ithre in Step S2. OCV20 hr is estimated from SOCn1 and SOHn1 after the previous discharge/charge based on a stable OCV estimating equation in Step S4 and a difference between the voltage measured value Vmes and the OCV20 hr is calculated and stored in Step S5. A relaxation function Fn(t) is updated corresponding to time t in processes in Steps S6 through S19. SOHn is calculated by using the updated Fn (t) in Step S17 and SOCn is calculated in Step S19.
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9 Claims
 1. A battery state detecting method for estimating at least a quantity of a state of a battery, at least a state of charge (SOC) and a state of health (SOH), wherein the method comprises the steps of:
 generating reference data associated with a reference relaxation function F^{ref}(t), wherein the reference relaxation function F^{ref}(t) approximates a variation of voltage ΔV(t) obtained by measuring values of an open circuit voltage (OCV) of the battery in a standard state of the battery during a predetermined cycle, and wherein the predetermined cycle is associated with a period from a time of completion of discharge or charge of the battery to a time when a measured value of the OCV substantially becomes constant;
forming a relaxation function F^{n}(t) that approximates the variation voltage ΔV(t) based on a sum of at least a first relaxation function for a first reaction speed of the battery associated with an ion reaction and a second relaxation function for a second reaction speed of the battery associated with an electrolytic reaction; and
estimating the quantity of the state of the battery after the completion of the charge or the discharge based on the relaxation function F^{n }(t) and the reference data associated with the reference relaxation function F^{ref}(t), wherein the first relaxation function and the second relaxation function are optimized by dividing the variation voltage ΔV(t), which is approximated from the measured values of the OCV, into components corresponding to at least the first reaction speed and the second reaction speed, and SOC^{ref }and SOHi^{ref }are the SOC and an ith SOH per reaction speed in the standard state of the battery, respectively, SOC^{n }and SOHi^{n }are the SOC and a different ith SOH per reaction speed after the completion of an nth charge or discharge, respectively, g(T) is a function associated with dependency on temperature T, fi^{n }(t) is an ith relaxation function per reaction speed fi(t) included in the relaxation function F^{n}(t), and fi^{ref}(t) is an ith reference relaxation function per reaction speed fi(t) included in the reference relaxation function F^{ref}(t), and wherein the relaxation function per reaction speed fi^{n }(t) after the completion of the nth charge or discharge is expressed as;
fi^{n}(t)=f^{ref}(t)*(SOC^{n}/SOC^{ref})*(SOHi^{n}/SOHi^{ref})*g(T).  View Dependent Claims (2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9)
 generating reference data associated with a reference relaxation function F^{ref}(t), wherein the reference relaxation function F^{ref}(t) approximates a variation of voltage ΔV(t) obtained by measuring values of an open circuit voltage (OCV) of the battery in a standard state of the battery during a predetermined cycle, and wherein the predetermined cycle is associated with a period from a time of completion of discharge or charge of the battery to a time when a measured value of the OCV substantially becomes constant;
1 Specification
The application claims priority from a Japanese patent application serial No. 2008103925, filed on Apr. 11, 2008, the entire content of which is incorporated herein by reference.
The present invention relates to a battery residual capacity detecting method and a battery residual capacity detecting apparatus.
Since a vehicle has come to employ many electric devices for travelling lately, an importance of an invehicle power source is increasing more and more. Needs on the invehicle power source have been limited to perform such functions of starting an engine, operating an airconditioner and lighting lamps in the past 20 to 30 years. In contrary to that, biwiring has spread and even parts of a safety system typified by an electronic parking brake (EPB) have come to be controlled by electricity. Still more, as a measure for improving gas mileage in an effort of saving energy and controlling emission of CO2, it is demanded to provide an idling stop function in stopping for a short period of time at an intersection and the like and to assure its restarting capability. Thus, a variety of functions is demanded on the power source and the battery and corresponding to that, it is desired to improve battery state detecting accuracy.
In such a circumstance, it is an important technology to accurately detect a residual capacity (SOC: state of charge) of the battery in particular for safe and comfortable driving of the vehicle and for realizing an automobile society In which an environment is taken into account, because it is linked with stable operations of the electric devices such as the EPB.
Under a battery stable condition, open circuit voltage (OCV) and the SOC thereof have a relationship of correspondence of onetoone in general (a reference numeral 81 in
As described above, the influence of the SOH is not reflected in finding the SOC from the OCV by using the state detecting method just by utilizing the latest discharge/charge history. Then, there is a problem that accuracy of state detection drops if the SOC is found from the OVC without reflecting the battery depletion condition.
Patent Document 1 (Japanese Patent Application Laidopen No. Hei.2005106615 gazette) is known as one exemplary prior art. The Document 1 uses transient response corresponding to discharge/charge history to compensate the OCV as a method for detecting the OCV and SOC of a secondary battery. The Document 1 also refers to the transient response changes corresponding to discharge/charge time and to a resistant component, a polarization component corresponding to internal reaction of the battery and diffusion speed of electrolytic solution.
According to the detection method described in Patent Document 1, it is possible to find depletion corresponding to a fast reaction speed within the battery by measuring a shortperiod transient response by discharging and charging for a short period of time. However it is unable to measure a longterm transient response, so that it is unable to detect depletion caused by slow reaction speed. Although it is necessary to discharge and charge for a long period of time to measure the longterm transient response, the SOC changes as the discharge/charge time becomes longer and hence the shortterm transient response thereafter also changes. Thus, it is unable to detect the depletion corresponding to the different reaction speeds within the battery and to detect the states of the battery such as the residual capacity by the detecting method described in Patent Document 1.
Not only the ion generating and annihilating reactions (fast reaction speed) caused in the vicinity of the polar plate but also ion diffusion speed within the electrolytic solution (slow reaction speed) affects in a series of reaction processes called an electricalchemical reaction within the battery. The reaction processes whose speeds are different significantly affect the accuracy of the state detection as a factor of error in such reaction system.
Accordingly, in order to solve those problems, the present invention aims at providing a battery state detecting method for detecting states of a battery by evaluating depletion caused by reaction processes whose speed is different.
According to a first aspect of a battery state detecting method of the invention, the battery state detecting method comprises steps of preparing a relaxation function F(t) for calculating a variation of open circuit voltage (OCV) of the battery after an elapsed time t since the battery has stopped to discharge/charge as a function of predetermined quantity of state of the battery in advance, measuring the OCV variation from OCV during when the battery is stable, optimizing the relaxation function F(t) by the measured OCV variation, estimating the quantity of state from the optimized relaxation function F(t) and detecting the state of the battery based on the estimated quantity of state.
According to another aspect of the battery state detecting method of the invention, the relaxation function F(t) is prepared in advance further as a function of temperature of the battery and the temperature of the battery is measured to use in the relaxation function F(t)
According to a still other aspect of the battery state detecting method of the invention, a stable OCV estimating equation for calculating the OCV during the stable time is prepared in advance and the OCV during the stable time is calculated from the stable OCV estimating equation and a difference from the open circuit voltage measured value of the battery is defined as the OCV variation.
According to a still other aspect of the battery state detecting method of the invention, the OCV during the stable time is OCV when 20 hours has elapsed since the battery has stopped to discharge/charge.
According to a different aspect of the battery state detecting method of the invention, the quantity of state is a residual capacity (SOC) and a level of depletion (SOH) of the battery.
According to a still different aspect of the battery state detecting method of the invention, the relaxation function F(t) is represented by a sum of two or more (m) relaxation functions per reaction speed fi (t) (i=1 through m) prepared in advance corresponding to reaction speeds within the battery and the relaxation function per reaction speed fi (t) (i=1 through m) is optimized by dividing the measured value of the OCV variation into components corresponding to the reaction speeds.
According to another aspect of the battery state detecting method of the invention, the quantity of state is calculated by estimating a quantity of state per reaction speed from the relaxation function per reaction speed fi (t) and by totaling them.
According to another aspect of the battery state detecting method of the invention, the relaxation function per reaction speed fin (t) after the end of the nth discharge/charge is expressed as: fi^{n}(t)fi^{ref}(t)*{SOC^{n}/SOC^{ref}}*{SOHi^{n}/SOHi^{ref}}*g(T) (Eq. 1) where the relaxation function per reaction speed fi (t) in the standard state, SOC and SOH per reaction speed are denoted respectively as fi ref (T), SOC^{ref }and SOHi^{ref }and dependency on the temperature T as G (T) (here, SOHi n is SOH per reaction speed).
According to another aspect of the battery state detecting method of the invention, the battery state detecting method comprises steps of at least measuring voltage and current of the battery, calculating an OCV variation corresponding to an elapsed time since said battery has stopped to discharge/charge from the voltage measured value when it is judged that the battery has stopped to discharge/charge from the current or a predetermined discharge/charge stopping signal, optimizing the relaxation function per react ion speed fi (t) corresponding to the reaction speed whose time constant is shorter than the elapsed time by using the OCV variation and estimating the quantity of state by using immediately preceding one for the relaxation function per reaction speed fi(t) corresponding to the reaction speed which is longer than the time constant together with the optimized relaxation function per reaction speed fi(t).
According to another aspect of the battery state detecting method of the invention, the battery is judged to be stopping to discharge/charge when a current value is what permits to judge a transient change within the battery caused by the discharge/charge to be substantially the same with a transient change in a case of open circuit.
According to another aspect of the battery state detecting method of the invention, the battery is judged to be abnormal when the SOC is less than a first threshold value set in advance or when the SOH is more than a second threshold value.
The invention thus provides the battery state detecting method for detecting the state by evaluating the depletion caused by the reaction processes whose speeds are different, so that it becomes possible to detect the state accurately.
Nonlimiting and nonexhaustive embodiments of the subject disclosure are described with reference to the following figures, wherein like reference numerals refer to like parts throughout the various views unless otherwise specified.
 01: BATTERY
 02: STATE DETECTING APPARATUS
 03: INVEHICLE INFORMATION CONTROLLER
 20: TEMPERATURE MEASURING MEANS
 21: VOLTAGE MEASURING MEANS
 22: CURRENT MEASURING MEANS
 23: MEMORY AREA (RAM)
 24: STATIONARY MEMORY AREA (ROM)
 25: PROCESSOR
 26: JUDGMENT RESULT OUTPUTTING MEANS
 27: INVEHICLE STATE INPUTTING MEANS
 28: TIMER
 50: TRUE VALUE OF ΔV
 51, 52, 53, 54: RELAXATION FUNCTION PER REACTION SPEED
 55: RELAXATION FUNCTION
 61, 62, 63: RELAXATION FUNCTION PER REACTION SPEED
 64, 65: RATIO OF RELAXATION FUNCTION PER REACTION SPEED
 70: STABLE OCV ESTIMATING EQUATION
 81: SOC
 82, 83, 84, 85: OCV
A battery state detecting method of a preferred embodiment of the invention will be explained in detail with reference to the drawings. It is noted that each component having the same function will be denoted by the same reference numeral to simplify the drawings and their explanation.
The battery state detecting method of the invention evaluates SOH (state of health) which is an index of depletion level of the battery corresponding to reaction speed of the battery and evaluates SOC by using the SOH. Because the SOC has the relationship of onetoone with the open circuit voltage (OCV) as shown in
Still more, because the OCV after discharge/charge changes by the SOH as shown in
Then, in order to be able to accurately evaluate the SOC by evaluating the influence of the slow reaction speed even when an elapsed time after discharge/charge is short f the battery state detecting method of the invention evaluates a variation of the SOH per reaction speed and compensates the OCV by using this SOH.
One embodiment of the battery state detecting method of the invention will be explained below.
At first, the OCV during the stable time after fully elapsing a time since discharge/charge will be expressed as OCVs and the relationship of onetoone of the SOC and the OCVs shown in
Here, lim described above indicates that the elapsed time t is infinitized with respect to a battery voltage (OCV) measured value V_{mes}(t) after the elapse of time t from the discharge/charge. The OCVs in the above equation also shows that it may be changed by the SOC, SOH and temperature T of the battery. While V_{mes}(t) is also changed by the SOC, SOH and T of the battery during measurement, the equation (2) is expressed only by the time t when it is measured.
In a case of a liquidtype lead battery, the temporal change of Vmes (t) per hour when 20 hours has elapsed becomes as fully small as 10 mV and an error with respect to magnitude of the OCV (about 12.9V) becomes 0.1% or less. Then, V_{mes }(t) when 20 hours has elapsed since the battery has stopped to discharge/charge is expressed as OCV_{20 hr }in the following equation and it is used for the OCVs:OCV_{20 hr}=V_{mes}(t=20 hr)OCVs(SOC,SOH,T)=OCV_{20 hr} (Eq. 3)
It is noted that the elapsed time from the stop of the discharge/charge may be a value other than 20 hours depending on types of the battery.
When a variation of the voltage measured value V_{mes }(t) after stopping the discharge/charge from the stable OCV, i.e., an OCV variation, is expressed as ΔV(t), it can be expressed as follows:ΔV(t)=Vmes(t)−OCV20 hr (Eq. 4)
This change of voltage ΔV(t) has been handled while including all transient changes by using a term “polarization” in the conventional definition of electricalchemistry. However, because ΔV(t) is a change in voltage caused by a relaxation process until approaching to the stable OCV, it is affected by the following factors of change in voltage. The factors of the change in voltage include a condition of the polar plate, ion concentration in the vicinity of the polar plate, their solidphase reaction and solidliquid reaction and moves of ions with deposition, convection and diffusion of the electrolytic solution. ΔV(t) may be considered to be caused by integrating the relaxation processes whose reaction speeds are different.
ΔV(t) may be represented by using a function F(t) composed of m polynomial expressions corresponding to the difference of the reaction speeds.ΔV(t)=F(t)=f1(t)+f2(t)+ . . . fm(t)=Σfi(t) (Eq.5)
In the above F(t) (relaxation function), each term fi (t) (relaxation function per reaction speed) represents a contribution to the change in voltage in each relaxation process intrinsic to the battery and each depends on the state of health SOH, the state of charge (ion concentration) SOC and the temperature T of the battery.
The state detecting system has reference data therein in advance before it is connected with the battery. Initial states corresponding to the battery to be connected will be represented as SOC^{O}=SOC^{ref }(0), SOHi 0=SOHi^{ref }(0) and OCV_{20 hr}^{0}=OCV_{20 hr}^{ref }(O).
Each reference data is used as the initial value in the initial state in which the battery is connected with the state detecting system as n=Oth measurement.
F(t) and each term f_{i}(t) of the equation (5) representing the OCV variation ^{˜}V(t) after the end of nth discharge/charge after connecting the battery with the state detecting system and setting the initial values will be represented as F^{n}(t) and fi^{n }(t), respectively. At this time, fi^{n }(t) may be calculated by the following equation from the SOC and SOH corresponding to the ith reaction speed (represented as SOC^{n }and SOHi^{n}, respectively):fi^{n}(t)=fi^{ref}(t)*{SOC^{n}/SOC^{ref}}*{SOHi^{n}/SOHi^{ref}}*g(T) (Eq. 6)
Here, fi^{ref }(t), SOC^{ref}, and SOHi^{ref }are values in the initial state set in advance (unused state for example) and g(T) is a function indicating temperature dependency.
When the temperature T and the SOC are constant regardless of the time in the equation (6), the SOHi^{n }can be calculated from the following equation:SOHi^{n}={fi^{n}(t)/fi^{ref}(t)*SOHi^{ref} (Eq. 7)
Accordingly, it is possible to obtain SOHi^{n }by using fi^{n }(t) obtained from the equation (6).
From the equation (7), the overall SOH^{n }to which SOHi^{n }caused by the transient responses whose reaction speeds are different are totaled is composed of respective components as follows:SOH^{n}=(SOH1^{n},SOH2^{n}, . . . ,SOHm^{n}) (Eq. 8)
For instance, when coefficients of m SOHs are A through M, SOHD may be expressed as follows:SOH^{n}=A*SOH1^{n}+B*SOH2^{n}+ . . . +M*SOHm^{n}=A*f_{1}^{n}(t)/f_{1}^{ref}(t)}SOH_{1}^{ref}+B*{f_{2}n(t)/f_{2}^{ref}(t)}SOH_{2}^{ref}+M*(t)/{f_{m}^{n}(t)/f_{m}^{ref}(t)}SOH_{m}^{ref} (Eq. 8′)
However, the equation (8′) is one example in which the relationship of SOH_{1 }through SOH_{m }shown in the equation (8) is represented in a form of sum. The total of SOHin is not limited to the form of the equation (8′) in which SOH_{1 }through SOHm are respectively coupled in that form. It becomes possible to detect the depletion state of the battery by using this SOH_{n}.
However, when the elapsed time from the end of the nth discharge/charge is short, it is unable to obtain fi^{n }(t) corresponding to the slow reaction speed and to update the SOC^{n }and SOH_{i}^{n}. Then, the equation (6) is used approximately as follows by using the values SOC^{n1 }and SOH_{i}^{n1 }at the end of the discharge/charge of the previous time instead of the SOC^{n }and SOH_{i}^{n }until when f_{i}^{n }(t), SOC^{n }and SOH_{i}^{n }corresponding to the slow reaction speed can be calculated.fi^{n}(t)=fi^{ref}(t)*{SOC^{n1}/SOC i^{ref}}*{SOH i^{n1}/SOH i^{ref}}*g(T) (Eq. 6′)
Still more, in the state detecting system to which the equation (6′) is applicable, the measurement of the relaxation speed of F^{n }(t) can be carried out under the condition in which the discharge/charge of the battery is stopped. It is possible to use SOC^{n1 }for calculation of the relaxation function of F^{n }(t) when operations are always carried out only with discharge/charge which is less than a threshold value. However, when invehicle operation conditions are assumed, discharge/charge is carried out along with an operation of the vehicle in measuring nth times since the end of the n−1th times and it becomes necessary to compensate the SOC n−1 by ΔSOC (discharge/charge integrated quantity) as a change of the amount of charge during the operation of the vehicle. In such a case, the following equation (6″) is used by setting as follows:SOC^{(n1)}′=SOC^{n1}+ΔSOC fi^{n}(t)=fi^{ref}(t)*{SOC^{(n1)}′/SOC^{ref}}*{SOH i^{n1}/SOHi^{ref}}*g(T) (Eq. 6″)
fi^{n }(t) is updated by the following equation by using the SOHin calculated by the equation (7) to calculate SOCi^{n}.fi^{n}(t)=f^{ref}(t)*{SOC i^{n1}/SOC^{ref}}*{SOHi^{n}/SOHi^{ref}}*g(T) (Eq. 6′″)
It is possible to calculate OCV20 hr by the following equation from the equations (4) and (6′″):OCV_{20 hr}=V_{mes}(t)−Σ[f^{ref}(t)*{SOC^{n1}/SOC^{ref}}*{SOHi^{n1}/SOHi^{ref}}]*g(T) (Eq. 9)
It is possible to calculate the SOC_{n }by substituting this OCV_{20 hr }in the equation (2) and to use to detect the state of the soc.
As described above, it becomes possible to calculate the m relaxation functions per reaction speed fi^{n }(t) (i=1 through m) after the nth discharge/charge based on the m reference values fi^{ref }(t) (i=1 through m) corresponding to m kinds of reaction speeds, the m reference depletion parameters SOHi^{ref }(i=1 through m) and the m reference residual capacity parameters SOC^{ref }(i=1 through m). Thereby, it becomes possible to obtain the OCV, SOC and SOH reflecting the level of depletion corresponding to the different reaction speeds and to detect the state accurately.
The battery state detecting method of the present embodiment will be explained below with reference to
One exemplary procedure of the state detecting method of the battery (01) of the invention will be explained concretely by exemplifying a case of a battery mounted in a vehicle. As shown in a diagram showing the whole system of
According to the invention, the calculation of the quantity of state is executed when it is judged that the battery (01) has stopped to discharge/charge.
When the state detector (02) is connected with the battery (01) is referred to as the initial state, i.e., n=0 (times), and a number of times of judgment when the state is judged that the discharge/charge is stopped by the threshold value judgment means in
According to the battery state detecting method of the present embodiment, the SOC, SOH and OCV20 hr of the battery corresponding to the initial battery state are stored in the stationary memory area (24) in advance by setting the SOC calculation equation of (2) as SOC^{o}=SOC^{ref}(0), SOHi^{o}=SOH^{ref}(O) and OCV_{20 hr}^{o}=OCV_{20 hr}^{ref}(O).
In
Then, V_{mes}(t)−OCV_{20 hr}_{—}temp is stored as ΔV(t)_temp (see the equation (4), the acquisition of V_{mes}(t))
H(SOC_j, SOH_k, T_{—}1)OCV_{20 hr}^{ref }(h) (h, j, k, l are natural numbers) OCV_{20 hr}^{ref }(h) at the present is determined by using this equation. This is used to determine OCV_{20 hr}^{ref}(h) at present. This is one configuration of stable OCV estimating equations. This is used as the nth time one (selection of OCV_{20 hr}_{—}temp): OCV_{20 hr}_{—}temp=OCV_{20 hr}^{ref}(n)
Then, fitting calculation is carried out so as to express ΔV(t) temp calculated in
Although various calculation methods utilizing regression calculation such as a leastsquares method are conceivable as for the fitting method, an error becomes large when the regression calculation is carried out by simply using a sum of exponential functions in this method for calculating ΔV(t) temp because it turns out as ΔV(20 hr) temp=O.
Then, it is desirable to deduct an inclination of a tangent around ΔV 20 hr) temp=0, to introduce a function by which ΔV(20 hr) temp>0 always holds and to carry out fitting to the difference by the sum of the exponential functions.
For simplification, the equation (5) is assumed to be composed of the following four terms hereinafter:F(t)=ffast(t)+fslow(t)={ffast1(t)+ffast2(t)}+{fslow1(t)+fslow2(t)} (Eq. 10)
It becomes easy to prepare the optimized function with respect to ΔV(t)_temp by expressing the equation (10) as follows for example as one embodiment:
Function 1 of fast relaxation speed:Ffast1(t)=A*exp(−B*t^C) (101)
Function 2 of fast relaxation speed:Ffast2(t)=D*exp(−E*t^F) (102)
Function 1 of slow relaxation speed:Fslow1(0=G*exp(−H*t^I) (103)
Function 2 of slow relaxation speed:Fslow2(t)=−a/72000*t+b (104)
However, it is possible to use complicated functions or simplified functions depending on conditions such as computing speed of the sensors, an amount of memory and accuracy required to the sensors.
As for the determination method of the reference time, it is possible to use a timer within the sensor, to use time of invehicle information, typified by car navigation, obtained from the invehicle information inputting means or to use their combination.
In the same manner, when the time t is judged to be longer than the first reference time and shorter than a second reference time (1,000 seconds here), F^{n }(t) is calculated by the following equation based on the data after finishing the previous discharge/charge F n−1 (t) and the latest data:ffast1^{n}(t)+ffast2^{n1}(t)+fslow1^{n1}(t)+fslow2^{n1}(t)} (Eq. 12)
Still more, when the time t is judged to be longer than the second reference time and shorter than a third reference time (36,000 seconds here), r(t) is calculated by the following equation based on the data after finishing the previous discharge/charge F^{n1 }(t) and the latest data:F^{n}(t)=ffast1^{n}(t)+ffast2^{n}(t)+fslow1^{n1}(t)+fslow2^{n1}(t) (Eq. 13)
Furthermore, when the time t is judged to be longer than the third reference time and shorter than a fourth reference time (72,000 seconds here), F^{n}(t) is calculated by the following equation based on the data after finishing the previous discharge/charge F^{n1}(t) and the latest data:Fn(t)=ffast1^{n}(t)+ffast2^{n}(t)+fslow1^{n}(t)+fslow2^{n1}(t) (Eq. 14)
Then, t=20 hours is substituted to F^{n}(t) obtained by the equations (11) through (14) to set as follows:OCV_{20 hr}^{n}=F^{n}(20 hr)
Thus, fi^{n }(t) and OCV_{20 hr}^{n }can be obtained by the equations (11) through (15).
In
Then, F^{n}(t) is calculated by the following equation by not obtaining ΔV(t)^{n }from F^{n }(20 hr) but by replacing with the equation (142):Fn(t)=ffast1^{n}(t)+ffast2^{n}(t)+fslow1^{n}(t)+fslow2^{n}(t) (Eq. 15)
In
Next, the calculation is made as SOC^{n}=SOC^{refn }by inputting the respective values to the relational expression of H (OCV_{20 hr}^{n}, SOH^{n}, T_n)=SOC^{refn }in the stationary memory area (24) by using OCV=OCV_{20 hr}^{n }obtained in
It becomes possible to detect the states of charge and depletion of the battery by comparing SOC^{n }and SOH^{n }calculated as described above with predetermined threshold values.
The comparison judging means compares SOC^{n }and SOH^{n }with the predetermined threshold values set in advance and judges that the battery is in the depletion state when SOC^{n }is less than the threshold value or when SOH^{n }is more than the threshold value. It is noted that the relationship between the magnitudes of SOH and the depletion level of the battery is reversed depending on system design. In such a case, it is needless to say that it is judged that the battery is in the depletion state when SOH^{n }is less than the predetermined threshold value.
SOH1^{n }after the nth discharge/charge will be calculated by the following equation by defining a degree of stratification of the slow reaction speed (diffusion of the electrolytic solution and others) as SOH1 in the equation (7):SOH1^{n}=fslow^{n}(t)/fslow^{ref}(t)*SOH1^{ref}={fslow1^{n}(t)+fslow2^{n}(t)}/{fslow1^{ref}(t)+fslow2^{ref}(t)}*SOH1^{ref} (Eq. 16)
In the above equation, fi^{n }(t), fi^{ref}(t) in the equation (7) is calculated further from the sums of two terms {fslow1^{n}(t)+fslow2^{n}(t)} and {fslow1^{ref}(t)+fslow2^{ref }(t)}.
As one example, 20 times, 50 times and 100 times of discharge and charge cycles have been carried out from an unused state by using a liquidtype lead battery (model size:55D23) manufactured by Furukawa Battery Co., Ltd. And under conditions of 25° C. of environment temperature and of 10% of DOD (Depth of Discharge). Then, SOH1^{n }can be calculated by the following equations from the OCV variation fi^{n }(5 hr) when 5 hours has passed (t=5 hr) from the stop of discharge/charge based on the measured data after discharge/charge of 20 cycles, after discharge/charge of 50 cycles and after discharge/charge of 100 cycles by using the case of 20 cycles as a measure.SOH1^{50}={fslow1^{50}(5 hr)+fslow2^{50}(5 hr)}/{fslow1^{20}(5 hr)+fslow2^{20}(5 hr)}*SOH1^{20} (Eq. 17)SOH1^{100}={fslow1^{100}(5 hr)+fslow2^{100}(5 hr)}/{fslow1^{20}(5 hr)+fslow2^{20}(5 hr)}*SOH1^{20} (Eq. 18)
In the same manner, a value 1.63 is obtained as follows:fslow^{100}(5 hr)/fslow^{20}(5 hr)=1.63
Thus, it becomes possible to understand the changes of the state of the battery corresponding to the number of discharge/charge cycles from the variation F(t) of OCV.
Still more, the OCV when 20 hours has passed after the end of the discharge/charge turns out as follows as one example with respect to 20, 50 and 100 discharge/charge cycles:
OCV_{20 hr}^{20}=[00171] 12.896 [V]
OCV_{20 hr}^{50}=[00172] 13.032 [V]
OCV_{20 hr}^{100}=13.036 [V]
As described above, the invention can provide the battery state detecting method for detecting the state by evaluating the depletion caused by the reaction processes whose speeds are different. It becomes possible to accurately detect the residual capacity SOC by detecting the depletion level SOH of the battery. Thereby, it becomes possible to assure stable operation of the electric devices and to promote prediction of risk, thus having an effect of keeping safe operation of the vehicle. The invention also provides an effect of reducing an environmental burden by improving precision of the idling stop function.
It is noted that the descriptions in the embodiment indicate one exemplary battery state detecting method of the invention and the invention is not limited to them. The detailed structures and operations and others of the battery state detecting method of the embodiment can be appropriately modified within a scope not departing from the gist of the invention.