Multilevel antennae
CAFCFirst Claim
1. A multiband antenna including at least one multilevel structure wherein the multilevel structure includes at least one antenna region comprising a set of polygonal or polyhedral elements having the same number of sides or faces, wherein each of said elements in said antenna region is electromagnetically coupled to at least one other of said elements in said region either directly through at least one point of contact or through a small separation providing said coupling, wherein for at least 75% of said polygonal or polyhedral elements, the region or area of contact between said polygonal or polyhedral elements is less than 50% of the perimeter or area of said elements, wherein not all of the polygonal or polyhedral elements have the same size, and wherein the perimeter of the multilevel structure has a different number of sides than the polygons that compose said antenna region, and further wherein a plurality of polygons of said antenna region are generally identifiable as a geometrical element defined by the free perimeter thereof and the projection of ones of the longest exposed perimeters thereof to define the least number of polygons within said region necessary to form said generally distinguishable elements where said polygon perimeters are interconnected.
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Abstract
Antennae in which the corresponding radiative element contains at least one multilevel structure formed by a set of similar geometric elements (polygons or polyhedrons) electromagnetically coupled and grouped such that in the structure of the antenna can be identified each of the basic component elements. The design is such that it provides two important advantages: the antenna may operate simultaneously in several frequencies, and/or its size can be substantially reduced. Thus, a multiband radioelectric behaviour is achieved, that is, a similar behavior for different frequency bands.
385 Citations
117 Claims
 1. A multiband antenna including at least one multilevel structure wherein the multilevel structure includes at least one antenna region comprising a set of polygonal or polyhedral elements having the same number of sides or faces, wherein each of said elements in said antenna region is electromagnetically coupled to at least one other of said elements in said region either directly through at least one point of contact or through a small separation providing said coupling, wherein for at least 75% of said polygonal or polyhedral elements, the region or area of contact between said polygonal or polyhedral elements is less than 50% of the perimeter or area of said elements, wherein not all of the polygonal or polyhedral elements have the same size, and wherein the perimeter of the multilevel structure has a different number of sides than the polygons that compose said antenna region, and further wherein a plurality of polygons of said antenna region are generally identifiable as a geometrical element defined by the free perimeter thereof and the projection of ones of the longest exposed perimeters thereof to define the least number of polygons within said region necessary to form said generally distinguishable elements where said polygon perimeters are interconnected.
 15. A multiband antenna including at least one multilevel structure wherein the multilevel structure includes at least one antenna region comprising a set of polygonal or polyhedral elements having a generally identifiable geometrical shape and having the same number of sides or faces, wherein each of said elements in said antenna region is electromagnetically coupled to at least one other of said elements in said antenna region either directly through at least one point of contact or through a small separation providing said coupling, wherein for at least 75% of said polygonal or polyhedral elements, the region or area of contact or overlap between said polygonal or polyhedral elements is less than 50% of the perimeter or area of said elements, wherein not all of the polygonal or polyhedral elements have the same size, and wherein the perimeter of the multilevel structure has a different number of sides than the polygons that compose said antenna region, and further wherein a plurality of polygons in contact or overlap with contiguous polygons are generally geometrically identifiable by extension of the exposed perimeters of said generally identifiable geometrical shape into said region or area of contact or overlap by extension of ones of the longest exposed perimeters thereof to define the least number of polygons within said region.
 29. A multiband antenna including at least one multilevel structure wherein the multilevel structure includes at least one antenna region comprising a set of polygonal or polyhedral elements having the same number of sides or faces but not the same size, wherein each of said elements in said antenna region is electromagnetically coupled to at least one other of said elements in said antenna region either directly through at least one point of contact or through a small separation providing said coupling, wherein the perimeter of the multilevel structure has a different number of sides than the polygons that compose said antenna region, and further wherein a plurality of polygons of said antenna region is generally identifiable as a geometrical element defined by the free perimeter thereof and wherein for at least 75% of said polygonal or polyhedral elements in said antenna region, the region or area of interconnection between said polygonal or polyhedral elements is such that at least 50% of their respective perimeter portions are exposed and without physical connection to another polygon and less than 50% of the respective perimeters extend into said region an area of interconnection forming said generally identifiable polygons by extension of ones of the longest exposed perimeters thereof to define the least number of polygons within said region.

48. A multiband antenna including at least one multilevel structure wherein the multilevel structure includes at least one antenna region comprising a set of polygonal or polyhedral elements, having one or both of linear and curved perimeter portions to define generally identifiable geometrical shapes with the same number of sides or faces,
wherein each of said elements in said antenna region is electromagnetically coupled to at least one other of said elements in said antenna region either directly through at least one point of contact or through a small separation providing said coupling, wherein for at least 75% of said polygonal or polyhedral elements, the region or area of contact or overlap between said polygonal or polyhedral elements is less than 50% of the perimeter or area of said elements, wherein not all of the polygonal or polyhedral elements have the same size, and wherein the perimeter of the multilevel structure has a different number of sides than the polygons that compose said antenna region, and further wherein a plurality of polygons in contact or overlap with contiguous polygons are geometrically identifiable by extension of the exposed perimeters of said generally identifiable geometrical shape into said region or area of contact or overlap and wherein a polygon with said curved perimeter portion is geometrically identifiable by a linear perimeter approximating the shape of said curved perimeter portion.

62. A multiband antenna including at least one multilevel structure;

wherein the multilevel structure includes at a first antenna region comprising a set of polygonal or polyhedral elements, having one or both of linear and curved perimeter portions to define generally identifiable geometrical shapes with the same number of sides or faces; wherein each of said elements in said first antenna region is electromagnetically coupled to at least one other of said elements in said first antenna region either directly through at least one point of contact or through a small separation providing said coupling; wherein for at least 75% of said polygonal or polyhedral elements, the region or area of contact or overlap between said polygonal or polyhedral elements is less than 50% of the perimeter or area of said elements; wherein not all of the polygonal or polyhedral elements have the same size; and wherein the perimeter of the multilevel structure has a different number of sides than the polygons that compose said first antenna region; wherein a plurality of polygons in contact or overlap with contiguous polygons are geometrically identifiable by extension of the exposed perimeters of said generally identifiable geometrical shape into said region or area of contact or overlap; and wherein a polygon with said curved perimeter portion is geometrically identifiable by a linear perimeter approximating the shape of said curved perimeter portion, and wherein the antenna further includes a second antenna region, wherein said second antenna region can be decomposed into a second set of polygonal or polyhedral elements, having one or both of linear and curved perimeter portions to define geometrical shapes with the same number of sides or faces as those in said first antenna region, wherein each of said elements in said second antenna region is electromagnetically coupled to at least one other of said elements in said second antenna region either directly through at least one point of contact or through a small separation providing said coupling, wherein for at least 75% of said polygonal or polyhedral elements, the region or area of contact or overlap between said second set of polygonal or polyhedral elements is less than 50% of the perimeter or area of said elements.  View Dependent Claims (63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75)


76. A multiband antenna including at least one multilevel structure:

wherein the multilevel structure includes at a first antenna region comprising a set of polygonal or polyhedral elements, having one or both of linear and curved perimeter portions to define generally identifiable geometrical shapes with the same number of sides or faces; wherein each of said elements in said first antenna region is electromagnetically coupled to at least one other of said elements in said first antenna region either directly through at least one point of contact or through a small separation providing said coupling; wherein for at least 75% of said polygonal or polyhedral elements, the region or area of contact or overlap between said polygonal or polyhedral elements is less than 50% of the perimeter or area of said elements; wherein not all of the polygonal or polyhedral elements have the same size; and wherein the perimeter of the multilevel structure has a different number of sides than the polygons that compose said first antenna region; wherein a plurality of polygons in contact or overlap with contiguous polygons are geometrically identifiable by extension of the exposed perimeters of said generally identifiable geometrical shape into said region or area of contact or overlap; and wherein a polygon with said curved perimeter portion is geometrically identifiable by a linear perimeter approximating the shape of said curved perimeter portion; and wherein the antenna further includes a second antenna region, wherein the geometry of said second antenna region is obtainable through the overlapping of a second set of polygonal or polyhedral elements, having one or both of linear and curved perimeter portions to define geometrical shapes with the same number of sides or faces as those in said first antenna region; wherein each of said elements in said second antenna region is electromagnetically coupled to at least one other of said elements in said second antenna region either directly through at least one point of contact or through a small separation providing said coupling wherein for at least 75% of said polygonal or polyhedral elements, the region or area of contact or overlap between said second set of polygonal or polyhedral elements is less than 50% of the perimeter or area of said elements.  View Dependent Claims (77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89)


90. A multiband antenna including at least one multilevel structure wherein the multilevel structure includes at least one antenna region comprising a set of polygonal or polyhedral elements having a generally identifiable geometrical shape and having the same number of sides or faces,
wherein each of said elements in said antenna region is electromagnetically coupled to at least one other of said elements in said antenna region either directly through at least one point of contact or through a small separation providing said coupling, wherein for at least 75% of said polygonal or polyhedral elements, the region or area of contact or overlap between said polygonal or polyhedral elements is less than 50% of the perimeter or area of said elements, wherein not all of the polygonal or polyhedral elements have the same size, and wherein the perimeter of the multilevel structure has a different number of sides than the polygons that compose said antenna region, and further wherein a plurality of overlapping polygonal or polyhedral elements, having one or both of linear and curved perimeter portions, define identifiable geometrical shapes in said at least one antenna region with the same number of sides or faces as those otherwise generally identifiable therein.

104. A multiband antenna including at least one multilevel structure wherein the multilevel structure includes at least one antenna region comprising a set of polygonal or polyhedral elements having a generally identifiable geometrical shape and having the same number of sides or faces, wherein each of said elements in said antenna region is electromagnetically coupled to at least one other of said elements in said antenna region either directly through at least one point of contact or through a small separation providing said coupling, wherein for at least 75% of said polygonal or polyhedral elements, the region or area of contact or overlap between said polygonal or polyhedral elements is less than 50% of the perimeter or area of said elements, wherein not all of the polygonal or polyhedral elements have the same size, and
wherein the perimeter of the multilevel structure has a different number of sides than the polygons that compose said antenna region, and further wherein a plurality of overlapping polygons in said at least one antenna region can be decomposed into a set of polygonal or polyhedral elements, having one or both of linear and curved perimeter portions defining identifiable geometrical shapes with the same number of sides or faces as those polygonal or polyhedral elements generally identifiable.
1 Specification