Electrode with improved signal to noise ratio

  • US RE38,681 E1
  • Filed: 12/02/2002
  • Issued: 01/04/2005
  • Est. Priority Date: 03/25/1997
  • Status: Expired due to Term
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First Claim
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1. A method of measuring an amount or concentration of a chemical signal in a mammalian subject, the method comprising the steps of:

  • extracting the chemical signal from the subject by providing current to an electroosmotic electrode sufficient to create diffusion of a chemical signal across a mammalian subject'"'"'s skin, through a hydrogel medium and to a working electrode, said hydrogel medium comprising water, electrolyte, and an enzyme, wherein the thickness of said hydrogel is in the range of 10 μ

    m to 1,000 μ

    m, and said working electrode comprised of a plurality of substantially physically separated electrode surfaces and an electroosmotic electrode, wherein (i) the working electrode surfaces are separated by a gap having a width in a range of 10 μ

    m to 1,000 μ

    m, (ii) an electrically insulating material is positioned in each gap separating the electrode surfaces, (iii) the working electrode is characterized by a substantially planar configuration, and (iv) the working electrode has a thickness in a range of 0.25 μ

    m to 250 μ

    m;

    providing a voltage to each of the working electrode surfaces of the working electrode sufficient to drive electrochemical detection of chemical signal which generates an electrical current at the working electrode surfaces, wherein said electrical current is generated at the working electrode surfaces by electrochemical oxidation of hydrogen peroxide producing an electrical signal;

    measuring the electrical current generated at the working electrode surfaces; and

    correlating the measured current to the amount or concentration of chemical signal in the mammalian subject.

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